Introduction To Aviation Technology
Introduction To Aviation Technology AT 10000
Popular in Course
Popular in Aerospace Engineering
This 72 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adonis Schinner DVM on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AT 10000 at Purdue University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see /class/207843/at-10000-purdue-university in Aerospace Engineering at Purdue University.
Reviews for Introduction To Aviation Technology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/15
Supersonix Inc Conceptual Design Review Of a high speed commercial air transport Akshay Ashok Nithin Kolencherry Steve Skare Michael McPeake Muhammad Azmi Richard Wang Mintae Kim Dodiet Wiraatmaja Nixon Lange 4302009 Supersonix Inc Team 2 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 TABLE OF FIGURES 4 LIST OF TARI ES 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7 INTRODUCTInN 8 rr 1 R Mission crarnmnnr a Market Analysis and Concept of I 3 SELECTED AIRCRAFT CONCEPT 9 AIRCRAFT DESIGN MISSION 13 AIRCRAFT DETAILED SWIM 14 primary Fllnrfinnc 1 I AC Geometry 15 Mission Qnamnnk 1 Component Aniahtlt 16 Overpressure 17 Airfoil and Lift Coefficients 17 nndmink 17 Stability 1 Wing Loading 1 Auxiliary Functions 12 Engine Modeling 1g Drag Modeling 70 Transonic Draw 74 CARPET PLOT 239 AIRCRAFT CONCEPTDESCRIPTION 2C AERODYNAMIFQ 39239 Airfoil Selection 7 Drag Rllildlln an SONIC ROOM 40 pERanMANrP 47 VN Diagram 47 Range Diagram 48 PROPULSION 48 Inlnf 48 Engine lt0 Page 2 of 72 Supersonix Inc Team 2 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Nozzle Design E1 STRUCTIIPF39S 53 Engine mnllnfinu I Landing gear AA Material alertinn R7 WEIGHTS AND RM ANI F 58 Aircraft Component Wniuhf w STABILITY AND CONTRm r 1 Static39 39 quot 39 Stability R1 Control Surface Sizing A7 COST ANALYSIS 6quot RDTampE an A Direct Operating Costs nn A4 Indirect Operating Costs IOC Al F AA SUMMARY 66 Additional Mnrk AR REFF RF NPF Q gq APPF NDIY 71 Engine Performance Curves from Raymer AppE 71 Composite carpet plot 72 Page 3 of 72 Supersonix Inc Team 2 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Table of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Aircraft Design Mission Sizing Program Flowchart Parasite drag variation with Mach number Constraint Diagram from SDR Lower Walk Around Takeoff Climb Phase Upper Walk Around ApproachDescent Phasel Engine Performance FqIatinn Final Carpet Plot for design point of Supersonix aircraft Seating Layout with Galleys and Restroom Cabin Three view Layout Cabin Cross section View Seating Dimensions Coach L First Class R Lift vs angle of attack plots for various airfoils NACA 64A410 airfoil Corrected lift curve Effect of LEX Raymer 1 1 Effect of Fowler flap Raymer Flapped area Raymer 1 Lift curve using high lift devices Drag polars for various phases of flight LD Ratios for various phases of flight Sonic Boom overpressure Signatures Aircraft Wireframe area distribution Span distribution and effective area Supersonix Effective area distribution Shape factor as a function of effective area parameters V N Diagram Payload Range diagram 2 D Ramp Inlet CAD engine models Types of Nozzles Raymerm Fixed Chevron Nozzle 7 Mobile Chevron Nozzlem Power required and Power available VS Velocity Wing loads Wing structural elements Page 4 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Figure 38 Engine mounts structure 56 Figure 39 Landing gear structure 57 Figure 40 MTOW vs wing sweep and Aspect Ratio 59 Figure 41 Static Margin Location 61 Figure 42 Elevons 62 Page 5 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review List of Tables Table 1 Key Design Parameters 10 Table 2 Iterative Variable f quot 39 39 25 Table 3 Constraints 26 Table 4 Cabin Layout f 39 29 Table 5 Airfoils for current supersonic aircraft 33 Table 6 Drag buildup breakdown 39 Table 7 Seebass and Carlson Overpressures and duration 42 Table 8 Load factors from V N Diagram 47 Table 9 Engine specification 50 Table 10 Group Weights Table 60 Table 11 Input s for cost calculation 63 Table 12 Hourly rates 64 Table 13 Cost Summary 66 Table 14 Requirements Compliance Matrix 67 Page 6 of 72 Supersonix Inc 1 V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Executive Summagy A high speed supersonic transport was developed in response to NASA s 2008 2009 student challenge A complete conceptual design has been performed for the aircraft with an Initial Operating Capability in 2020 The aircraft is configured for cruise at Mach 18 with a 4500 nautical mile range and a payload of 59 passengers plus 4 crew members The aircraft has a wing area of 3092 square feet a takeoff gross weight of 308000 lb and four state of the art conceptual low bypass ratio turbofan engines capable of producing a combined 154000 pounds of thrust The engines yield a sea level thrust to weight ratio of 05 and wing loading of 100 psf This report presents the details of a complete conceptual design including sizing aerodynamics structures mission performance and cost analysis The feasibility of this endeavor has been considered from consumer viewpoint in a Systems Requirements Review and the aircraft took on a more technical definition in the Systems Definition review Finally the Conceptual Design Review is performed A detailed sizing code is developed that allows the optimization of the aircraft various aspects of the properly sized aircraft such as weights and balance structures and costs are analyzed to solidify the aircraft concept further The following table presents at a glance the major design parameters of the Supersonix aircraft Fuel 0567 Empty weight 0433 Wing area 309237 square Wing loading lb per square sea level Aspect length Strake sweep Outboard wing sweep Thickness to chord ratio root Ta per ratio Page 7 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Introduction Over the last few years air traffic has seen a high increase in capacity range and efficiency In addition to these the need for a faster aircraft is imperative at the present time Transporting people over a longer distance within a shorter span of time will be the objective of the airline industry in the near future This report addresses the conceptual design of a supersonic aircraft that would have initial operating capability IOC in 2020 Conceptual design of an aircraft involves many different steps The results of those steps are presented in this report The Supersonix aircraft was sized using a program created in MATLAB This program was made up of components that evaluated each performance parameter of the aircraft while solving for the smallest maximum takeoff weight Creation of an environmentally friendly aircraft is an important design parameter The high Mach number which the Supersonix aircraft will travel at will create the sonic boom overpressure at sea level Reducing noise and disturbance this boom signature must be limited Work was done to analyze and choose the most efficient aerodynamic shape The sonic boom of the aircraft was approximated using methods described by Carlson and Seebass Sonic boom approximation by Seebass provided a rough estimate of boom overpressure using simply aircraft weight more in depth analysis was done using Carlson which considers geometric parameters and area distribution of the aircraft Iteration of design yields an aircraft that satisfies the design mission of 4500nm cruise 289 passenger miles per lbs and an overpressure of 028 21 and equations in Control surface area was estimated by using analysis done by Dr Roskam his book were utilized to analyze Longitudinal and lateral dynamic stability The necessary surface area of the canard vertical tail and rudder was determined using simple numerical approximations at first and then a more through method was used after the sizing code was run Key constraints necessary for the aircraft to operate safely under normal flight conditions were analyzed for each aircraft configuration From the thorough analysis of each aircraft sub component came a concept that both satisfied major requirements set in the opportunity description Opportunity Description NASA ARMD 2008 09 University Competition provides a framework that is used to guide the conceptual design of a supersonic aircraft The aircraft is expected to meet a set of goals specified by the competition These include but are not limited to o Mach cruise speed of 16 18 0 Design Range of 4000 nautical miles Page 8 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review o Accommodate 35 70 passengers preferably in a mixed class configuration 0 Fuel efficiency of 3 passenger miles per pound of fuel or better 0 Takeoff field length lt 10000 ft Additionally the aircraft is expected to achieve supersonic cruise efficiency have a low sonic boom lt70 PldB and high lift for takeoff or landing all while making a reasonable profit for the company Mission Statement The Supersonix mission statement is as follows ll 391 A cost effective advance1 hiah speed commercial air transport that connects maior hubs Supersonix has set out several key design goals that is expected to be met and exceeded through the course of the conceptual development Supersonic flights over land boom overpressure less than 03 lb ftz Capture significant market of Supersonic Business Jets and supersonic transports Initial Operational Capability IOCin 2020 Manufacturing capabilities exist for the aircraft Payload of 60 passengers in a twin class configuration Still air ground range of 4500nm Market Analysis and Concept of Operations Three focus markets emerge from the market analyses Trans Continental Trans Atlantic and Inter Asia Through detailed studies on market viability and cost models potential worldwide hubs are selected to set forth a viable business proposition for customer airlines These are Los Angeles International Airport LAX John F Kennedy International Airport JFK London Heathrow International Airport LHR Dubai International Airport DXB and Beijing International Airport PEK A hub and spoke structure is to be employed with the reliance on the growing number of Low Cost Carriers to provide regional connections Selected Aircraft Concept The Supersonix concept aircraft boasts many important features designed to address the mission objectives set early in the project Table 1 gives a brief overview of key design parameters The aircraft s maximum takeoff weight of 308000 lb includes 60 passengers and 3 crew members with luggage The aspect ratio and wing area are appropriate for subsonic and supersonic flight Generally these figures are based on historical data for supersonic aircraft Page 9 of 72 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Supersonix Inc Team 2 with important modifications and tweaking in order to meet the specific requirements for the aircraft m Aircraft MTOW 308000 lbs Fuel weight fraction 0567 Empty weight fraction 0433 Wing area 309237 ft2 Wing loading 996 psf TsW0 05 Aspect Ratio 22 Strake Sweep 70 Aircraft length 200 ft Outboard wing sweep 36 thickness to chord mean chord 10 root chord 85 ft Taper ratio 012 Table 1 Key Design Parameters Page 10 of 72 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Supersonix Inc v Team 2 Heuhhddtawina Design Rear Mounted Engines 5 Inboard Fear Mailman Landing Gear I l Figure 1 Lower WalkAround Takeoff Climb Phase Figure 1 above gives a brief walk around of the aircraft underside The fuselage shaping is governed by area ruling in order to minimize wave drag The double delta wing design features two sweep angles designed to give good flying characteristics for both subsonic and supersonic flight Engines are mounted on the rear extending back behind the wing for passenger safety The engines are mounted below the wing allowing for easy maintenance access leaving room for the rear main landing gear inboard between the engines and empennage Page 11 of 72 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Supersonix Inc Team 2 Elevons Figure 2 Upper WalkAround ApproachDescent Phase Figure 2 gives a brief walk around of the main aircraft features Aerodynamically contoured skin is designed to minimize wave drag and the blunt nose is designed to significantly reduce sonic boom overpressure as a tradeoff with drag The top mounted canard provides additional longitudinal stability with elevons available for pitch and roll control and a rudder for yaw control Inboard flaps can be retracted for the takeoff approach and landing phases of flight in order to provide additional lift for these slower flight regimes Page 12 of 72 Supersonix Inc 39 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Aircraft Design Mission Steady Cruise 4000nm 3 No range descent credit L I 4 Divert 200 nm alter lt 7 8 25minmax gt HH1 El 5 a 839 939 l 3 Loiter 0 y 5 25 min Altiiude resiriclion 0 3 max tmf c l a 5 s L 10 Land 0 1 T gt at k aquot 393 quotff Design Range 4500 nm 500 nm 100kt 100nm IFR 4000 quotm Ground Range Figure 3 Aircraft Design Mission Attempt to Land Figure 3 above represents the typical mission profile for the aircraft Supersonix will climb to cruise altitude at best rate of climb right after takeoff The mission profile has accounted for air traffic control altitude restrictions in order to clear any traffic in the airspace if necessary This is important especially when flying out from busy airports that are major worldwide hubs The aircraft will then continue in a steady level cruise for 4000 nm at an altitude of 60000ft The especially high altitude is essential to the achievement of a low sonic boom overpressure as will be discussed in the sonic boom section The mission profile takes into account a 100kt sustained headwind Though seemingly excessive this will provide the aircraft with a comfortable margin under the worst case scenario If the first attempt to land fails the aircraft will climb back to 10000 ft and cruise at Mach 05 to the next airport that could be up to 200 nm from the first airport The mission profile includes a total loiter duration of 50 minutes in order to comply with FAA regulations The endurance time for loiter is split between two loiter periods one during the normal descent and landing phase and another during the alternate diversion This is done so that the aircraft can either loiter for 50 minutes and come to a full stop landing or divert after 25 minutes to the alternate airport where it has the capability to loiter for another 25 minutes before landing Page 13 of 72 Supersonix Inc Team 2 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Aircraft Detailed Sizing The sizing code was designed to minimize the maximum takeoff weight of the Supersonix aircraft To find the most efficient design thrust to weight wing loading and aspect ratio were all iterated through to give detailed information on what the aircraft is capable of doing in different configurations For each aircraft configuration the program iterated three functions AC Geometry Mission Segments and Component Weights to find the maximum takeoff weight of the aircraft Then five functions that computed performance qualities were evaluated These qualities include the sonic boom overpressure the airfoil lifting characteristics core design constraints stability of the design and wing loading The following figure illustrates the design of the sizing program iterated to nd We per aircraft configuration Iterated configuration Figure 4 Sizing Program Flowchart The geometry of the aircraft changed for each configuration iteration This is because the iteration varies wing loading and aspect ratio Both of these qualties have significant effects on the overall design of the wing A more in depth description of how the functions in the program are designed follows in the Primary Functions section Page 14 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Primagy Functions The primary functions are the functions in the Supersonix sizing code that use mathematical methods and assumptions to deal with each of the major design qualities of the aircraft These include the geometry of the aircraft the sonic boom that the aircraft produces and the mission segments that the aircraft must fly on AC Geometry The objective of the aircraft geometry function was to produce a mathematical representation of the aircraft that could dynamically change given a few key aircraft characteristics The function used aspect ratio and wing loading to calculate the second wing sweep and total wing area The radial distribution of the fuselage was hardcoded such that the fuselage had the same shape for every aircraft configuration If the radial distribution of the fuselage resulted in extreme results then the values would be changed however they were not changed in an iterative manner primarily because of the increase in computation time associated with adding the extra complexity With the wing and fuselage modeled the function then took a normal cross sectional area distribution and exported that to other programs This program then returned the area distribution and a wireframe representation of the aircraft to the user It is important to note that the mathematical representation of the aircraft was three dimensional thus wings had a thickness defined by the tc ratio and the fuselage had a cross sectional area distribution determined by the radial distribution over the aircraft length To make this function work properly it was necessary to hold several values constant The strake sweep was 70 degrees mean tc was 10 length of ac was ZOOft and the starting locations of the wing engine nacelle vertical tail and canard were all held constant The overall aircraft geometry should have been varied in a more comprehensive manner to yield a more dynamic and detailed model however given the time constraints for computation and project deadlines it was infeasible to implement such a sizing algorithm Without this function the area distribution would need to be assumed unchanged This is incorrect and therefore this function caters to the program by providing a more accurate area distribution of the aircraft which changes with each aircraft configuration iteration Mission Segments As per the mission segments presented earlier in the Design Mission section the mission function is split into 10 parts These parts are taxi and takeoff climb 1 cruise holding pattern 1 landing missed approach climb 2 divert to alternate holding pattern 2 and landing Each flight condition has assumptions that go with it these assumptions will be presented below It is important to note that for each flight condition drag and thrust was calculated whereby the aircraft is either accelerating or in an equilibrium Page 15 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Taxi and Takeoff A fuel weight fraction of 097 was assumed for this segment of the mission It is based on historical values presented in Raymerm Table 32 pp 21 Climb 1 This is full throttle flight and the aircraft accelerates to cruise speed in a linear fashion Cruise This segment is flown at partial throttle and the aircraft flies at constant altitude This is a change from our earlier mission segment of a cruise climb as in our SDR and was done because our cruise altitude increased to 60000ft A cruise climb would be impractical at this altitude as it is quite high to begin with and therefore this change was effected Holding Pattern 1 The ratio of LD is assumed to be constant over this flight condition The aircraft will be flying using partial throttle at Mach 04 Landing Approximating the landing fuel consumption was done using Raymerm Table 32 pp 21 MissedApproach Approximating the missed approach fuel consumption was done the takeoff data provided by Raymerm Table 32 pp 21 Eli39me The second climb was modeled at full throttle up to Mach 04 and 10000ft The climb rate was assumed to be 1200 fpm Divert to Alternate This segment of the mission was flown at partial throttle at 10000ft and Mach 04 Holding Pattern Z The second holding pattern was flown at Mach 04 and altitude 10000ft The length of this segment was much shorter than the Divert to Alternate segment Landing Approximating the landing fuel consumption was done using Raymerm Table 32 pp 21 Component Weights To accurately model the component weights of the aircraft weight equations were used to approximate the different components of the aircraft The equations used were obtained from Raymerm Chap15 The book outlines component weights for both military and air transport vehicles A combination of these equations was used in the sizing for each component A more Page 16 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review thorough description of how each type of equation was used is presented later in the report under the Weights and Balance Section Overpressure The sizing code used two numerical approximations for determining the sonic boom overpressure created by the aircraft Two papers written by Carlsonm and SeebassB outlined numerical methods for approximating the sonic boom overpressure created by the aircraft These numerical models were integrated into the sizing code and iterated for each aircraft configuration The two numerical models were used in parallel because they each predicted a different type of sonic boom signature The Seebass method predicted the plateau wave sonic boom signature while the Carlson method predicted the N wave sonic boom signature Each method required different data to predict the sonic boom overpressure Carlson required a cross sectional area distribution while Seebass required basic aircraft dimensions including 3 it was seen that for a supersonic aircraft it would be takeoff gross weight From Seebass more desirable to have a plateau wave rather than an N wave pressure distribution as it spreads the overpressure over a finite period of time This would result in a lower average sonic boom overpressure and thus a smaller sonic boom signature The objective of this function was to give the user an idea on what kind of sonic boom overpressures the aircraft configuration would produce for these two boom signatures This function completes that objective by using two different numerical models to predict the resulting pressure wave A more detailed analysis of the methods used and the results from the sizing process is presented in the Sonic Boom section Airfoil and Lift Coefficients The Airfoil function takes in the geometry of the new wing and calculates the CLymax at takeoff and landing This is necessary for calculating the landing and takeoff field lengths in the Constraints function A more detailed description on how this function works is outlined in Aerodynamics section Constraints The constraint function evaluates the configuration for seven different constraints These constraints include 16 steady level flight landing and takeoff ground roll for Dubai and JFK airports second segment climb gradient and a subsonic 2g maneuver The Constraint function gives the user the specific excess power at cruise takeoff and landing distance for Dubai and JFK airports and the climb gradient and specific excess power during the Z g maneuver The results of this function can be seen in the carpet plot section Page 17 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Stability The stability function is used to evaluate the longitudinal stability of the aircraft configuration Given the geometry of the wing and fuselage the function calculates the position of the center of gravity and the static margin at both supersonic and subsonic flight A more detailed analysis of how the stability problem was analyzed is presented in Stability and Control section Wing Loading The wing loading function was used to find the forces that act on the wing and landing gear The aerodynamic forces are calculated by assuming that the lift acts at the quarter chord throughout the span of the wing Then the length of the landing gear is calculated given angle of attack restrictions Furthermore the loads present on the landing gear were calculated for landing and taxi before takeoff For a more detailed description of how this function works and how its assumptions affected results please read Structures section Auxiliary Functions Auxiliary functions are functions that were necessary for the implementation of primary functions This includes the modeling of the engines and drag approximation What follows are detailed explanations on how each component was modeled Engine Modeling To accurately size an aircraft it is important to be able to model its engines This is primarily due to the need for different fuel consumption data during the many different parts of the design mission Several steps were used to model the engines in the Supersonix sizing code We first started out with analyzing the performance of a well known engine that has successfully been in service the Samara NK 321 Because this engine is from Russia it was difficult to get design information for its sub components With the limited information we then tried to model the Samara NK 321 s performance in the program ONX OFFX This program was able to simulate the performance of each sub component but not iterate through enough performance conditions to provide a useful result Thus we decided to utilize the engine performance curves in the back of Raymer 1 Appendix E The engine described in the back of the book is roughly similar to the NK 321 however it had more information regarding its basic performance parameters To import the engine performance engine data to the sizing code we scanned the graphs into the computer and used a program called Digitizer to write out 6th order polynomial functions that directly reproduced the engine performance data in the book The graphs from the back of the book and the resulting equations that were used to approximate the real performance data are presented in the appendix and Figure 5 below respectively Page 18 of 72 mumrad wmtllhquot Lv 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Supersonix Inc Team 2 Wm InInstalled Thrust vs Mach Number Without Afterburner Unlnstalled Thrust V5 Mach Number Wlfh Afterburner mum mm uwo vu mm 216 n mm 3 M n I mun 14mm W 0 a 5 l 1 Mun mum ch Number with Afterburner 9 Mn quotNew u t s l 1 v I L 1 Mn mmblel Figure 5 Engine Performance Equations Note that the engine data depicted above is for when the engine is at full throttle The colored lines represent the data taken from the back of the book Where data lines were not present interpolation was done for the lines above and below the performance point It was only necessary to model the engine when at full throttle because when the engine was at partial throttle it had constant values of un installed thrust and TSFC for the Mach range that we would be flying in Thus we were able to simply pull the constant values off of the graphs and bypass the process of reverse engineering the performance curves Two functions were created from these performance curves one that integrated the performance curves during full throttle and another that used the constant values for use when the engine is at partial throttle It is also important to note that the performance curves in the back of the book are for uninstalled thrust This is significant because the engine inlet and nozzle design can contribute significantly to the overall efficiency of the engine In order to simulate the addition of a nozzle and engine inlet it was assumed that when the engine was installed it would use the same Page 19 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review amount of fuel as if it were only providing 40 of the required thrust for supersonic flight and 80 of the thrust for subsonic flight These numbers are reasonable considering the Concorde s performance parametersm and thus are an acceptable place to begin The sizing code scaled the engine model depending on the thrust to weight ratio entered by the iterative process This allowed the engines to be modified for whatever the design configuration required While the scaling process is not exactly accurate it does represent a fairly accurate model that can allow us to predict in greater detail the performance characteristics of the aircraft in different flight regimes Drag Modeling An accurate prediction of drag is essential to the design of the Supersonix aircraft For steady level flight a simple force balance reveals that the thrust that the aircraft must have is equal to the drag that acts on it This in turn drives the engine selection to satisfy the level flight condition during cruise Further the amount of fuel required for the mission is dependent on how much thrust is required and therefore drag calculations have a great influence on the sizing process of the aircraft Drag prediction is divided into three phases subsonic transonic and supersonic flight regimes These flight regimes correspond to Mach numbers less than 08 between 08 and 12 and above 12 respectively The following discussion presents the drag prediction methods that are used in each of these regimes Subsonic Prediction Subsonic drag prediction involves the computation of parasite drag using the drag build up methodology as well as calculating induced drag Parasite drag is generated primarily from surface roughness or skin friction and is a result of the viscous forces as the aircraft flies through air The magnitude of the friction depends on whether the boundary layer over the aircraft surface is laminar or turbulent and to provide a conservative estimate of drag a turbulent boundary layer is assumed for this analysis A skin friction coefficient is computed for each component using the Schlicting formula for turbulent flow represented in Equation 1 The local Reynolds number is computed from the aircraft Reynolds number through a ratio of characteristic lengths as given in Equation 2 f 10ng Refs Equation 1 Page 20 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review R R lcamp lcamp ecomp 600 l l Equation 2 Pressure drag or form drag is another component of parasite drag This is caused by non ideal pressure distribution over component surfaces A form factor K is estimated for each component and used in the drag prediction Equation 3 Equation 4 and Equation 5 illustrate the form factors that are computed for the wing fuselage and nacelle components Note that D represents the diameter of the component while I is the length of that component sweep correction factor I 7 ll 397 lcmfA 4 4 K1ZLJ1005J 739 C 171r3c053 4l Equation3 60 7 2 U K l 1 x D M 400 Equation4 038 AN 1 7 IN DV EquationS Since the Supersonix wing is a double delta form the wing sweep angle Ac4 in the sweep correction factor 2 is averaged between the inboard wing sweep and the outboard sweep The wing thickness to chord tc ratio is assumed to be the mean aerodynamic thickness to chord ratio for the wing Furthermore because the fuselage exterior cowling diameter is not constant the maximum diameter is used to compute the fineness ratio for use in the fuselage form factor This would once more produce an over estimation of the drag of the aircraft Interference drag is the third and final component that is modeled under parasitic drag This type of drag accounts for the drag created by separation of flow near intersections or joining of parts It also accounts for nacelle fuselage and nacelle wing interference In the model an interference factor Q is utilized to incorporate the effects of interference drag The selection of the values for Q is more subjective and range from 10 for the best case to 15 for the worst case Because the exact manner of the nacelle attachments is not known a value of 13 is assumed for the nacelle interference factor The wing is mounted low on the front of the Page 21 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review fuselage but terminates at a rather mid fuselage location To account for this interference a value of 12 was used for Q The form and interference factors combine with the skin friction coefficient to yield an estimation for the parasite drag Corp that is modeled in the sizing code according to Equation 6 The drag was computed for the different parts of the aircraft namely the wing fuselage and nacelles The wetted area of each component is obtained from the AC Geometry function in the sizing code This is important to accurately predicting drag of the Supersonix aircraft as some geometry such as the variable diameter aerodynamic fairing cannot be approximated by a constant diameter cylinder The canards and vertical tail were omitted from the drag prediction as these components were sized after the aircraft sizing process was completed and as such were not well defined during the code iterations C r n S components 753 Equations Parasite drag due to lift is known as induced drag It has been experimentally observed that drag varies with Cf as seen in Equation 7 C CLZ D i rrARe Equation 7 Oswald s efficiency factor e varies between 075 and 085 and is fairly difficult to predict For this drag prediction it is assumed to be 08 during subsonic conditions Finally a 3 margin is added to the overall drag prediction to account for inefficiencies in fittings leakages between flaps and control surfaces antennas and lights This is termed miscellaneous drag Camp The various components of drag are brought together by the subsonic drag prediction formula CD CDp CD CDmisc Equation 8 Supersonic Drag Drag prediction in the supersonic regime is set apart from the prediction in the subsonic regime due to the predominant Z dimensional flow as well as the emergence of shock waves Page 22 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Parasite drag is computed using the same equations as in the subsonic regime except that the form factors and interference factors are ignored set to 1 This approximation is justified as the flow is mostly Z dimensional and lateral interferences between components would be minimal in face of the highly axial flow Furthermore pressure drag is modeled as wave drag therefore form factors can be neglected in parasitic drag A second modification is made to Oswald s efficiency factor in induced drag computations Following Raymer s examplem Chapter 12 pp 348 the factor is modeled as a function of the flight Mach number and aircraft aspect ratio as given by Equation 9 4Ale2 1 2 1111192 M2 1 coslIEl XLE Equation 9 One of the major components of drag that arises due to shock waves is wave drag While there are NASA codes that predict wave drag AWAVE being one of the prominent ones they require a very detailed description of the aircraft geometry to work effectively Also wave drag has to be computed each time the drag code is called in the sizing function and to have revert to NASA codes each time would mean extended computational wall time Therefore in conjunction with the AC Geometry function a wave drag prediction code was developed A simplified area rule methodology developed by Jumperm is used in predicting wave drag An axis normal cross sectional area distribution is obtained from the geometry function and an equivalent body of revolution is generated based on this area distribution Then Jumper proceeds to build an area distribution using Mach angle cross sections projected onto a normal plane This process was not implemented in the current drag prediction due to its complexity Instead the original axis normal distribution is utilized to compute wave drag as follows p U D W 1 ln l x lt Ijx cllt gm 1 L 1 4 Equation 10 Where A x refers to the second derivative of the area distribution The original area distribution has several pointed edges and sharp drops each of which would prove a hindrance for numerical computation of the second derivatives Therefore the curve was smoothed Page 23 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review before computing the derivatives Second order central differencing is used for the interior points while first order one sided differencing is used for the boundary points Transonic Drag The bridging of the gap between subsonic drag and supersonic drag is important as the aircraft must be designed to be able to pass through the drag rise A graphical method presented in Raymerm Chapter 12 pp 341 is used to model the transonic drag It is clearly understood that his method is a very simplified approximation and while providing some insight into the behavior around Mach 1 does not represent the true nature of this regime Nevertheless given the level of detail of conceptual design it proves to be a useful and relatively easy tool to model transonic drag The critical Mach number is approximated to be 08 demarcating between subsonic and transonic regimes Parasite drag is computed for Mach 08 and Mach 12 after which the gap between the two is bridged using control points in between as described by Raymer The end result is shown in Figure 6 Cd0 vs Mach Number 007 x x L 006 005 O 8 004 003 002 039010 05 i 15 2 Mach number Figure 6 Parasite drag variation with Mach number The peak drag occurs at about Mach 11 the magnitude of which is determined by a smooth curve segment connecting the subsonic parasite drag to the supersonic parasite drag The ability to predict transonic drag would better enable us to estimate drag and therefore the amount of fuel required during the climb segment when the aircraft passes through the sound barrier Page 24 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Carpet plot The sizing code has been run for a variety of aircraft configurations and a methodical process is required to evaluate the different configurations and choose one or a set of aircraft configurations As a preliminary tool a constraint diagram was built and presented in the Systems Definition Review Whereas the constraint diagram utilizes simplified equations and assumptions to model the aircraft in a more general sense the carpet plot aims to characterize the Supersonix aircraft in terms of its capabilities and behavior using more detailed models from the sizing code The objective of the carpet plot is to optimize aircraft takeoff gross weight W0 for various aircraft design parameters The takeoff weight of the aircraft is chosen as the objective variable amongst other metrics because most of the other metrics are dependent on the aircraft weight For instance minimizing aircraft weight would tend to minimize purchase cost or maintenance cost It is important to note that the carpet plot method is still an approximate process as it relies on a finite set of data points to characterize the aircraft operation A better approximation is achieved by discretizing the iterative variables more finely to an extent that is practical and sufficient for the level of detail required in conceptual design Next the choices for the iterative configuration parameters are considered In minimizing aircraft weight there are six key variables that have a great influence on the TOGW of the aircraft Wing loading Thrust to weight ratio Aspect ratio thickness to chord ratio wing sweep angle and taper ratio Of these the first three variables namely Wing loading Thrust to weight ratio and Aspect ratio are chosen to be the iterative variables The constraint diagram which was presented in the Systems Definition Review and is shown in Figure 7 provides a good starting point for the iterative variables The design point in the constraint diagram is selected to be a wing loading of 75 psf and a thrust weight ratio of 05 Using these as ballpark numbers the range of values for thrust to weight ratio wing loading and aspect ratio are chosen to be iterated This is shown in Table 2 The data is discretized relatively finely to obtain a more accurate solution as described above Table 2 Iterative Variable Definitions Range of iteration Thrusttoweight ratio TW 0306 in increments of 01 I Wingloading psf 90120 in increments of 5 I I Aspect ratio 1823 in increments of 01 I Page 25 of 72 Supersonix Inc 5quot 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Figure 7 Constraint Diagram from SDR The carpet plot evaluates the data in terms of constraints that are placed on the aircraft design Table 3 illustrates the constraints that are imposed on the aircraft design Some of these constraints such as the takeoff and landing field lengths arise due to the design mission of the aircraft There are two airports that enforce such constraints on performance JF Kennedy JFK airport in New York and Dubai DXB airport in Dubai JFK has the shortest runway amongst the hub airports 8000ft and to be able to operate from this runway would greatly increase operational capability out of JFK The hot climate in Dubai also poses a challenge and it is necessary to be able to operate out of DXB on a hot day Field DXB Field hot Climb for excess gt0 subsonic maneuver gt0 cruise cruise lt03 cruise Page 26 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review The climb gradient constraint is required for compliance with Federal Aviation Authority regulations The Supersonix aircraft will have 4 engines and therefore needs to have a climb gradient of at least 3 during its second segment climb segment The overpressure constraint restricts the boom overpressure to below 03 psf This is essential to the allowance of overland supersonic flight by the FAA as is expected to occur in the near future Yet other constraints such as the specific excess power during the subsonic Z g maneuver and cruise come about as a result of the absolute required performance of the aircraft The minimum cruise specific excess power of 100 fts is necessary for the service ceiling performance A Z g maneuver is anticipated to avoid pattern traffic in the process of flying in and out of busy hub airports A maximum upper cruise specific excess power constraint of 600fts is also placed on the aircraft This is done to narrow the design space on the carpet plot and prevent over designing the engines for unnecessary power during cruise This will be elaborated on in the discussion of the carpet plot These constraints are evaluated for each run of the sizing code through an automatic filtering process This filtering process determines the threshold values of the iterative variables for which the aircraft meets the constraints This data is used to plot constraint curves on the carpet plot Figure 8 shows the final carpet plot that is used to pick the design point Although the sizing code was run for finer intervals of thrust weight ratios only a few curves are plotted for clarity In the interest of time a traditional carpet plot with its offset axes was not created It is noted that even though wing loading is plotted on the abscissa it is by no means the only independent and important variable in the sizing process The constraints are calculated and plotted on the same plot to identify the design point The shaded region depicts a boundary such as a floor or ceiling and indicates which side of the curve represents the feasible design space There are fewer constraints that are plotted on this curve than what are highlighted above These missing constraints represent conditions that the aircraft meets and exceeds for all combinations of thrust to weight ratios and wing loading values As such only the constraints that actually constrain the design space are plotted Also the landing constraint represented here is for the JFK airport The constraints for takeoff and landing at DXB and for takeoff at JFK are fully met and therefore do not appear on the plot Page 27 of 72 Supersonix Inc 39 V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review m5 Constraint forAR2 2 l P5 Cruise upper Constraint Landing Constrair l 2g maneuver constraint Overpressure constraint Weight 105 Van Loading Figure 8 Final Carpet Plot for design point of Supersonix aircraft The design space is highlighted in yellow and is bounded by the overpressure Z g maneuver specific excess power and maximum cruise specific excess power constraint The design point that is chosen for the Supersonix aircraft is marked on the figure at a wing loading of about 100 psf and the thrust to weight ratio of 05 At this point the aircraft weight is clearly not minimized The red constraint curve representing the upper limit of cruise specific excess power 600fts reveals the reasoning behind this decision A higher thrust to weight ratio yields greater specific excess power during cruise as evidenced by the shaded side of the red curve The minimum aircraft weight design point at a wing loading of about 109 psf results in a thrust weight ratio of 055 The cruise specific excess power at this point is 600fts resulting in an over powered engine as such extra power is not required during cruise The design point has a specific excess power of about 500 fts exceeding the service ceiling requirement of 100fts while being the lowest that can be achieved considering the rest of the constraints Therefore the design point is chosen at the lower thrust to weight limit of 05 despite yielding a slightly higher aircraft weight For a comparison of the effect of aspect ratio on the aircraft weight a composite carpet plot is created and shown in the appendix The feasible design space is highlighted in yellow in each subplot It is clear that as the aspect ratio gets bigger the aircraft weight decreases Page 28 of 72 Supersonix Inc t l 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Historically the aspect ratio for supersonic aircraft is around 21 according to our database Therefore in combination with the composite carpet plot and historical trends an aspect ratio of 22 is selected for the Supersonix aircraft Aircraft ConceptZDescription Several factors contribute to the cabin layout of the Supersonix aircraft concept Passengers desire a comfortable and spacious seating environment but it is important to meet aircraft design constraints and FAA requirements as well Passengers will be paying a hefty sum of money to fly supersonic on this aircraft but it is debatable to what extent a passenger will hold seating layout a priority in their travel with such short flight times Business analysis has shown that the target customer base values time a bit more than comfort but at the same time people who can afford to pay for time savings like this generally may expect more from their seating There is a delicate balance between passenger comfort safety efficiency and aircraft size and shape First Class Coach Class Seat Pitch 40quot Seat Pitch 36 Seat Width 28 Seat Width 20 Aisle Width 28quot Aisle Width20 Aisle Height 6 6 Aisle Height 6 6 No overhead bins Overhead bins Table 4 Cabin Layout Dimensions After analyzing historical data it is apparent that typical subsonic transports run by the airlines have a maximum seat pitch in first class of about 40 inches though it is generally much less Larger specialty aircraft with long flight times may have seat pitches between 55 to even 100 inches or more with fully reclining sleeper seats or suites Generally supersonic flights will be no longer than 4 hours so traditional reclining seats appear to be the most reasonable option For coach the maximum seat pitch is around 36 inches but the same idea still applies Page 29 of 72 Supersonix Inc 5 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review FntClau CoachClns Figure 9 Seating Layout with Galleys and Restrooms The seating configuration gives first class passengers 7 rows of 2 seats and gives coach passengers 15 rows of 3 seats for an overall total of 59 passengers Two flight attendants will have folding jump seats available in the rear Page 30 of 72 Supersonix Inc j V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review ilawamnmwamu g l quotI IEEEEEEE I Q j Homololoioto Figure 10 Cabin Threeview Layout Other parameters such as aisle and seat width are also obtained using the method described above The first class aisle is 28 inches wide while the coach aisle is 20 inches wide First class and coach seats are also 28 and 20 inches wide respectively these values also represent the upper limits for seating in a typical subsonic transport such as a Boeing 737 or Airbus 320 The seat width also takes into account the extra fuselage width available with only 2 seats per row in first class 66 3 6 Figure 11 Cabin Crosssection View Page 31 of 72 A Supersonix Inc 9 3 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Placing the floor 35 feet from the bottom of the cylinder allows for a 65 foot aisle height The inner cabin inner fuselage is designed as a basic cylinder for easy cabin pressurization Though this inner section is cylindrical the idea is that outer fuselage geometry can be built around this cylinder to allow for area rule compliance as well as aerodynamic shaping Having this inner cylinder should allow more room for adjustability and it is desirable from a structural standpoint Figure 12 Seating Dimensions Coach L First Class R Aerodmamics Airfoil Selection The Airfoil selection process for the Supersonix aircraft requires an in depth knowledge of airfoil performance in supersonic subsonic and transonic flight The wing is the primary source of lift for the aircraft and wing aerodynamics plays a vital role in deciding the aircraft flying qualities Very little information was available on airfoils suited for the required design mission For this reason a database of existing supersonic aircraft along with the airfoils they used was created Table 5 includes available informationlel on airfoils used in supersonic aircraft Given the popularity of its application in modern supersonic fighter aircraft the NACA 6 series and the biconvex airfoils stand out as the best options for the required design mission Page 32 of 72 30 April 2009 Supersonix Inc Conceptual Design Review Team 2 Aircraft Wing Root airfoil Wing Tip airfoil Rockwell D481 B1 Lancer NA69v1902 NA691902 General Dynamics F111 Aardvark NACA 6421068 NACA 6420980 Northrop F5 Tiger NACA 65AOO48 NACA 65AOO48 Lockheed Martin F16 Fighting Falcon NACA 64A204 NACA 64AZO4 McDonnell Douglas F15 Eagle NACA 64A0066 NACA 64A203 McDonnell Douglas F18 Hornet NACA GSAOOS mod NACA 65AOO35 mod Grumman 0303 F14 Tomcat NACA 64A2096S mod NACA 64A20891 mod Lockheed 246 F104 Biconvex 336 Biconvex 336 McDonnell Douglas F4 Phantom II NACA 0006464 mod NACA 000364 mod Convair4 BSB Hustler NACA 000346 NACA 000408 Convair 824 F106A Delta Dart NACA 000465 mod NACA 000465 mod Republic F105 Thunderchief NACA 65AOOS5 NACA GSAOOBJ Locmeedeoeing 645 F22 Raptor NACA 64AOS92 NACA 64AO429 Table 5 Airfoils for current supersonic aircraft Supersonic airfoil analysis is beyond the scope and time constraints posed and hence could not be done for initial airfoil selection Since supersonic airfoil analysis could not be performed on the airfoils available to select the best airfoil for use on the Supersonix aircraft subsonic constraints were placed The constraints used for analyzing the best airfoil in subsonic flight are 1 High CLmax as required during takeoff and landing 2 Delayed stall angle Subsonic airfoil analysis was done on the NACA 6 series airfoils using the XFOIL subsonic airfoil design and analysis software This software can only be used to perform analysis for subsonic flight conditions and not for supersonic analysis Airfoil co ordinates for various NACA 6 series airfoils were obtainedlel Geometric information for the biconvex airfoils was not available and for this reason analysis was only performed on the NACA 6 series airfoils XFOIL analysis was run on each of the available airfoils and polar files were generated Lift curve plots Figure 13 were generated for each airfoil on the same figure for a comparative analysis Page 33 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review 16 14 12 C l g 64a210 E 8 gt 64208 3 l 64209 96 N 0 J 0 N 8 10 12 14 16 alpha Figure 13 Lift vs angle of attack plots forvariaus airfoils From the above figure the NACA 64A410 airfoil was determined to have the best Clmax value at a delayed stall angle of about 125 This airfoil was selected to be used at the mean aerodynamic chord on the Supersonix wing From the figure it is also possible to see how the stall angle decreases with a decrease in the thickness to chord ratio The profile of the NACA 64A410 airfoil is given in Figure 14 The NACA 64A410 airfoil has a thickness to chord ratio of 10 This was a major concern because the root chord of the aircraft is approximately 85 This would give a wing root thickness of 85 which is unreasonable given that the fuselage diameter itself is 12 Therefore a constant thickness to chord ratio will not be maintained along the span of the wing There will be a gradual variation in thickness to chord ratio in such a manner that is feasible structurally yet results in adequate performance of the lifting surface More analysis on the aircraft wing airfoil needs to be done but it is not necessary at this point in the design phase Figure 14 NACA 64A410 airfoil The lift curve slope for the selected airfoil was 01 per degree and it had a zero lift angle of 344 This had to be corrected for the aspect ratio and taper ratio of the wing to account for Page 34 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review finite wing 3 d effects The aspect ratio for the Supersonix aircraft wing is 22 and the taper ratio is 012 decreasing the lift curve slope to 005 per degree Calculation of the corrected lift curve slope was done using the formula 510 a217R1r Equation 11 where a a0 are the lift curve slopes in per radian for the wing and the airfoil respectively A lift efficiency factor I of 004 was assumed This aspect ratio correction resulted in a wing with a clean CLmax of 08373 and the same zero lift angle of 344 Figure 15 shows the 2 D airfoil and 3 D wing lift curves 15 2D ll Enamelem mm Xlull 30 m coemuenl AR 2 2 m Llll caefllclenl alpha iegvees Figure 15 Corrected liftcurve The CLmax required by the aircraft is dictated by the takeoff and landing performance For this reason the CLmax that the wing is required to achieve was set to be the CLmax required by the aircraft during landing and takeoff This value of CLmax required was calculated using the equation L CLmax 1 2 i S 2 W Equation 12 where L is equal to the weight of the aircraft under that flight condition 5 is the wing planform area p is the density and v is the flight velocity for the particular flight scenario For the landing configuration the flight velocity was set to be 170 knots Typically this value would be set by Page 35 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review the selection of high lift devices andor airfoils By setting a specific landing velocity and thereby computing a suitable CLmax an inverse design methodology is employed for this analysis It is noted that in future design processes this assumption will have to be revisited when more information about wings and high lift devices are available The calculated CLmax required by the aircraft was 1017 The Reynolds number for landing was calculated to be in the range of 1148500 Since the clean CLmax of the aircraft wing was less than the CLmax required by the aircraft there was a need for high lift devices on the aircraft The use of a wing strake or a leading edge extension LEX helps increase the CW The LEX helps induce leading edge vortices over the wing which keeps the airflow over the wing from separating and hence leading to a delayed stall This effect of delaying the stall is illustrated by Figure 16 which also shows the induced vortices over the top surface of the wing because of the LEX Clean Wing slmkc LEX w Figure 16 Effect of LEX Raymer m Extending slotted fowler flaps were also chosen because of the increase in the lift curve slope in addition to the increase in the CW However this reduced the stall angle of the wing The lift coefficient increment given by the addition of the slotted fowler flaps is given by AClmaxsloz red ifowler 13639 c Equation 13 ACL max Equation 14 where AHLis the sweep angle of the mean hinge line of the flap The ACLmax for takeoff is approximately 60 80 of the A CLmax calculated for landing from the above equation In order Page 36 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review to account for the worst case scenario for the minimum extension of the flap ACLmax for takeoff was assumed to be 60 of the ACLmax for landing The effect of using slotted fowler flaps is described by Figure 17 lixlcnding aps Figure 17 Effect of Fowler flap Raymer m The size of the flaps required for the aircraft was determined by calculating the minimum extension of the flap required to meet the required CLmax at takeoff for the wing A flap span of 40 full span was assumed and it was extended over a range of angles of attack With the use of flaps as well as LEX it was difficult to analytically determine a stall angle of attack For this reason it was ensured that the takeoff CLmax stayed above the required CLmax for a range of angles of attack 8 14 The flapped area on a wing is the part of the wing planform that is projected in front of the flap For the Supersonix aircraft the flapped area was 186812 sq ft Figure 18 shows the flapped area in more detail S nlvpcd Figure 18 Flapped area Ravmer m Figure 19 shows the CL vs angle of attack plots for takeoff and landing along with the required CLmax as the baseline At the clean configuration stall angle of 12 the take off CLmax for the worst case scenario is higher than 12 times the required CLmax Page 37 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review 1 4 75 alpha degrees Figure 19 Lift cunle using highlift devices Drag Buildup Table 6 shows the breakdown of the drag coefficient for various flight scenarios This was calculated using the drag code and the details on the calculation involved for each drag coefficient value is explained earlier in the report The table shows the total drag coefficient CD and its components parasite drag skin friction drag wave drag and miscellaneous and induced drag The different flight scenarios in consideration were 1 Supersonic Cruise M18 Altitude60000ft 2 Subsonic Flight V250kts Altitude10000ft 3 Landing V170kts Altitude10000 Oft Each flight scenario had a different value for its CD During supersonic cruise the wave drag has a high effect on the total drag of the aircraft Wave drag is not present in subsonic flight Z D flow effects are predominant in supersonic flight which results in low skin friction component Induced drag effect is very high during subsonic flight This is especially true during landing approach where the induced drag component is very high This is because the induced drag coefficient is proportional to the square of the lift coefficient which is high during landing As a result the drag on the aircraft during landing is very high This value of the drag coefficient would increase when flap deflection during landing approach is taken into consideration Page 38 of 72 Supersonix Inc 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review CD CD P CfcDmisr CDW CDi Supersonic cruise 006865 005890 000907 004 000974 SLUbSQDiE QampLstel 0023539 0s 14095 000209 0102201 I 1 Table 6 Drag buildup breakdown The drag polars for the three different flight conditions are shown in Figure 20 For the supersonic flight case and the subsonic case at 10000 ft the drag coefficient varies over the lift coefficient range Since the values of lift coefficient in these two operating scenarios are low its effect on the drag coefficient is not very high In the landing configuration due to aircraft operation in the higher lift coefficient range the induced drag effects take predominance and the drag coefficient values are very high The relation between lift coefficient and induced drag is the reason why the curve looks like a quadratic function Drag Polar for Cruise at 60000quot Mach 18 a M Drag Polar for Letter at 1000011 250kts 007 0035 0053 D o o o 0034 0066 0033 0064 l 0quot non b 6 018 02 022 024 0 26 0 6 33 034 035 0436 037 CL CL Drag Polar for Landing 07 I 06 1 05 D 04 03 0 2 01 A quot o 5 1 1 5 C Figure 20 Drag polars for various phases of flight The lift to drag ratio LD was plotted against the lift coefficient and this is given in Figure 21 In the supersonic flight condition the LD value ranges between 28 and 36 for a range of cruise CL values Compared to the Concorde which had an LD value of approximately twice this Page 39 of 72 Supersonix Inc 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review amount the Supersonix aircraft is a little inefficient in this regard Detailed analysis into better airfoils and better aerodynamic shaping for the aircraft can change help increase the LD value at supersonic cruise speed At subsonic loiter the aircraft has a much higher LD reaching values of 1036 As the aircraft comes in for landing this high value of LD decreases due to the increase of CL which results in the increase of induced drag on the aircraft This value of LD will decrease further with detailed analysis where the effects of flaps are considered LD Ratio for Loiler at 10000quot 250Ms 4 1015 33 1036 35 r 1034 V 34 o g V 3 1032 32 f 103 3 1025 26 quot n 1 10 0133 034 035 o 6 o 5 018 02 022 024 026 CL c L UD Ratio for Landing 139 1o a D j x 6 4 K 0 5 1 1 5 Figure 21 LD Ratios for various phases of flight Sonic Boom The 03 lbssqft overpressure limit is one of the primary reasons why supersonic aircraft are not in operation in the commercial market today In order for the Supersonix aircraft to get its passengers to the destination fast it has to surpass this upper limit on overpressure A number of different technologies were employed to help reduce the sonic overpressure of this aircraft 1 Blunt nose The blunt nose design on the Supersonix aircraft will create a bow shock in front of the aircraft which keeps the shock waves from coalescing under the aircraft This coalescence of shockwaves is the reason for high sonic boom overpressures They create N wave shock signatures as in the case of most earlier supersonic aircraft A blunt nose design will help bring the N wave shock signature to a plateau wave signature with Page 40 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review a lower sonic overpressure Conversely using a blunt nose increases the wave drag of the aircraft Optimizing the aerodynamic shaping can reduce the wave drag of the aircraft Figure 22 shows the different sonic overpressure signatures discussed minimum overpressure Inc remental pressur e AD Time increment At Time increment At llwave sonic overpressure Plateau wave sonic signature overpressure signature Figure 22 Sonic Boom overpressure Signatures 2 Dihedral angle A dihedral angle on the lifting surface of the aircraft can reduce the sonic overpressure by making the area distribution smoother which has a high effect on the sonic overpressure signature Also a dihedral angle has the effect of increasing the effective length of the aircraft 3 Low AR high sweep A high aspect ratio low sweep wing has the effect of increasing lift rapidly over the wing This is another major reason for the creation of N wave shaped sonic signature A low aspect ratio highly swept wing brings the aircraft sonic boom overpressure signature to that of a plateau wave 4 Smooth area distribution A smooth area distribution is vital to reduce creating multiple shocks at multiple locations on the aircraft Smooth area distribution coupled with the blunt nose design will help bring down the chances of multiple shocks originating all over the surface of the aircraft which could coalesce together to give a high sonic overpressure Two different techniques were employed to calculate the sonic overpressure on the aircraft One technique was based on the Simplified sonic boom prediction paper by Harry W Carlson The other method used was developed by R Seebass and AR George in the paper titled Sonic boom minimization 3 While the Carlson method makes use of the area distribution of the aircraft to determine the shape factor of the aircraft and use the shape factor to calculate the N wave overpressure signature the Seebass method makes use of basic aircraft parameters Weight length Mach number etc to determine the plateau overpressure signature of the aircraft Page 41 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review From the preliminary sonic boom analysis on the Supersonix aircraft the following results were obtained as shown in Table 7 The Carlson method was calibrated using the sonic overpressure from the F 5 sonic boom demonstrator and the correction factor was found to be 109 The Seebass method had a higher correction factor but this can be attributed to the shapesize of the F 5 demonstrator the short length of the aircraft has a detrimental effect on the Seebass method calculation In earlier computations using simplified area distributions the Carlson method gave a higher sonic overpressure value when compared to that calculated using the Seebass method This made sense because the peak N wave overpressure signature had a higher value when compared to the plateau wave signature For this reason the Carlson method overpressure was taken as the upper bound and the Seebass method overpressure was used as the lower bound for over pressure calculation However when the area distribution of the Supersonix aircraft was optimized to give the best value of over pressure using the Carlson method a low overpressure value of 028psf was obtained The overpressure from the Seebass method had a much higher value which could be attributed to the disadvantage of the method in not using the area distribution of the aircraft and just relying on basic aircraft parameters Method Overpressure lbsq ft Carlson 028 Seebass 071 Table 7 Seebass and Carlson Overpressures and duration Since the Carlson method was used to calculate the aircraft sonic overpressure based on the aircraft geometry it is chosen as the more reliable of the two methods and is explained in more detail The Carlson method was obtained from NASA Technical Paper 1122 titled Simplified Sonic Boom Prediction 2 Although this method gives a rough estimate of the sonic overpressure and signature duration much more research and analysis in supersonic sonic boom mitigation is required to develop the final aircraft design The Carlson method involves three major steps to calculate the sonic boom overpressure and its time signature 1 Determine Shape factor In order to calculate the shape factor of the aircraft a Generate axis normal cross sectional area distribution The cross sectional area distribution along the length of the aircraft was generated by the AC Geometry function in the sizing code Details about this process were discussed earlier in the aircraft geometry section The wireframe area Page 42 of 72 Supersonix Inc j V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review distribution is shown in Figure 23 along with the area distribution for the aircraft geometry spanft 2 l l l l l i 80 100 120 140 160 180 2 0 Longitudinal axis Figure 23 Aircraft Wireframe area distribution im age m urtesy Cursun 1 5339 Equivalent area due to lift A reasonably accurate approximation of the equivalent area due to lift is calculated from the span distribution along the length of the aircraft This has been described in Figure 24 where bx is the span wise distribution along the length of the aircraft This is used to calculate the equivalent area distribution Bx Bx is calculated using the equation Page 43 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review BEx E Equation 15 where M is the supersonic cruise Mach number of the aircraft pV is the atmospheric pressure at vehicle altitude W is the weight of the aircraft 5 is the planform area v is the flight path angle 0 for steady level flight and 9 is the initial ray path angle 0 if directly under flight path image courtesy Cursun 1 B x Figure 24 Span distribution and effective area c Combined effective area The geometric area combined with the equivalent area due to lift gives the effective area The combined effective area for the Supersonix aircraft is given in Figure 25 This distribution curve was smoothened to yield a better plot with lesser kinks Page 44 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review minalga mumquotu ii I a n in 3 air 14 39 rim quotin m in 150 human I m Figure 25 Supersonix Effective area distribution Using the values obtained from Figure 25 and the chart in Figure 26 imagecuurtesy Cursunm the value of the shape factor was calculated Figure 26 Shape factor as a function of effective area parameters 2 Calculate effect of atmosphere on propagation The effect of atmosphere on boom propagation needed to be calculated This was done by determining the effective Mach Page 45 of 72 Supersonix Inc 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review number and effective altitude of supersonic cruise The effective Mach number is given by the formula Carlson cua u vn lt C tan 9 Equation 16 39 M21 D tan 1 1 The effective altitude is calculated using the formula Equation 17 wh ere dx d cos M Kt KtmM39 1 dy d Sin 3 Calculate bow shock and time signature The peak shock overpressure AP is calculated using the following formula Carlson Apmx KPKI Equation 18 The signature duration is given by At 342 At Kt av Equation 19 Page 46 of 72 Supersonix Inc f V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Performance VN Diaggam The Supersonix aircraft is designed to provide time and money savings in long distance travel For safety design purposes a V N Diagram must be created The V N diagram looks at an aircraft s loading factor as a function of velocity and design mission requirements 2g and 1g maneuvers The gust diagram is superimposed onto the V N diagram The maximum positive load factor is 372 at 742knot while the maximum negative load factor is 172 at 742knot Different velocities that are marked by the vertical lines are the 2g maneuver maximum gust intensity design speed Vb design cruise speed Vc and design dive speed Vd The gust diagram shows the gusts that the aircraft might experience flying at specific altitudes The outer limits of the V N and gust diagram must be taken 6 l l l l L 4 T rffr 2 a f H r c 0 a a r R 2 a r 4 a 6 F F F F F F 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 140 V in knot Figure 27 VN Diagram j Velocity knots 590 39l 7742 1 16323 39 12963 Maximum Positive Loading factor 25 3 Maximum Negative Loading factor 15 172 149 056 Table 8 Load factors from VN Diagram Page 47 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Range Diagram Creation of the range diagram provides an outline for cargo loading capability of the aircraft with corresponding range The numerical values were derived from the Breguet s range equation from the start of cruise to the end of cruise The initial aircraft weight with fuel weight has to correspond to the mission statement at the beginning of cruise end of climb The maximum zero range for this aircraft is the maximum cargo load There is no horizontal steady range for the Supersonix aircraft because of the aircraft s fuel requirements The Supersonix aircraft cannot reach its operational altitude with a cargo weight equal to the amount of fuel The aircraft range at MTOW is 4153 nm with the maximum range ferry range of 4882 nm Figure 28 below shows tradeoff between fuel and cargo After the intersection point the aircraft trades cargo weight for fuel weight All ranges presented are cruise ranges only 4 x 10 25 Ln i Payload Weight in lb A r r r r r r r r r r V0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 CRUISE Range in nm Figure 28 PayloadRange diagram Propulsion Inlet The engine performance is crucial if the Supersonix aircraft is to achieve its mission The inlet is the first design consideration for the engine The inlet is important because it affects vital performance parameters such as fuel consumption and thrust According to Raymerm Chapter Page 48 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review 10 pp 228 a 1 decrease in the pressure recovered from the inlet will result in a 13 decrease in installed engine thrust There are 4 types of inlets The NACA flush inlet is mostly used on engines where pressure recovery is not as important The Normal shock inlet has been found to be desirable at subsonic speeds because it has 100 pressure recovery theoretically Spike inlets and Ramp inlet are the two remaining types of inlets both of which are suitable for supersonic speeds The Spike inlet is lighter and has better pressure recovery however it has higher cowl drag and is more complicated than the 2 D ramp inlet Spike inlets are typically used in speeds above Mach 2 while ramp inlets work best for speed less than Mach 2 Due to the designed flight envelope of the Supersonix aircraft the 2 D ramp inlet was chosen 2D External compression 5 Cowl lip Iner Throat bleed slots Capture area Variable ramp Fixed initial ramp Diffuser f Exit for throat hlec Subsonic position Figure 29 2 D Ramp Inlet Figure 29 above shows a side view of a three shock external compression inlet from Raymerm Chapter 10 pp 232 Using the o 5 M relationship the initial ramp angle is found to be 15 degrees The engine must have a pressure recovery of 95 for efficient flight at Mach 18 However the o 5 M figure does not show detailed lines for cruise speeds below Mach 15 Therefore the ramp angle was unobtainable for the remaining ramps given the available information The Supersonix aircraft will have variable ramps which can help during subsonic flight Variable ramps are necessary for the Supersonix aircraft because of its need to be able to fly in both subsonic and supersonic conditions efficiently The Concorde has two intake ramps and one auxiliary inlet The variable ramps are designed to fully open during take off and subsonic cruise in order to take in as much air as possible Page 49 of 72 Supersonix Inc f V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Engine Description l Figure 30 CAD engine models The figures above are the CAD model of the Supersonix Engine The Supersonix engine is a low Bypass Turbofan with an afterburner It produces 38500 pounds of thrust per engine and it weighs 3000 lbs Table 8 below gives the engine specification BPR 1627 Fan Ratio 43 Area 41 ft2 Diameter 72 ft Length 33 ft Table 9 Engine specification The calculation for the engine performance was found from the sizing code and the dimensions were found using Raymerm Appendix E and ONX OFFX Page 50 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Nozzle Desigg Figure 31 shows eight types of nozzles from Raymer Chapter 10 pp 248 The four on top are mostly used in subsonic aircraft Z D vectoring is only used by fighter jets and the Single Expansion Ramp is used only in scramjets Currently only converging diverging nozzles are commonly used for supersonic aircraft and this is the only viable option for Supersonix Nozzle Variable Convex ing 39l nmslating iris plug Fixed convergent convergent immersingdiverging Z DVcclun39ng Sin le expansion Elmquot rump SERN Circlekosqumo adaplcl Figure 31 Types of Nozzles Raymerm Converging diverging nozzles allow the exit area to vary to maintain maximum engine performance In a converging diverging nozzle exhaust from the combustor converges to the throat The throat is needed to choke the flow which determines the mass flow rate The throat area has to be chosen to produce Mach 1 at the throat The flow then diverges and is expanded isentropically to a supersonic speed The exit area determines the exit speed and this can be calculated as a function of the ratio between throat area and exit area By increasing the mass flow and the exit speed from this nozzle design more thrust is produced 7 A Chevron exhaust Another possible future technology is the mobile chevron exhaust nozzle nozzle is a nozzle in which its extreme ends have non smooth shaping This is done most frequently on aircraft to reduce the noise Many aircraft are currently using the fixed chevron nozzle however Chevrons do have disadvantages Chevrons actually reduce nozzle efficiency A turbofan with Chevron will also use more fuel than the one with a normal smooth nozzle Page 51 of 72 Supersonix Inc j V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Figure 32 Fixed Chevron Nozzle 7 7 Figure 33 Mobile Chevron Nozzle Adding Chevrons can increase thrust in a low speed flight However presence of Chevrons reduces the thrust in a high speed flight regime This invention claimed that sliding Chevrons could be produced so that both the benefits of a smooth nozzle during high speed and the benefits of Chevrons during low speed flight could be obtained Double coating the nozzle was also proposed one for cold air and one for hot air so that the outer coat is interchangeable with the inner one The nozzle would have the benefits of Chevrons at low speed take off and landing but would also maintain a smooth nozzle benefit for the rest of the flight mission Details of this invention are very limited but fixed Chevrons have been used before and hopefully this invention can be implemented by 2020 Page 52 of 72 Supersonix Inc 39 V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review 1 1 1 Power required Power Available Power ftlbs 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Velocitv fts NC Figure 34 Power required and Power available VS Velocity The plot above depicts the power required and available versus airspeed The starting point is at take off speed The point where the two lines almost intersect is the Z g maneuver which sets the carpet plot constraint The final point in the plot is at a cruise speed where there is ample excess power Structures The lift force acting on the aircraft is assumed to be equal to twice the maximum takeoff weight of the aircraft which is 616000 lb This is due to the aircraft design load at n2 The top plot in Figure 35 shows the top down view of the wing and location of the quarter chord The 2nd and 3 plots show the bending moment and lift force acting on the wing Page 53 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Wing Geometry and Quarter Chord Location l l l l wing ed e quarter chord location I l l 80 90 100 105 Moment at Quarter Chord quot L L L L L L L L L E a 15 E 1 e 39 d g 0 5 7 E n l l l l f f f f l l 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 chord ft Wing Loading at Quarter Chord 10000 L L L L L L L L L E 39o 5000 i i E O 4 C l l l l f F f f l l 10 20 30 4 70 80 90 100 50 60 chord ft Figure 35 Wing loads Based on our design load and the requirement stated in FAR section 23303 Safety factor of 15 must be applied to the prescribe limit load which are considered external loads on the structure our aircraft wings must be able to withstand 924000 lb of lift From this analysis we have decided that for the wing to be able to resist the bending moment due to lift 5 spars needed to be installed in each wing as shown inFigure 36 The 3 and 4th spars are installed near to each other because that particular area on the wing produces high bending moment Putting 2 spars at that location distributes the high bending moment and each spar doesn t have to carry excessively high bending moment Furthermore the spars will also provide rigidity to the wings Our aircraft wing ribs are forming the structure of the wing and they incorporate the wings airfoil shape The ribs sizing will need to be determined in the future as this analysis is not done at this stage As for now our aircraft ribs are spaced 2 feet apart which is the average spacing distance in most aircraftue The exact spacing can be determined by analyzing the skin panel buckling However this analysis has not been performed because of its complexity Page 54 of 72 Supersonix Inc 5 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review mmumniill Wing Boxes Figure 36 Wing structural elements In fuselage construction we use stringers to carry fuselage load and to prevent bending The stringers are bonded to the co cured composite skin around the circumference of the fuselage The used of co cured skin will be discussed in later part of this report The stringers are aligned as straight as possible so the weight can be minimized Raymerm Chapter 8 At this stage further analysis need to be conducted in order to determine the exact number of stringers needed in the fuselage construction For the carry through structure we have chosen box carry through as depicted in Figure 36 This configuration is standard for high speed transports and the configuration provides the minimum weight Raymerm Chapter 8 The wing boxes are positioned under the cabin deck Our aircraft will also employ semi monocoque composite skin structure to help bear the load in the wings and fuselage Semi monocoque fuselage can bear considerable amount of damage and still remain strong to hold together 9 Page 55 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Engine mounting Our aircraft will have four engines two under each wing and mounted on the 4th and 5th spars This will ease the maintenance and optimize span loading effect to help in lift Raymerm Chapter 8 They are located at the back away from the cabin for safety reasons Engines Figure 37 Engine mounts structure Landing gear Landing gear placement is important as it will affect the stability of the aircraft on the ground Using the principle of conservation of energy and static equilibrium we have determined that our aircraft main landing gear will be located 120 ft from the nose between 4th and 5th spars which will be our landing gear bay Please refer to Figure 38for the landing gear view It is designed with safety factor of 3 which is common for general aviation aircraft Raymerm Chapter 8 Our aircraft main landing gear will carry 90 of the aircraft weight The landing gear has to be able to withstand 1904580 lb force during landing assuming a Z g hard landing and 833488 lb force during taxi For nose landing gear it is located 55 ft from the nose and also designed with safety factor of 3 The nose landing gear will carry 10 of the aircraft weight This percentage is important because nose gear has to carry 8 15 of aircraft weight so that it will have enough traction to steer the aircraft Raymerm Chapter 8 Page 56 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Landing Gear Figure 38 Landing gear structure Material selection Proper material selection can reduce the aircraft weight and increase the safety of our aircraft From our calculation this aircraft will consist of 70 composites by weight The value was obtained by taking the component weights of the parts that will be constructed from composites and finding their ratio compared to the aircraft maximum takeoff weight Fuselage and wings skin will be constructed from graphiteepoxy Based on Concorde s service temperature the aircraft skin will experience temperature up to 100 C 10 Therefore epoxy is a good choice as it is lighter and has suitable service temperature 15 In addition as we are employing semi monocoque skin carbonepoxy can handle high load and serves the purpose The nose as well as leading and trailing edges of the wing will be constructed from graphitepolyimide as these parts will experience the highest temperature which about 130 C 10 Epoxy is not used as a matrix in these parts because we are concerned about creep failure although epoxy can withstand the high service temperature Polyimide is better than epoxy in thermal properties and lighter compare to titanium which is another material considered for Page 57 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review these parts 8 Spars ribs and stringers will be constructed from carbonepoxy as well due to 15 the high compressive and yield strength it offers The landing gear will be constructed from AF 1410 Steel which is replacing 300M steel as main material in landing gear construction 11 It has higher corrosion and fatigue resistance than 300M and shows excellent fracture toughness 11 considered but the price is too expensiveusl So we chose AF 1410 due to its cheaper price 15 Titanium was also one of the materials although it is a bit heavier From all the materials chosen the weight savings that we can achieve is approximated to be about 20 30 of maximum takeoff weight compared to just using traditional materials such as aluminum 123913 The weight saving is not very much due to the mechanical fasteners which are made of titanium that will be used to connect the parts togetherm manufacturing techniques such the usage of co cured skin where stiffeners are integrally cured with the skin in one cure cycle and the usage of polyimide epoxy adhesive such as FMlOOO can d 121718 However new reduced the number of fasteners used and thus higher weight saving could be obtaine Weights and Balance Aircraft Component Weight An accurate estimate of aircraft empty weight is critical for aircraft design Database estimates of aircraft component weights varying with internal and external characteristics must be established The purpose of the aircraft component weight estimate is to create a program that can be iterated with a varying external input A limited database exists consisting of the Concorde and the Russian Tu 144 The Concorde was taken as the baseline datum for weight equations Estimate equations for component weight are obtained from Raymerm Chapter 15 Equations for Fighter aircraft and transport aircraft are given with input variables for 98 different aircraft characteristics The equations selected for individual component parts are based on similarity to the design mission For example the selection of the wing equation for the Supersonix is an average of the Fighter and the Transport equations because of the high Mach number that the Supersonix will travel at and the large wing surface area like the transport Component weight equations are put into MATLAB as a standalone script capable of iterating through two main variables and providing an estimated empty weight Dimensional characteristics of the Concorde are input as the datum The sum of all total component weights should be equal to the published Concorde empty weight A correction factor of 107 is Page 58 of 72 Supersonix Inc L 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review necessary as a result of this baseline comparison To check for validity of component weight trend a test run mesh plot is created for varying wing aspect ratio and aircraft length quota aav w a 99 W r we W a MTOW lbs Wing Sweep degrees Aspect Ratio Figure 39 MTOW vs wing sweep and Aspect Ratio The upward trend line for the empty weight is expected due to increases in either aspect ratio or aircraft length The concaved curvature of the mesh plot resembles a capability to be optimized This mesh plot allows for a component weight code that takes inputs from the geometric iteration and area distribution codes The outputs of the function are empty weight and component mass fraction After the design is finalized an aircraft weight and balance statement is created This is shown in Table 10 below Page 59 of 72 Supersonix Inc Team 2 30 April 2009 Conceptual Design Review Air Induction 733087 00238 938352128 Engine Mount 369624 0012 61357584 Canard 73308 000238 25658066 Firewall 2818 00000915 360753024 Fuselage 1721831 00559 1618521892 Main Landing Gear 77005 0025 1124273 Nose Landing Gear 146617 000476 43985256 Vertical Tail 659162 00214 112057676 Wing 5328746 0173 682079488 Total Weight 9805246 03183315 12309345 35 Engine 12000 166 003896 1992000 Engine Cooling 13152 166 0000427 2183307364 Fuel SystemTanks 214997 130 000698 279497348 Total Weight 1428150 0046367 2293330422 r r APU 1150 170 0003733524 195500 Avionics 146617 14 000476 205264528 Air ConditioningAnti Ice 54519 90 000177 49067586 Electrical Systems 514393 90 00167 46295406 Flight Control 100414 174 000326 1747212648 Furnishing 135220 56 000439 757236368 Hydraulics 25350 152 0000823 3853206992 Handling Gear 8439 120 0000274 101276976 Instruments 48975 14 000159 68565252 Total Weight 1033930 0033567 1034009293 Table 10 Group Weights Table Page 60 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Stability and Control Static Longitudinal Stability An important condition for maintaining the longitudinal stability of the aircraft is the static margin The static margin is the difference in length between the center of gravity and the neutral point of the aircraft If the center of gravity is fore of the neutral point the aircraft is said to be stable The neutral point of an aircraft can be approximated by assuming that it is located at 25 mean aerodynamic chord MAC for subsonic flight and 40 MAC for supersonic flight A slightly more accurate approximation includes a term based on the horizontal tail dimensions canard dimensions in our case This results in a neutral point of 254 MAC for subsonic flight and 404 for supersonic flight The center of gravity of the aircraft at takeoff conditions is at 116 feet out of the 200 ft length This leads to a static margin of 333 MAC This case is presented in Figure 40 Considering that transport aircraft are usually designed with a static margin of 20 MAC or larger the static margin at takeoff is acceptable At MT OW Subsonic X 65 V smw nus x Neutral Point 6 Center of Gravity 1 sh i l 200 Figure 40 Static Margin Location However the center of gravity and neutral point will change based on fuel consumed and flight conditions Therefore the static margin will also change during flight and it is important that that it stays within an acceptable envelope The easiest way to maintain the static margin at a reasonable value is to drain the fuel tanks in a specific order as discussed earlier Considering Page 61 of 72 Supersonix Inc 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review the high weight of the fuel draining certain tanks can result in a substantial change in the center of gravity For example we are able to achieve a static margin of 312 MAC at the start of supersonic cruise and a static margin of 280 at landing both of which are acceptable for a transport aircraft Control Surface Sizing Instead of using elevators and ailerons we decided to employ elevons Elevons are a type of control surface that combines pitch and roll They are typically used on delta wing and tailless aircraft Figure 4lshows how elevons combine the functions of elevators and ailerons into one control surfaceug Side View Wing i Elevon Neulral lt Up u Down Elevons 54 4 l y As seen from behind Figure 41 Elevons Raymerm suggests that control surface sizing be done based on historical data Using this method and including delta wing aircraft into his historical data the elevons were sized at 310 ft2 total area for both sides In comparison the somewhat larger and heavier Concorde has a total elevon size of 345 ft2 4 The sizing of the rudder and therefore the tail is slightly more complicated The rudder size had to be able to meet the following three conditions maintain lateral trim with one engine out landing in a 35 knot crosswind and be comparable in size to rudders on other aircraft with aircraft size taken into account The first two conditions are essential because they both present a case where there is a significant yawing moment The rudder has to be able to provide enough control to counteract these yawing moments The third condition is there to ensure the feasibility of the rudder size The rudder size that meets all of these conditions is 140 ftz For comparison the size of the rudder on the Concorde is 112 ftzm Page 62 of 72 Supersonix Inc V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Cost Analysis RDTampE Cost For the cost analysis a modified RAND DAPCA IV cost estimation model is used This model is shown in the Aircraft Design A Conceptual Approach by Raymerm pp 568 575 The cost model uses empty weight maximum velocity total length and other physical specifications to estimate the total research development testing and evaluation RDTampE cost The following is a list of all the necessary inputs For the cost analysis a modified RAND DAPCA IV cost estimation model is used This model is shown in The cost model uses empty weight maximum velocity total length and other physical specifications to estimate the total research development testing and evaluation RDTampE cost The following is a list of all the necessary inputs times number of engines per aircraft number cost The sizing code gave detailed values for the above inputs The Q stands for lesser number of either total productions quantity or number aircrafts to be produced within five years Since the total production quantity is 100 aircrafts the quantity to be produced in five years is smaller Assuming that the production slowly starts in the beginning and later more aircrafts can be made faster the number 30 is estimated as Q The Supersonix aircraft is a complex product thus it will take more time in the beginning and gradually manufacturers will be able to produce faster The avionics cost was estimated using Raymerm pp 568 575 which suggested using dollar between 3000 and 6000 per pounds of avionics Thus avionic cost is avionics weight which is 1444 pounds multiplied by the upper limit 6000 because the Supersonix will have sophisticated avionics system For the engine cost the maximum thrust is estimated from engine performance prediction method previously discussed The turbine inlet temperature is Page 63 of 72 Supersonix Inc j V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review assumed to 3200 R This value is assumed to be standard in current avionic technology level The advancement of material technology allows turbine inlet to have higher temperature sustainability These input values are used with the hour equations from Raymer These equations find required engineering tooling manufacturing quality control hours development support costs flight test costs manufacturing material costs and engine production costs The hour values are multiplied with their corresponding hourly rates For the hourly costs following values are used it is assumed that amount of hourly rate stays the same for 2009 year but inflation factor is factored in to preserve the value of 1999 dollars W39ork Type Hourly Rate 1999 dollar 86 88 Qualit Control 81 0 Manufacturing 73 Table 12 Hourly rates Multiplying the hourly rate with required hours and summing them up result in the RDTampE and fyaway cost However the DAPCA is based on design of an aluminum aircraft A fudge factor of 13 is multiplied to the total cost to produce a more reasonable value Supersonix aircraft will use substantial amount of graphite epoxy based materials There is also need to account cost for interior investment Since Supersonix is a jet transport 2500 per passenger per aircraft is added The cost for interior is 15 million The investment cost factor is multiplied to the total cost This investment cost factor accounts for the cost of money and the contractor profit so 12 is multiplied to the total cost The resulting total cost is based on 1999 dollars so the inflation factor is multiplied to the cost From the CPI database 1 in 1999 has same value as 128 in 2009 To approximate the inflation to 2020 NASA s inflation prediction is used The NASA calculator estimated 1568 in 2020 having same value as 1 of 1999 Finally the RDTampE cost is 29 billion in 2009 dollars and 35 billion in 2020 dollars for producing 100 aircraft Direct Operating Costs DOC The direct operating cost consists of fuel crew maintenance materials parts and insurance costs The DOC is calculated based on a one way trip from JFK to LHR First the fuel cost is estimated based on the current cost of Jet A fuel Currently the fuel costs 5703 per barrel Based on the range from JFK to LHR the distance is around 3000 nmi The Page 64 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review estimate fuel cost for a one way trip is found to be around 17000 in 2009 dollars This value is based on a projected 2009 fuel price Since fuel cost fluctuates greatly this is a very rough estimate It is likely that these costs will not exactly match year 2020 operation costs The estimation for crew cost is based on three man crew mode The flight block hour is highly related to crew work hours The crew cost contains wages for pilots and flight attendants The average flight hour for trip is around five hours Thus the block time is five hours Using the equation provided in the textbook the estimated crew cost is 5800 per flight in 2009 dollars Next there are maintenance costs to ensure safety and regulatory compliance for every flight The maintenance cost consists primarily of wages for technicians and engineers The estimated man maintenance hour per flight hour is five This estimate is found in Raymer1Table 181 p571 The maintenance cost is found by multiplying maintenance man hour per flight hour with estimated hour wage The estimated maintenance cost per year per aircraft is 3300000 in 2009 dollars This is comparable to the maintenance cost of F 18 which is also supersonic The cost is about 3 million dollars per year per aircraft There are also parts and material costs associated with maintenance These costs cover the cost necessary replacement parts and they relate to the cost of the aircraft The material costs depend on the flight hour and the cycle Every cycle or trip the aircraft goes through routine inspections and if repair is needed the parts and components will be purchased The material costs are estimated using the equation indicated in Raymer1Table 181 p573 The material cost is estimated to be 17 million 2009 dollars per year This cost is very high since Supersonix will use advanced materials and advanced avionics Insurance costs can be estimated by multiplying the total DOC by 10 Surmising all the costs the total DOC for the JFK to LHR trip is 020 per set mi This is in 2009 dollars This can be compared to the typical DOC of jet aircraft Raymer has indicated in his book that the average cost is about 004 This makes the DOC of Supersonix 500 more expensive than the average However the average value of four cents is based on subsonic aircraft Also the economic conditions and the fuel prices could be significantly different from year 1999Thus accounting steep rise of fuel cost the DOC is relatively an acceptable value which is 020 per seat mile Indirect Operating Costs IOC Indirect operating costs are expenditures occurring during service that are not covered in the DOC Some IOC examples are landing fees management fees and also the cost of the money Landing fees are paid to the airport for using the runways This cost is based on the maximum takeoff weight of the aircraft however the landing fee varies for different airports For example the landing fee for Super Sonix at JFK airport is 1700 but only 860 at LHR The IOC is difficult to determine accurately due to IOC is mostly independent from aircraft design The Page 65 of 72 Supersonix Inc 39 V 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review textbook states that OC ranges from one third of the DOC to whole DOC Therefore the estimated OC is equal to the DOC meaning 020 per seat mi for a one way trip from New York to London Cost Summary It is stressed that this is rough estimation of the costs Also note that the cost model is decade old About one hundred aircraft will be manufactured yielding an individual price of 290 million per airplane This is comparable to the price of Concorde before retirement after factoring in the inflation The cost of Concorde would be around 250 million if it was available for purchase today 2009 if the value of Concorde stayed same Finally a table of all the cost values is shown below Summary A complete conceptual design has been performed for a small supersonic airliner with Initial Operating Capability in 2020 At the very beginning the feasibility of this endeavor from a consumer viewpoint was considered in the Systems Requirements Review potential market and customers were analyzed to determine the demand for this transport their requirements and desired engineering characteristics were assimilated into the House of Quality to help guide the design process a typical concept of operations was drawn up to determine the design mission for the aircraft The aircraft took on a more technical definition in the Systems Definition review performance constraints were imposed to get a general idea of aircraft parameters Concepts were generated using Pugh s method to sort organize the ideas methodically Finally to complete the conceptual design the Conceptual Design Review is performed A detailed sizing code is developed that allows the optimization of the aircraft various aspects of the properly sized aircraft such as weights and balance structures and costs are analyzed to crystallize the aircraft concept further Now after having gone into a great detail to define the Supersonix aircraft concept the plausibility for further development work must be evaluated The answer to this question begins with the Requirements Compliance Matrix This matrix contains much of the design goals that the Supersonix aircraft has to meet and tracks the Page 66 of 72 Supersonix Inc V L 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review evolution of the aircraft concept right from the early stages of simple sizing The latest version of this matrix is displayed in Table 14 All of the aircraft performance targets such as cruise Mach number takeoff and landing field lengths number of passengers and design range have been met and exceeded One of the most important requirements is the sonic boom overpressure and the achievement of this target allows the Supersonix aircraft to fly its design mission effectively according to the concept of operations As a tradeoff the cruise altitude had to be increased to 60000ft in order to accommodate the low overpressure The elevation of the cruise altitude means a heavier fuselage structure to withstand the larger pressure differential but also means less drag and a more efficient fuel burn Therefore the fact that this requirement was not met does not have a large negative effect to the Supersonix aircraft 7 Egg Threshold Direction of M Reguirement Improvement m 8400 10000 2877 ft 8400 10000 1866 ft 8 10 10 ft 05 1 l 1 hr 5000 4000 I 4500 nm 60 50 I 60 people 2 16 18 Mach 65 50 4x 65 ft3pax 0 2 dollarsASM 50000 40000 60000 ft 3 3 I 289 paxmilb fuel 03 03 l 028 Ibft2 60 80 l dB 26 24 4 3 Table 14 Requirements Compliance Matrix One target that was not met was the cruise efficiency of 3 pax milb fuel The Supersonix aircraft is able to come close to that value with the cruise efficiency being 289 pax milb fuel The slight decrease in the efficiency can be attributed to the additional wave drag generated by the blunt nose in order to minimize the sonic boom overpressure It is expected that further research and development of this concept can and will bring the fuel efficiency up and perhaps even exceed the target Finally the cumulative certification noise was to be below 80 dB at this stage of conceptual design there is no reliable consistent way of predicting the noise emitted from the aircraft Therefore although the design of the aircraft included the consideration of minimizing the Page 67 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review noise footprint of the aircraft it is not possible to tell if the aircraft meets this target at this point Therefore the concept of a small supersonic transport is definitely worth pursuing to the preliminary design stage There is a market for supersonic transport and potential customers and concept of operations have been identified The engineering analysis suggests that although not all of the requirements are met the aircraft is very close to satisfying and perhaps even exceeding those goals Technologically it is expected that all of the skills and expertise required to implement the features on the Supersonix aircraft be ready by the time the aircraft is produced for IOC in 2020 The economy is anticipated to recover from the present day situation and be ready to accept this revolutionary mode of travel Ad ditional work In depth aerodynamic analysis must be further examined Aerodynamic flow over the body is currently approximated and no shock interactions have been considered Sonic boom signature must be examined more closely by applying area ruling at different mach angles from the front of the aircraft Fuselage structures must be further researched to include specialized structural load path at location of high stress concentration CATIA model of fuel tanks cargo space center of gravity travel aircraft load configuration must be finalized Material selection should be inputted into CATIA providing a finalized moments about the x y and z axis The results from finalized CATIA model can be used to validate the dynamic stability and control of the aircraft The results can provide a more accurate aircraft trim diagram as well mission performance The aircraft response can then be plotted to provide transient response delay time and overshoot These results will provide insight on further feasibility of the Super Sonix and more detailed cost analysis Page 68 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review References 1 Raymer DP Aircraft Design A Conceptual Approach AIAA Education Series Fourth Edition 2 Harry W Carlson Simplified Sonic Boom Prediction NASA Technical Paper 1122 1978 3 Seebass R and George AR Sonic boom minimization Cornell University January 1971 4 Gordon Concorde Celebrating an Aviation Icon October 2006 httpwwwconcordesstcom Accessed April 2009 5 Jumper E J Wave Drag Prediction Using a Simplified Supersonic Area Rule Journal of Aircraft Vol 20 No 10 October 1983 pp 893 895 6 Lednicer David The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage Anaytica Methods Inc 4102007 httpwwwaeuiucedum seIigadsaircrafthtm Accessed March 2009 7 Feuillard Philippe Chevron type primary exhaust nozzle for aircraft turbofan engine December 30 2008 httpwwwpatentgeniuscompatent7469529html Accessed March 2009 8 Soltani M R Farahani M and Younsi J 5 Performance Improvement ofa Supersonic External Compression Inlet by Heat Source Addition The proceedings of world academy of science engineering and technology Volume 30 July 2008 9 H amp S Aviation Structural Mechanic Aircraft Construction and Materials httpwwwtpubcomair1htm Accessed 42609 10 Concorde httpwwwpiIotfriendcomphotoaIbumspotty14htm Accessed 42609 11 National Materials Advisory Board NMAB New Materials for Next Generation Commercial Transportpp28 Washington DC National Academy Press 1996 12 Professor CT Sun 41709 13 Boeing Unveils 7E7 Fuselage Section Reinforced Plastic Volume 49 Issue 2 EIsevier Ltd 2005 14 Baker AIanetaI Composite Materials ofAircraft Structure 2nd Edition Virginia AIAA Education Series 2004 pp 291 15 CES Selector Granta Design Limited United Kingdom 2008 16 Sensmeier MDSamarehAJ A Study of Vehicle Structural Layouts in Post WWII Aircraft45th AIAAASMEASCEAHSASC Structures Structural Dynamics amp Materials Conference California 2004 Page 69 of 72 Supersonix Inc I 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review 17 Cytec Engineered Materials FM 1000 Adhesive Film httpwwwcyteccomengineered materialsproductsDatasheetsFM1000pdf Accessed 42609 18 Griffith B Boeing sets pace for composite usage in large civil aircraft httpwwwcompositesworldcomarticlesboeing sets pace for composite usage in large civil aircraftaspx Accessed 42609 19 Michael James Elevons Are For Mixed Control httprcvehiclesaboutcomodrcairplanesssRCAirplaneBasic 7htm Accessed April 2009 20 Dippold Vance CFD Analyses and Jet Noise Predictions of Chevron Nozzles With Vortex Stabilization Glenn Research Center Cleveland Ohio 21 Roskam J Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automated Flight Controls Part I DAR Corporation Lawrence KS 2001 Page 70 of 72 Supersonix Inc 30 April 2009 Team 2 Conceptual Design Review Appendix En ine Performance Curves from Ra erA E Mm pm Hun mum m an 18R W E E E E g m we a m nummmaunumn numnunuuum aluminum UMHIhI b m Munnu u H quotnquot muuuulo u n J n I u 5 3 u E E u u L E u l u n Jn 1 u u 39 M u quot u on as m u J m I u u m lmlmmu39 nmmmnmmnumu g m Mannha Limwkalnmnm I m I H M u m Page 71 of 72 Page 72 of 72 4TW I13 x105 Constraint for AR19 4W 4 x105 Constraint forAR2 4 TW n 5 4 i i TW DE F39s Bruise upper Ennstrairrt Landing Ennstrairrt 24g maneuver constraint 4 Iverpressure constraint N 1 90 100 110 120 quot90 100 110 120 Wing Loading Wing Loading 105 Constraint for AR21 X105 Constraint for AR22 1 90 100 110 120 quot90 100 110 120 Wing Loading Wing Loading Com osite car et lot Supersonix Inc Team 2 Conceptual Design Review 30 April 2009
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'