Introduction To Archaeology And World Prehistory
Introduction To Archaeology And World Prehistory ANTH 20100
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by London Nienow on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 20100 at Purdue University taught by Ian Lindsay in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/207852/anth-20100-purdue-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
ANTH 20l Midterm Study Guide Spring 20l l Prof Lindsay Methods Survey Design Horizontal Excavation Vertical Excavation Geological Stratigraphy Archaeological Stratigraphy Law of Superposition Archaeological record Artifacts ecofacts features sites Preservation bias in archaeology ie what s left Postdepositional processes Dating methods Relative dating techniques Absolute chronology what materials do each date how far back Ethnoarchaeology Usewear analysis Middle Range Theory Histotx of Archaeology Culture History New ArchaeologyProcessual Archaeology Lewis Binford PostProcessual Archaeology Human Origins Paleoanthropology Austrolopithecines A afarensis A africanus Paranthropus P robustus P boisei Homo H habilis H erectus H neandertalensis H floresiensis H sapiens For above hominins know general evolutionary trendsadaptations eg bipedalism brain size body shape tool use Middle Paleolithic Europe vs Middle Stone Age Africa Upper Paleolithic Revolution Fate of the Neandertals and spread of modern humans Multiregional hypothesis Out of Africa hypothesis Hybridization hypothesis Hominin tool industries Oldowan chopperflake tools Achulean hand axes Mousterian Lavallois technique ANTH 20l Midterm Study Guide Spring 20l l Prof Lindsay Early human sites Olduvai Gorge Laetoli Tanzania Dmanisi Republic of Georgia Shanidar Cave Iraq Lascaux Cave France Peopling of the Australia and the North America whenl howZ39l Sunda Sahul Beringia Clovis First Theory PreClovis Theory Early Arrival Theory Salutrean Hypothesis Clovis points Kennewick Man Sites Meadowcroft Rockshelter Monte Verde Chile Origins of Agriculture Neolithic Revolution V Gordon Childe In what ways was it a revolution or not Fertile Crescent Younger Dryas climatic episode Domestication Wild vs domestic crop varieties Broadspectrum diet Near East Time periods Kebaran 25 I 5000 ya hunters and gatherers no permanent settlements Natufian IS I 2000 ya origins of settled villages Early Neolithic l 28500 ya domestication of cereal crops and sheepgoats Late Neolithic 85007000 ya origins of pottery Sites Abu Hureyra Jericho Chatal Hoyuk ANTH 20l Midterm Study Guide Spring 20l l Prof Lindsay Europe 2 major models of spread of agriculture migrationinvasion vs adoption of agriculture by native huntergatherers Linear Band Keramik culture Mesoamerica teosinte wild ancestor of maize corn maize beans squash 3 earliest native domesticates squash l08300 ya maize 6250 ya beans 2500 ya sites in highlands of Mexico caves in Tehuacan Valley Guila Naquitz cave Oaxaca American Southwest Late Archaic period 3400 ya spread of maize and squash from Mesoamerica Variability in village size intensity of agriculture in different parts of SW Why Optimal foraging theory Formative period l800 ya origins of pottery in SW Eastern North America Eastern Archaic Period 58003800 ya lndependent domestication of local species eg grasses sunflowers squash plus spread of maize from SW Little overall impact on economy still hunted and gathered wild resources Poverty Point LA EarlyMiddle Woodland Adena and Hopewell cultures 3200 l 700 ya Beginning of moundbuilding elaborate burials trade networks art and metalworking Large mounds associated with settlements or vacant Agriculture relies heavily on domesticated local plants not much maize Late Woodland period I 700 l 200 ya Greater reliance on maize by l000 ya Decline of mound construction Gender roles in plant domestication Africa Domestic cattle sheep goats by 8000 ya precedes agriculture ANTH 20l Midterm Study Guide Spring 20l l Prof Lindsay Indigenous species millet sorghum rice coffee mixed with cereal grains introduced from NE wheat barley lentils Nabta Playa Egypt huntergatherer villages with storage pits and pottery before agriculture Andes Geographic diversity Highlands domestication of potatoes 4000 ya beans 4300 ya llamas 6000 ya very few settled villages Coast settled villages precede agriculture 8000 ya eg Paloma abundant marine resources Cotton Preceramic 5700 ya earliest monumental architecture in New World domestication of cotton beans squash still heavy reliance on marine resources El Nino climatic events East Asia Jomon culture Japan huntergatherers earliest pottery in the world l3000 ya Southern China Yangtze River rice Northern China Yellow River millet plant and animal domestication at roughly the same time 6500 ya along with growth of sedentary villages ANTH 20l Final Exam Study Guide Spring 20l l FINAL Wed May 4 I3pm FRNY G I 40 Prof Lindsay Review general concepts from Midterm basic patterns of hominid evolution hominid migrations basic characteristics of time period Upper Paleolithic Neolithic early domesticated crops in each major farming region eg teosinte wild form of maize in Mexico Ch l0 Complexity without the State Stonehenge What Where When Phases of construction Evidence for some level of social complexity organization of labor Amesbury Archer burial Role within broader landscape Interpretations of the site did it carry the same meanings throughout its 5000year history Pueblo Bonito Where When Great Houses Kivas Site function residential or ceremonial Evidence for social inequality Trade networks Chacoan Network Remote sensing Why abandoned Cahokia Where When Characteristic architectural features Site function residential or ceremonial or both Mound 72 Evidence for communal ritual Ch I I Early States in Mesopotamia and Egypt Mesopotamia Geography Major rivers Natural resources Climate General Periods Ubaid 50004000 BC Earliest temple architecture in region Eridu Uruk 40003200 BC Earliest urban cities Uruk site Evidence for administrationcraft specialization First cuneiform writing Bullae Cylinder seals Bevelrim bowls ANTH 20l Final Exam Study Guide Spring 20l l FINAL Wed May 4 I3pm FRNY G I 40 Prof Lindsay Early Dynastic 32002350 BC Royal Tombs at Ur Evidence for concentration of wealth and power Ziggurats em Geography of the Nile River Valley Upper Egypt Lower Egypt Nile Delta circumscription Hierakonpolis Hieroglyphics Rosetta Stone Pharaohs sources of powerconnection to divinity Ma at Early Dynastic 30002575 BC unification of UpperLower Egypt how is it visible in Narmer Palette Memphis Old Kingdom 25752l 34 BC Pyramid construction Early attempts Stepped pyramid at Saqqara King Djoser 3rd dynasty Giza complex how built why Pharoahs Cheops Great Pyramid Cepheren built sphinx Mycerinus smallest Urban sites Amarna Akhenaten the heretic king Ch l2 Enigmas and Diversity Harappan Civilization 2600 I900 BC Geography MohenjoDaro Harrapa Urbanism only visible evidence of power Great Bath Citadellower town Sewerwater system Writing system deciphered stamp seals Trade craft specialization Elites Ch l3 Social Complexity in Mesoamerica Mesoamerica Olmec l200300 BC La Venta and San Lorenzo Mexico ANTH 20l Final Exam Study Guide Spring 20l l FINAL Wed May 4 I3pm FRNY G I 40 Prof Lindsay first evidence of complexity large stone heads Monte Alban 500250 BC Oaxaca Valley Mexico first urban center in Mesoamerica ball court Teotihuacan AD ll00 Valley of Mexico later societies traced their histories to here massive wellplanned city Pyramid of the Sun Classic Maya AD 250900 Lowland Mesoamerican Geographic setting Economy slashburn agriculture Characteristics of statehood hieroglyphic writing where found purposes calendar large urban centers eg Tikal and Copan temples where built what role Ball game Bloodletting sacrifice Maya Collapse AD 870 started prior to Spanish arrival What factors played a role Aztecs AD l428 l52l Geography Mythical history Mexica Tenochtitlan Templo Mayor Triple Alliance Modes of transport foot beasts of burden Economy chinampa agriculture raised fields tribute craft specialization Codex Mendoza markets standardized values cacao cloth Ritual Huitzilopochtli Human sacrifice Florentine Codex ideology vs political intimidation Ch l4 States and Empire the Andes What is an empire m AD l438l532 Andean geographytopography Tiwantinsuyu Land of the Four Quarters
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