The Evolution Of Prehistoric Civilizations
The Evolution Of Prehistoric Civilizations ANTH 32000
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Date Created: 09/19/15
ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 Studying Ancient Civilizations History Evolution and Process 0 Civilization 0 Oxford English Dictionary to civilize to bring a person place group of people etc to a stage of social development considered to be more advanced to enlighten re ne and educate to make more cultured and sophisticated I All have notions of process and evolutions I The upper class thought they were more civilized Ideas rooted in Western principles of social progress and evolution 0 The Bible and Classical Scholars 0 God created all life forms His creations are static and unchanging o If anything we re in decline from Edenic Perfection 0 Earth created on October 23 4004 BC James Ussher 1650 Great chain of being life forms classi ed in terms of their closeness to God Aristotle s Scala natura Scienti c Revolution 163911 and 17111 centuries o Copernicus Galileo Galilei Antony von Leenwenhoek Christopher Columbus Issac Newton Enlightenment l7Lh and 18111 centuries o Philosophical underpinnings 0 Sir Francis Bacon knowledge didn t stop with Ancient Greeks everything that could be known is known truth and knowledge do not come from authority but by observation and reasoning John Locke emphasized importance of experience visual experimental in the pursuit of knowledge Discoveries gave rise to new philosophical idea about human potential that informed social policies 0 History record of progress by application of science based knowledge 0 Technological innovations are a means of arriving at goals of a more just and democratic republic 0 New sciences should play an important role in universally improving the human condition Scientist and Stuff 0 Isaac Newton 16431728 0 Recalculated the age of the Earth using some new laws of Physics 0 If Earth was formed from a molten mass as in the Bible it must be hundreds of thousands of years old 0 Carolus Linnaeus 17071778 Page 1 of11 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 o Developed system of classifying animals and plants called taxonomy o Brought order to diversity of life forms and social groups 0 Still believed in static unchanging world 0 Georges Cuvier 17691832 0 Catastrophism explanation for fossils of extinct species 0 But opposed to idea of evolution 0 JeanBaptiste Lamarck 17441829 0 Adaptation through inheritance of acquired traits o Organisms adapt to the changing environment 0 Believed traits acquired during lifetime were then transmitted to offspring 0 Charles Darwin 18091882 0 On the Origin of Species 0 Evolution descent with modification 0 Theory of Natural Selectioins 0 Thomas Malthus 17661834 0 Populations increase geometrically but food production increases only arithmetically 0 Results in constant competition for food and resources 0 Herbert Spencer 18201903 Principles of Biology 1864 Survival of the Fittest 0 Social evolutionism progressing toward a more perfect society as weaker cultures gave way to more advanced Historical Backdrop I Colonialism I Industrial Revolution Capitalism Combined Enlightment notions of universality and progress Mathusian notion of struggle for resources and Darwin sLamark s ideas of evolution 0 O O The White Man 3 Burden By Rudyard Kipling Early Attempts at classifying social difference 0 Edward Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan o 19111 century armchair anthropologists I Before field work 0 All human societies pass through unilinear evolutionary stages I Savagery I Barbarism I Civilization Confusion of cultural complexity with cultural worth Greeks referred to NonGreeks as barbaros Mesopotamians slurred nomad tribes as uncultured eaters of raw meat those who don t bury their dead thieves murderers What do we mean by the word civilization Page 2 of11 ANTH 320 1 2 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 Ethnographic researched showed cultural habits of simpler societies are adaptations to particular social and natural environments not inferior to civilized people Cultural Relativism Archaeological research on early farming and ancient civilizations demonstrated downsides to civilization a Backbreaking work poor health exploitation taxation b Civilization for most meant toiling for the bene t of elite few c Leveling mechanisms that keep people from becoming unequal Later less racist attempts at classifying social differences Neoevolutionary theory mid 20Lh century Morton Fried Elman Service Julian Steward All human societies pass through evolutionary stages but along different paths determined by local ecological conditions multilineal evolution 0 Band 0 Tribe 0 Chiefdom 0 State Civilization LOOK AT THE FIRST PAGE OF SECTION 2 NOTES If all human existence took place in a single day agriculture would begin at 1156 PM and civilizations would begin at 1157 PM Origins of Agriculture 90 of H sapz39ens are hunters and gatherers o Profound implications of evolution and adaptation By 201h century almost everyone relied on agriculture Occurred independently in multiple regions around the same time Wheat barley millet rice maize and potatoes 0 calorie engines of civilizations Cultivation intentionally planting and tending of wild plant stages early stages of agriculture 0 Early evidence Abu Hureyra Syria 11000 years ago I Rye Domestication the process in which NEW species of plants and animals are produced as a result of human intervention in a reproductive cycles Domesticate plant and animal species that has been domesticated Evidence of Domestication o Morphological changes 0 Presence outside native habitat 0 Animals change in herd composition Agriculture an economy that is mostly reliant on the intentional production of food rather than relying on wild food 0 Usually long lag time between domestication and full blown agriculture Archaeological evidence for Agriculture Page 3 of11 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 o Domesticates plants and animals 0 Technology I Grinding stone storage pits sickles axes irrigation 0 Community I Permanent settlements changing social organizations rituals I Round to circular homes communal to personal storage pits Biology of Domestication 0 Early theories on agricultural origins I Linked to progress and the advanced way of life I Lewis Henry Morgan 1877 0 Social evolutionism 0 Savage 9 barbarian 9 civilized I V Gordon Childe 18921957 0 Oasis Theory but no ecological data 0 AgriculturalRevolution I Robert Braidwood 19072003 0 Hilly Flanks Native Habitat hypothesis 0 1950s 0 Recent method allows us domestication I Pollen analysis treering data I Zooarchaeology I AMS radiocarbon dating I These methods help answer when and where but we are still trying to to better reconstruct ecological contexts of answer WHY Falming Foraging Risky vulnerable to weather More free time Increased food per acre Varied diet Decreased food per hour worked Works well for lower population Monotonous diet poor nutrition diseases density Data health food Increased infections Less labor Demographic model increasing population outpaced wild food supplies that required farming to grow more food But assumes that populations grow unchecked by cultural or natural processes Population size in past is very tricky to estimate Population densities are more likely to rise most dramatically after agriculture not before it Page 4 ofll ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 Ecological model changing climate at the end of the Paleolithic is a critical factor 0 But lots of climate changes why farm noe 0 Did it equally effect diverse global habitats where agriculture was adopted 0 Preadaptation many hunter and gatherers had behaviors and technology well suited for farm life 0 Burning grasslands transplanting saplings grasses 0 Stone tool technology 0 Some hunters and gatherers even store seasonally abundant foods David Rindos 0 Process of domestication was coevolutionary between humans plants and animals 0 Intentional or unintentional 0 Does it matter Internal social triggers o feasting theory rivalries among tribal leaders drove competition feasts required intensifying food production for surplus 0 Based on evidence from sedentary compleX hunters and gatherers 0 But little evidence for social hierarchies in many societies before agriculture Fertile Crescent 0 Mediterranean climate 0 Dry summers wet winters 0 Supports vegetation ranging from woodlands to open park woodland 0 Oak pine wild wheat barley Shift to agricultural way of life in the Middle East was a process 0 Revolutionary but not a revolution Timeline 0 Kebaran 2500015000 years ago 0 Hunter and gatherers lots of plants and animals 0 Identified by bladelets o Remains of small camps of mobile hunter and gatherers in S Levant o Burials rare 0 Wild grass nuts gazelle fish birds wild pig and goat o Natufian 15000 12000 years ago 0 Lots of plants and animals 0 Broad spectrum diet villages o Lunates crescent shaped blades used in composite tools 0 Ground stone for processing seeds 0 Allowed transition to village life 0 Hunting tools and harvesting tools sickle o Hunters and gatherers not domesticated I Exploited wild plants 0 Early Neolithic 120008500 years ago Page 5 of11 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 O Broad spectrum diet 0 Beginnings of domestication lSt evidence of communal structures I Tower of Jericho 0 Made of undressed stone and mud brick 0 Attached to the inside of a massive wall 0 Military purpose 0 Flood protection 0 Settlement sizes increase I Netiv Hagdud Israel 0 2030 families 0 Well maintained mud brick architecture 0 Floors and storage pits common 0 Circular houses I Independent villages but in contact thru trade 0 Late Neolithic 85007000 years ago Plants and animals Broad spectrum diet Beginnings of domestication Pottery and Farming O 0000 Ain Mallaha Northern Israel 100008500 BC 0 Permanent Settlement of 2000 sq m near an ancient lake 0 50 semisub terranean houses 79 m in diameter postholes lots of grinding stones 0 Burials under oor near the house intricate jewelry 0 Exploited wild plants 0 Long term settlement PRECEDE farming Younger Dryas 0 Little Ice Age 10000 BC 0 Reduced areas suitable for human occupation 0 Some sites abandoned for nomadic hunter and gatherers others stayed and became farmers o Stimulus that led to experiments with agriculture Early Neolithic B 88006500 BC 0 Houses round to rectangular o Rectangles more densely packed o Settlement size increase 0 Villages with high degree of planning 0 Aby Hureya 5000 people gt 1400 houses 0 Domestication 0 Figs Jordan Valley Israel 0 Cereals Emmer einkom wheat barley o Pulses lentils peas Page 6 ofll ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 o Legumes bitter vetch chick peas Late Neolithic 6500 5000 BC 0 Development of pottery 0 Evidence for animal domestication New forms of Ritual Elaboration o Gobelki Tepe Southeastern Turkey 0 9000 8000 BC world s oldest monument of ritual architecture 0 Ritual gathering place for hunter and gatherers 0 Hints at regional social organization cooperation before transition to agriculture 0 Catalhoyuk Southern Turkey 0 7000 BC largest Neolithic settlement 8000 people 0 Densely packed mud brick houses no public spaces 0 But lots of ritualistic art inside several rooms Domestication in East Asia 0 Pre agricultural societies are little understood 0 Evidence for pottery China 10000 ya associated with wild resources 0 Pottery made 1000 years before domestication 0 Rice South China domesticated about 9000 BC by the Yantze and Huai River valleys o Domesticated dogs pigs and water buffalo o Millet North China domesticated about 8000 BC by the Yellow River valley by the Pelligang Culture 0 Domesticated pigs and possibly chickens Mesoamerican Domestication Guila Naquita Tehuacan Valley Mobile hunters and gatherers Squash earliest domesticated plant in Mesoamerica 0 10000 7 8300 BC 0 Ancestors of pumpkins acorn squash zucchini spaghetti squash o Maize domesticated from Teosinte o Earliest maize 6250 5500 BC 0 Beans J quot J 39 J r J ly in lean and the Andes o Earliest Mexican Bean 2500 BC 0 Probably earlier at the same time as maize o Andean Domestication o The Andes I 2quotd highest mountain range in the world I Along the coast desert with river oasis I Highlands4 zones 0 Quenchua o 23003500 m of elevation o Maize grows well Page 7 of11 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 o Suni o 35004000 m elevation o Potatoes tubers quinoa o 40004800 m elevation 0 Open grassland I Grazing for Alpacas and Llamas o Cordillera 0 4800 m elevation 0 Not used for agriculture I Used ordinarily for sacri ces 0 Paci c Currents I Humboldt Current 0 Water from the South 0 Wealth of marine resources 0 Villages thrive without agriculture I El Ni o 0 Severe reversal of the Humboldt 0 Every 2540 years Massive decline in marine resources Torrential rains massive ooding mud slides Only for the past 6000 years it s been recorded Onset of cotton preceramic and El Ni o correlation Climatic uncertainty had role in large center w some reliance on agriculture 0 Domestication I Domesticated beans 0 Guitarrero Cave 0 Dated to 4300 BP 0 Bottle gourd industrial plants by 10000BP I Quinoa seeds 0 57004500 BP 0 Panaulauca Cave I Earliest Potatoes 0 40003000 BP 0 Probably not earliest bc found on coast 0 Know that they were lst domesticated in Mesoamerica and worked their way into the Andes I Alpacas and Llamas o 100005000BP 9 domestication began o Alpacas wool food 0 Llamas pack animals I Guinea Pig 0 After the domestication of alpacas and llamas 0 Food cuy Page 8 ofll ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 o Preagricultural Coastal Village 0 8000 BP small villages along the coast I Paloma 0 Reed grass huts 0 10 Families at any given time o Burial data no high status 0 70 of males have surfers ear 0 Relied on rich marine resources I 98 marine animals such as anchovy I Wild seeds fruits tubers I Domesticated gourds I Possible beans and squash 0 Not signi cant parts of the diet 0 Cotton Preceramic 57004000BP 0 Prevalence of cotton 0 Absence of pottery I Sites large w monumental architecture 0 Huaca de los Idolos 55004500BP o Earliest monumental architecture in the New World 0 Diet I Mostly sh and shell sh I Some domesticates 0 Industrial cotton bottle gourd o Nets textiles oats 0 Food chili pepper beans jicama squash 0 Agriculture in the Andes o Domestication very early 0 Agriculture much later 0 Sedentism precedes agriculture African Domestication o 3 major regions where plants were domesticated in Africa 0 Northeast teff nger millet coffee 0 Central Africa pearl millet sorghum 0 West Africa African rice 0 Pottery common at early phase 0 From the Middle East 0 Plants wheat barley lentils 0 Animals sheep goats maybe cattle 0 Hunter gatherers villages 0 14000 4500 BC 0 Small villages across Northern Africa I Sites resemble Natu an sites in Near East 0 Size 0 Nature of the structures on them Page 9 of11 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 o Exploitation of Wide range of resources 0 Grinding stones I Different from the Natu an 0 Pottery large number of storage pits are common 0 Later than the Natu an sites 0 Nabta Playa I West Egypt surrounded by a lake and grasslands I 9000 BC I 15 huts I Storage pits pottery I Mostly wild sorghum I By 8000 BC 0 Cattle sheep goats 0 Series of cattle burials 7500 BP I By 5000 BC 0 Domesticated plants contexts not clear High mobility sexual division of labor small population s12e Short life span lt 40 years high infant mortality traumatic injuries epidemics rare long intervals breast feeding toddlers The Agricultural lifestyle 0 lSt settled villages 0 Demographic transitions 0 Social inequalities Change in human health with agricultural transitions 0 Less food diversity 0 Nutritional stress Page 10 of 11 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 1 0 Increased infant morality 0 New infectious diseases Osteological Health Indicators 0 Cribia Orbitalia o Osteoarthritis 0 Poor dental health 0 Activity markers Pathogens and infectious diseases 0 Transmission 0 Human waste 0 Domesticate animals Urbanization 0 Larger dense population 0 Social complexity 0 Social inequality 0 Infectious disease 0 Water sewage contaminations 0 Migration and travel Page 11 of11 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 History Evolution and Social Process 0 Neoevolutionary Theory review notes on Jan 13 o All human societies pass through evolutionary stages but along differing paths determined by local ecological conditions achievement few differences in access to resources access access Elman Service achievement few differences in access to resources 100000 Great Sumer gt100000 Rome Inca access Classifications of Societies o Childe s List of traits for ancient states 1950s 0 Specialized craftmen o Substantial cities 0 Writing Inca had no writing system 0 Lon gdistance trade 0 Advanced math science 0 Social stratification o Centralized bureaucracy Beginnings of Inequality o Elman Service 0 Chiefdoms had no coercive power religious authority 0 Used in uence to benefit society redistribution of power 0 Coercive power and social stratification only arises with states Page 1 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 o Morton Fried o Strati cation emerges with chiefdom o Chiefs greater access to resources economic and political power 0 States evolve to maintain hierarchy and inequality 0 State institutions organized on suprakin based 0 Was authority achieved thru coercion or consent Neo Evolution Models of State Formation 0 Technology and specialization Childe 1930s 0 The state arose both to coordinate the complex division of labor and to repress con icts among the emerging social classes 0 Hydraulic Theory Karl Wittfogel 1950s 0 Implication large scale i1rigation predates the state I But in Mesopotamia and Mexica large scale irrigation starts after the state has developed 0 Circumscription Theory Robert Cameiro 1970 0 Interaction of warfare population pressure and geographical social circumscription o Theories Emphasizing trade 0 Resource poor area theory William Rathje 1971 I But research has shown Maya and Mexico regions not resourcepoor presents were economically selfsuffient Critiques of NeoEvolutionary Stages 1 Assumes social evolution was a series of punctuated leaps from one event to the next a Transitions were seen as adaptive functional 2 Typological ignores variability much that is interesting 3 Relies on ethnographic analogies from our contemporary ancestors retroj ected into prehistory a A lot of societies are affected by colonial systems 4 Traits lists led archaeologists think they could identify ideal types in the past by finding evidence for one or two traits and extrapolating the rest Development of Social Complexity 0 3 examples of complexity without a state 0 Stonehenge o Chaco Canyon 0 Cahokia Contemporary approaches more interested in questions of social process 0 Less what is state typology more 0 What do states do 0 How do leaders intergrate an increasingly differentiated population 0 How do states come to be seen as natural 0 How do the powerful gain and maintain political authority Page 2 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 o How did the state impact economic organization gender roles individual rights etc o What are the limits to the power of the State Yoffee s distinction between state and civilization 0 State governmental center and territory politically controlled by the center 0 Civilization larger social order and set of shared values in which states and cities are a part of Archaeological Correlates of Social Complexity 0 Architecture res and pub o Variability in house size monuments temples o Mortuary Evidence 0 Lots of cultural variability in burial form 0 Often re ects differences in status 0 Settlement Patterns 0 Variability in size and con guration 0 Location relative to environment and each other I Information transport costs I Natural resources trade routes political frontiers administration networks 0 Funcational differentiation and intergration I Concentrations volumes and diversity of artifacts features suggesting levels of activity specialization 0 Attached versus Independent specialists Origins of Mesopotamian Culture 0 Late Neolithic and Origins of Temple Towns o Hassuna Samarra cultures 65006000BC I Small farming villages of mud and thatch houses I Dry farming I New pottery forms outside dryfarming zone I Unified pottery I Traded obsidian and tortoise shells o Halaf Culture 60005400 BC I Elaborate pottery and architecture in north Mesopotamia I Dry farming I Livestock economy 0 Ubaid Culture 54004000 BC 0 Complex Societies in South Mesopotamia o Chronology I Ubaid period 55004000 BC 0 Origin of large temples I Uruk period 40003100 BC 0 Early Uruk 40003500 Settlements increase 0 Late Uruk 35003100 lst urban sites writing I Early Dynastic period 32002350 Page 3 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 o Competing citystates in South Mesopotamia AKA Sumer o Ubaid I Beginning of intensive settlements in S Meso Alluvium Earliest monumental temple architecture Samarran Origins 0 Large temple complex at Eridu Mixed agropastoral economy with small irrigation systems 0 Agriculture salttolerant barley etc o Pastoralism sheep cattle goats Tell al Ubaid atypical village 0 N750 people some houses larger than others 0 Some craft specialization in pottery I Eridu lst true temple complex 50003200 18 superimposed temples 14 m Domestic and early temple architecture tripartite layout Dedicated to water god Enki evidence sh bones Central to Sumerian Mythology Origins I The Emergence of Mesopotamian Institutions 0 By end of Ubaid period temples were present in every major community 0 Religious and Economic Roles 0 Important patterns in Sumerian History 0 Burials move from house oors to communal cemeteries o Re ects community identity 0 No status differentiation in burial goods despite difference in house size 0 Class differences seem to exist but not aunted o Uruk Urban Revolution I Named after the site of Uruk o lst settled during the Ubaid period I Urbanism and primary state formation 0 Monumental construction 0 Craft specialization 0 First use of Cuneiform I Uruk oldest city in the world Settlement hierarchy largest site in landscape of small towns and villages 25 kmz 2000040000 people Grew around two temple precints Eanna and Anu o Limestone bitumen both are imported 0 Goddess Ianna went to Eridu to receive the gifts of civilization 0 Temples built on platforms which were the precursors to ziggurats o Monumental Temple construction Page 4 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 o Zigguarts large platforms topped by temples I Housed temple personal such as priests and servants I Storage for templeowned produce 0 Temples were the house of each city s parton god 0 City s king viewed as care taker of the god s house 0 Craft Specialization 0 Status craft good shift to stone and metal I Pottery gets ugly 0 standard list of professions hierarchy of j obs o Bevelrimmed bowls I Mass produced course bowls found all over Meso I Made using molds to standardize size of products I Ration of grain for workers 0 Uruk Expansion Trade Colonies o Uruk in uences spread from S Iran to The Mediterranen I Architecture styles e g mosaics I Bevelrimmed bowls I Bullae cylinder seals before cuneiform o Uruk trait present alongside local styles I Enclaves of Uruk merchants living in distant sites I Habuba Kabira Syria built entirely in S Meso style 0 Uruk as regional power center Or mutually beneficial trade 0 Cylinder Seals 0 Cylinders made of semiprecious stones 0 Rolled over wet clay 0 Used to signify ownership 0 Written Records 3000BC 0 Evolution of writing I Bullae stamped clay envelopes for accounting I Cylinder seals used for marking ownership I Cuneiform originated in Uruk period as pictographic script each picture represented a term or concept 0 Early Dynastic Period I Cuneiform symbols begin to represent syllables 0 Used to write several different languages 0 Earliest cuneiform documents deal with economic transactions and ownership 0 Later cuneiform expanded to include recording of epics history dictionaries etc in multiple languages I End ofUruk period 31002900 BC 0 Collapse of Uruk s in uence in Iranian Plateau and Anatolia o In Syria and Turkey cities abandoned 7 reemergence of local traditions Page 5 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 O In Iran protoelamite civilization takes over centered Syria 0 In South Mesopotamia urbanization communities continue temple hymns name 35 citystates and associated Gods I Uruk still large but important temples destroyed 0 Early Dynastic Period 2900 2350 BC I Commonalities Sumerian language writing origin myths Pantheon and hierarchy of Gods ideological importance of the city politicaleconomical institutions I Sumerian Political Disunity o Welldocumented cases of citystate rivalry Umma versus Lagash 0 Long standing dispute over territorial rights 0 Border drawn in 2600 BC by Mesalim King of Kish as depicted by the God Enlil o Dispute that lasts centuries and waged on behalf of each city s patron god I Beginning of Sumerian Civilization united culturally but not politically 0 35 citystates of equal power and size 0 Defensive walls arise as competition intensi es over land and water stealing each other s temple statues o Alliances truces written then quickly broken 0 Some have special statues but not power 0 Within cities clear differences in wealth statues o palace versus temple secular authorities gaining prominence 0 Royal Tombs at Ur c 2500 BC I Cemetery at Ur around 2000 burials most were simple interments 0 With a few BIG expectations 0 l6 royal tombs with major ritual precious goods I Queen Puabi 0 death pit side chamber with 75 sacrificial victims I Imported gold silver carnelian lapis lazuli Timeline of Mesopotamia o Uruk 40003100 BC urbanism writing Early Dynastic 32002350 BC competing citystates in Sumer Akkadian Empire 23502100 BC political unification of Mesopotamia Ur III 21002000 BC another brief period of imperial unification Old Babylonian 18001600 BC unification under Hammurabi of Babylon Elba North Mesopotamia trading hub 2400 2250 BC Page 6 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 I Palace archives discovered in 1975 13 O H a H o 97 LT quotan n W AssuR u a E I O 13 O H g amp Trade silver textiles timber I Lesson books diplomatic letters etc WW Written in 39 a local 39 r M MAWA o M w 0 semitic language if I Shows wide scribe in I Bilingua ume 39anEblaite A 01 Map of 31 Ancient 7 Mesopotamia w O ct10nar1es Destroyed by the Akkadian Empire u usm CurW Hzildzh l Akkadian Empire 2350 2100 BC I Sargon the Great 2334 2279 BC 0 Semitic speaker usurped power in Kish 0 1st time all of Mesopotamia uni ed under one ruler capital at Akkad location unknown Left local city kings in place as govern rs e 0 Installed family members in local temples to centralized ideology I Naram sin 2254 2218 BC 0 Grandson of Sargon o Expanded North and South 0 1St Mesopotamian leader to identify himself as a god I God of Akkad I Collapse of the Empire 0 Internal good military bad rulers 0 External nomadic tribes from Iran raid destroy Akkad Akkadian remains dominant language of administration in Mesopotamia o yncretism Sumerian and Akkadian gods mesh and become one I Example Innana Ishtar Royal Inscriptions The Sumerian King List 0 Most extensive surviving list of Rulers in S Mesopotamia bw 3200 l800BC 0 Lists rulers sequentially even though they were contemporary I Propagan a o Gives super hurnan life spans of pre ood kings Ur III 2100 2000 BC Page 7 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 0 Third dynasty of Ur 0 Brief reunification of S Mesopotamia 0 Empire geographically smaller than Akkad but much more consolidated I Highly centralized bureaucracy of taxation and tribute military garrisons standing army standardized weights and measures calendar system I World s earliest written law codes 0 Long distance exchange w Oman Arabia Lebanon 0 Greatest number of texts from any period in Mesopotamian history I Lasted 100 years I Legacy not as celebrated like Sargon s dynasty 0 Less ashy o Collapse ofEmpire 0 Internal cities stop paying taxes 0 External Amorites Semitic tribes from North Elamites from Iran sack Ur o The END of Sumerian Dominance Babylonian Period 18001600 BC 0 Old Babylon 0 Territorial states 0 North Mesopotamia I Old Assyrian Dynasties Babylon old city but little known until know I King Hammurabi take the throne 17921750 BC 0 Unifres all of South Mesopotamia I Mostly known through administration texts from cities he controlled Law Codes of Hammurabi ideological expression of king as just and benevolent ruler I List 300 cases involving commercial family and property law process and wages fees and regulations concerning slavery Religious focus also shifts to North Babylonia Period of literary composition such as The Epic of Gilgamesh Advances in Math and Science algebra Pythagorean theory Last 155 years destroyed with little resistance by Hittites in 1595 BC 0 Ideology of Kingship o Sheppard farmer caretaker of the people I Micromanaged irrigation work and field management 0 0 000 0 Summary of Uruld Early Dynastic Period 0 Development and Settlement Patterns 0 Urbanism I Uruk 3100 BC 9 25000 Late Uruk I Uruk 2900 BC 9 50000 Early Dynastic Period I Causes 0 Increased birth rate 0 Immigration from countryside to cities 0 Protection from warfare economic opportunities Page 8 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 0 Immigration of Nomads o Irrigation I Increased standardization centralized control of irrigation o Uruk Period small irregular locally managed networks 0 Changed value of land 0 EDP Consolidation into a few large network each coordinate by a citystate 0 Technology I Specialization coordination I Standardization mass production 0 Uruk slow potter s wheel bevelrimmed bowls more copper metallurgy copperarsenic bronzes o Jemdet Nasr fast potter s wheel copper tin bronzes o EDP first utilitarian metallurgy around 2900 BC 0 Tools and weapon of copper bronze 0 Found only in elite burials I Status symbol not for commoners 0 Economic Organization I Uruk and Jemdet Nasr temple economy 0 Temple storage and redistribution surplus of rural production 0 Temple at Lagash gave rations to 1200 people per day 0 Bevelrimmed bowls ration sizes I Increasing specialization 0 Farmers herders shermen soldiers sailors scribes accountants weavers carpenters etc I Trade because of lack of resources in South Mesopotamia o A lot of important goods 0 Grain and textiles export o Tepe Yahya chlorite bowls Sharisokhta lapis lazuli 0 Writing I Develops in contexts of economy and trade I Before 2600 BC all writing deals with economic accounts lists of workers goods transactions receipts deeds of ownership 0 Uruk stone carvings like the blau monument 0 Deal with ownership and sale of land by kingroups 0 Also clay tablets with pictographic ideographs o Jemdet Nasr and EDP designs on cylinder seals provide some information on noneconomic matter 0 EDP III lSt tablets dealing with noneconomic information o Welfare and Secularization I Kings and palaces arise at the beginning of the EDP as Uruk Ur Kish and Lagash vie for political supremacy I EDP III mythological texts actually re ect EPD I political events 0 Position of warleader originally elected and only temporary o Eventually a leader at Kish refused to step down Page 9 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 o Became lSt Sumerian king and built lst temple King became chief mortal servant or steward of the gods Plaque of Ur nanshe King of Lagash commemorates building of temple by king to the gods But the temple priesthoods retained considerable wealth and power throughout the EDP I Naramsin dei ed himself and is regarded as bad 0 Social Organization I Four classes top to bottom 0 Nobles admins priests merchants wealth o Commoners farmers with land 0 Artisans crafts landless o Slaves landless I Membership in the lower three levels uid I Most important division was into two tiers o Nobles 0 Everyone Else I Seen in the Law Codes of Hammurabi Why did cities civilizations develop 0 Single variable prime mover theories no longer sought 0 More likely involved complex interactions of variables as individuals and groups pursue their own agendas in arenas of economic ideological and political power 0 Particular importance in Mesopotamia where the elites were not an unified class 0 Lots of competition and factionalism A tale of two civilizations Egypt and Mesopotamia o Similarities 0 Both emerged near the end of the 43911 millennium BC 0 Unified large populations over a large area 0 Economy based on riverine agriculture 0 Evolved in areas lacking raw materials for elite goods requiring long distance trade 0 Differences o Nile ooding much more predictable than Tigris and Euphrates I Economical and political implications Once united Egypt lasts relatively intact for 3000 years Egypt development integrated political and religious structure centered on a single individual Pharaoh Egypt more geographically isolated than Mesopotamia I Fewer invaders I Fewer outside in uences OO O Page 10 of 17 ANTH 320 Evoluu on of Prehlstorle clmllzau ons Seetlon 2 Egypuan Cryrlrzatron Geography ere plam formed by annual summer oods that depole srlts from arounol Afnca fo mg na ural levles anol baslns o Floodauneromober o Plantrng October February 0 HarvestGebmarerune Rlch area for farmlng huntrng shlng People llved atop natural levees and a No neeol for rely on ramfall or eanal rrngauon o Klngshlp treol to ldeologlcally to Am the predlctablllty permanenee of LheNlle I Thzbes AhmadA PredynasncPenod400073000BC LowerEgypt ButorMa39adA Culture 0 M y known for settlements sueh as Buto anol Ma39ad es wth few Semlr WWW subterranean bulldlngs wth large Upper E mt amm a1 ool forms dlstlnct from the South 0 Evldence for longedlstanee traole wrth Palesune oppertoolsrngotsore Upper Egypt Naqada Culture 0 Abyolos Naqaola Hlerakonpolrs 0 Mostly known forlarge eemetenes Increaslng soclal hrerarehres wealth rtems Temple at hlerakonpollz wrth p ooluetron areaforbeer pottery stone yases beaols o By 3200 BC Naqada ceramlcs foundln Buto m the the Delta Beglnmngs ofeconomlc anol mrlrtary unr eauon o Foundauons ofroyal Pharaome tradltlons o Onglns ofFunerary Cults ueolto Klng Elaborately burlttombs wrth large quanuues ofoffenngs Frrsthreroglyphres m fu rary eontexts o Centralrzauon of eeonomy and proolueuon traole wrth Mesopotamra o ProtorUrban developments wrth walled towns and bnckr stoner wood temple eonstruetron o Interrslhe eompetrtron as Southem elrtes vle forpower o Laylng the foundatlons for Unr eau on Page 11 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 I Economy 0 Increasing importance of trade with Palestine and Mesopotamia as seen in funerary goods 0 Upper Egyptian pottery in ltrates Lower Egypt showing interaction I Ideology 0 Increased emphasis on symbolically charged power facts depictions of rulers larger than life 0 Royal iconography developing that would become central to later pharaohs I Writing 0 Early sets of pictorial symbols used to mark property of elite Early Dynastic Period 30002690 BC 0 Uni cation 0 Process not entirely understood 0 First gradual consolidation of power in Upper Egypt centered at Abydos in 3100 0 Within a century leaders of Abydos brings Lower Egypt under control I Abydos lSt capital of Uni ed Egypt I Horus lSt primary God I Beginning of dynasty 0 Scorpin King Narmer aka Menes the mythical uni er o The Narmer Palette After Abydos the capital moved to Memphis Increased elaboration of Mortuary cults focus on the King I Many buried at Abydos OO Symbols of Kingship in Egypt 0 Crowns 0 Red crown deshret 9 Lower Egypt White crown hedj et 9 Upper Egypt Though no predynastic kingdom in Lower Egypt Dual crown pschent I Red and white 0 Blue crown khepresh I Battle crown I Most commonly seen with Ramses II o Nemes crown I Cloth headdress o Other Symbols Cobra goddess Uadjet of Lower Egypt Vulture Goddess Nekhebet of Upper Egypt Sister deities in Egypt mythology Papyrus Lower Egypt primeval marsh Lotus Upper Egypt rebirth Shown together to symbolize uni cation 000 000000 Page 12 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehi storic Civilizations Section 2 o The crook and the ail I Tools of the shepard Old Kingdom 26862181 BC Important symbols and concepts central to kingship Administration Pyramids Saqqara Dashur Giza First Intermediate Periods Dynasties 38 at Memphis Very stable period 0 No internal disruptions or serious external threats for 500 years Depicting the King s name 0 Serekh earliest depiction king s name I Design of a niched palace gateway with Horus above 0 Cartouche used to write the king s name beginning of the Old Kingdom I Oval design formed by a rope tied at the bottom 0 Egyptian Social Hierarchy o Pharaoh I Head of state bureaucracy I Religious gure incarnation of God Horus chief offlciate of state temples I Commander of Chief of the military 0 Vizier pharaoh s righthand man I Enacted policies Ran treasury Granaries Public works Judicial system 0 Nomarchs local administrators I Often rotated between nomes I Soon became entrenched in hereditary office 0 Craftsmen soldiers o Peasantry o EgyptianAdministration 0 Valley divided into 42 nomes districts I 22 in Upper Egypt I 20 in Lower Egypt 0 Each led by nomarch I Regular administrator I Charge of collecting taX I Organized local labor I Etc 0 Pyramids o Imhotep architect of earliest pyramids later revered as a God 0 Original royal tombs were mud brick mastabas dating from EDP Page 13 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehi storic Civilizations Section 2 0 Still built for high officials during the Old Kingdom 0 King Djoser s step pyramid Saqqara I IS funerary monumental in stone I Based on Mastaba tomb design 0 Snefuru s Pyramids I Has three 0 Maidum o Bent Pyramid 0 Red 0 Giza I Khufu s Pyramid o 2600 BC I Khafra s Pyramid Sphinx I Menkaure s un nished o Pyramid Texts I 5th and 6th dynasties I Hundreds of spells designed to guide and protect the king in the afterlife I lSt appearances at Unas Pyramid in Saqqara 0 Private Tombs I Signaling increase of power and wealth of local admins I By end begin to erect tombs in province not near Memphis lSt Intermediate Period 21602066 BC 0 Period of political disruption not collapse 9th and 10th dynasties 0 Series of competing local power bases in province 0 Possible Causes 0 Environmental series of low Nile oods that caused famine I Province leaders better able to respond 0 Further increase of prestige and power 0 Political taxfree states increase and mortuary cults 0 Very long reign ofPepy II 90 years I At the end of the 6th dynasty I Caused succession problem I Undermining the central authority 0 Egypt ruled by 2 competing political centers 0 In Upper Egypt Thebes o In Lower Egypt Herakleopolis o Mentuhotep II of the 11th dynasty of Thebes conquers Herakleopolis to reunify Egypt I Celebrated as a great king for next 700 years Sources of Egyptian History 0 Manetho Egyptian priest of the 3rd century Page 14 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 O Aegyptiaca History of Egypt divided Egyptian history into 31 dynasties covering 3000 years I Some inaccuracies basic outline followed today Palermo Stone Fragments of 5 century basalt stone inscribed with events from predynastic through the 5Lh dynasty Kings List in Royal Tombs I Seti I and Ramses II tomb walls I Propaganda clevery eliminated kings in lst and 2quotd intermediate periods and other illegitimate kings like Hatchespet Akhenaten and Tutankhamun O 0 Middle Kingdom 20551650 BC Itj Tawy new capital by Amenemhet Lisht Thebes Kamak Mentuhotep II s tombs at Dier elBahri Tomb of Meketra an official under Mentuhotep at Dier elBahri Pyramids 0 Return to old kingdom symbols for power after reuni cation I Smaller and not well preserved o Built at sites around the Fayum near the new capital Itj Tawy 0 Complex of Senusenet H at Lahun I Exterior of mudbrick o Kahun pyramid town near Senusret II s pyramid o Wellpreserved evidence of a state planned city I Rectilinear layout with walled precincts I Burials of people who lived in houses I Texts giving details about operation of the settlement 0 Private Tombs o Elaborate rock cut tombs of nomarchs carved into limestone cliff in the districts I Dier elBersha I Beni Hasan o Coffin Texts o Versions of old kingdom royal pyramid texts 0 Found on private coffins 0 Maps of afterlife prayers spells o Democratization of the afterlife o Forts in Upper Nubia o 17 built between the 1st and 2quotd cataracts beginning with Senusret I o Re ects importances of controlling Nubia to secure ow of goods and check growing Nubian power 0 Classical Literary Traditions 0 Shows new awareness of frailty of the state 0 Often written in hieratic script and recopies as part of scribe school 0 Example The Instructions of Amenemope Page 15 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 2quotd Intermediate Period 16501550 BC New Kingdom 15501069 BC 0 Age of Empire 0 Extensive in uence and trade with other near Eastern states and Nubia 0 Greatest expansion during reign of Thutmose of the 18111 dynasty 0 Standing army Horse and Chariot from Hyksos o Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut of the 18111 dynasty 0 Best known of Egypt s few female Pharaohs I Declared herself Pharaoh wile coregent of her young nephew Thutmose III 0 Mortuary temple at Dier elBahri meXt to Mentuhoteps MK temple 0 Thutmose III tries to eradicate her memory by destroying her statues defacing inscriptions I 20 years after her death 0 Heresy of Akhenaten Amenhotep IV 0 New capital at Amarna brie y I Also called Akhetaten or Tell elAmarna 0 Changes official state religion to monotheism focused on the sundisk God Aten I Changes his name to honor Aten o Amenhotep to Akhenaten I Neglects the primary temples of primary state God Amun Ra 0 Changes in artistic conventions 0 Legacy of Akhenaten s Heresy I Amama was abandoned left to decay I His name and Tutankhamen born Tutankhaten left off later king s list 0 King Tutankhamen 0 Born Tutankhaten o Died at 18 I Buried in a relatively small rushed tomb 0 Only tomb intact in the Valley of the Kings I Discovered by Howard Carter in 1922 o 130 walking sticks in the Tomb I Club Foots science has proved he had a degenerative bone disease I Status Marker only wealthy people have been pictured with them I Propaganda the handle would be fashioned after a certain group of people besides Egyptians saying I have them in the palm of my hand 0 Royal tombs in Valley of the Kings Valley of the Queens and Massive temples at Kamak and Luxor o No more pyramids o Dier alMadina worker s town 0 Theben Cult Center 0 Temples to the Gods 0 Royal Mortuary Temples 0 Royal Tombs I Western Thebes at the Valley of the Kings Page 16 of 17 ANTH 320 Evolution of Prehistoric Civilizations Section 2 I Unsuccessful attempt to protect burials from tomb robbers I Dier elMedina worker s town for tomb builders 0 Temple of AmunRa at Kamak I Largest temple in Egypt 0 Ideological displays of the divine king 0 Living map of the primordial world I Royal mortuary temples in West Thebes separated from Royal tombs o Ramesseum mortuary temple of Rameses II The King s Social Role in Egypt 0 Ma at order justice truth 0 Central concept to king s role in society 0 Implications for kingship I Moral imperative to act ethically no other checks and balances I Legitimize social hierarchy 0 Top of keeping order I Defense against foreigners I Bad oods create political instability his fault o If he doesn t maintain Ma at Religion 0 No master text just a compilation of random sources 0 Architecture texts artwork o Polytheistic 0 Each God has characterists priesthood temples I Everywhere in Egypt life politically economically spirtitual roles 0 Celebration of Chief God AmunRa 0 King living manifestion of Ra I Linked Egyptians to Gods o Noncongregational access to temples limited 0 EXisted sidebyside with more vernacular informal modes of worship in local villages 0 Over 80 known Gods 0 Major Gods ofthe Pantheon I Associated with geographic areas and or natural phenomena 0 Solar cycle birth minerals mountains etc I Represented in both human and animal forms with shared characteristics 0 Ra lion 0 Anubis Jackal 0 Minor Local Gods Page 17 of 17
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