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Aircraft Design

by: Robb McCullough

Aircraft Design AAE 45100

Robb McCullough
GPA 3.65

William Crossley

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William Crossley
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robb McCullough on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AAE 45100 at Purdue University taught by William Crossley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/207858/aae-45100-purdue-university in Aerospace Engineering at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
AampAE 451 Aircraft Design Spring 2009 Opportunity Description A Small Supersonic Airliner with Initial Operational Capability in 2020 Preface Teams responding to this opportunity description should be well suited to enter a version of their final report to the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate s ARMD 20082009 University C A quotquot see httn39 aero larr nasa titions univhtm for additional details Letters of intent for the design competition are due to NASA by January 19 2009 the final report for the NASA competition is due by April 30 2009 Teams interested in entering this competition should notify the instructor before January 15 2009 Introduction Air transportation enables greatly reduced travel times especially for longerdistance ights From the start of the airline industry the value of reducing travel time pushed the speed of transport aircraft faster until the 1970s when economic impacts led to a near plateau in design speeds of new commercial aircraft In 1969 Concorde made its first ight Concorde entered passenger service in 1976 The Russian Tu144 aircraft rst ew in 1968 and entered service in the former Soviet Union in 1975 but two major crashes of the Tu144 7 in particular the fatal crash at the 1973 Paris Air Show 7 prevented the aircraft from being adopted outside the Soviet Union The United States cancelled its Supersonic Transport program in 1971 The Tu144 last ew for Aero ot at the end id of 1975 Following Concorde BritishFrench the 2000 crash of an supersonic Tramp t Airplane Air France Concorde Image from NASA Glenn and the air travel Research Center Collection C 1975768 1mpacts of both the 911 terrorist attack in 2001 and the SARS outbreak in 2003 the retirement ight of Concorde Russian Tupolev Tu39144 supersonic Transport Airplane took place in November 2003 S1nce that t1me no Image from NASA Glenn Research Center supersonrc transport a1rcraft have operated 1n the world Collectionc19954183 Both Concorde and the Tul44 generated exceptional amounts of noise near airports contributed signi cant Nitrous Oxide NOX emissions and generated sonic booms underneath their ight paths The United States and most other countries prohibits supersonic ights overland Additionally the operating costs of both Concorde and the Tul44 were very high An anecdote attributed to a British Airways Concorde pilot is that Concorde lost money on each transatlantic ight but British Airways made money by using Concorde in its advertisements to attract business to the airline NASA HighSpeed Civil Transport HSCT Concept from 1998 Image from NASA Langley Research Center EL 199800165 compliant supersonic small size transport aircraft Clearly the desire for a highly ef cient environmentally friendly low boom commercial supersonic aircraft is still strong II Project Objectives As described above several technical challenges have blocked the development and service entry of a practical supersonic transport aircraft The opportunity presented here is to define an aircraft that using the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Supersonic Project descriptions would be an N2 generation supersonic aircraft building upon the Since the cancellation of the US SST program in 1971 NASA has conducted and or funded several studies for potential supersonic transports currently a portion of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program within NASA is the Supersonic Project which has identified and is seeking solutions to several technical barriers that hinder the success for practical supersonic cruise vehicles Several wellpublicized supersonic business jet efforts are also underway today Gulfstream Aerospace Company is leading one effort Aerion Corporation is leading another Lockheed Martin recently completed a design study of a Quiet Supersonic Transport QSST under contract with Supersonic Aerospace International LLC who hopes to offer this aircraft as a product Today the European Commission is supporting the HISAC project to establish the technical feasibility of an environmentally if 37 NASA N2 Small Supersonic Aircraft Concept Image from Alonso J Fundamental Aeronautics Program Highlights presented Oct 7 2008 Atlanta GA presumed success of the N 1 generation supersonic business jets Working in teams students in the course will 1 Identify the possible markets for a small supersonic airliner with IOC in 2020 2 Develop engineering design requirements a design mission or set of design missions and a typical economic or operating mission for the small supersonic airliner 3 Identify candidate technologies that might enable a highly efficient environmentally friendly low boom supersonic transport airliner 3 Conduct trade studies concept generation and selection for the small supersonic airliner 4 Complete a conceptual sizing and demonstrate feasibility of the concept by comparing predicted performance and capability to the previously generated design requirements Iquot Mission Requirements and Constraints The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics University Competition guidelines provide a few specific goals for the vehicle 0 Cruise speed Mach 16 to 18 Design Range 4000 nautical miles Payload 35 to 70 passenger range mixed class Fuel Efficiency 3 passengermiles per pound of fuel Takeoff field length lt 10000 feet The Challenge further states that the undergraduate teams using the goals stated above should propose configurations and systems to achieve one or more of the following o Supersonic cruise efficiency 0 Low sonic boom lt 70 PldB or o Highlift for takeoff and landing The above goals do not constitute a complete set of design requirements for the supersonic aircraft The design teams must develop a more complete set of requirements based on their determination of the market and design missions The design teams will also need to investigate these requirements through trade studies and change them as appropriate to provide a better andor more feasible aircraft system While the NASA Student Competition states a few specific requirements ie payload capacity runway length and cruise speed a thorough investigation that supports a deviation from those requirements is acceptable for the course The NASA reviewers would likely accept a wellreasoned deviation from their stated requirements As a starting point an example commercial transport aircraft design mission appears below The design teams should modify this mission as appropriate for their chosen markets Note that this mission uses the traditional 250 KTAS ight speed below 10000ft altitude Efficient ight at 250 KTAS may be difficult for an aircraft also designed for supersonic ight The still air range in the example design mission segments CJ matches the 4000 nmi stated in the NASA Student Competition goals if the team feels a different design range is needed for instance range with a given headwind velocity the design team should select a different range The reserve fuel segments LQ contain significant details here The design mission must account for reserve fuel the detail shown below may or may not be necessary mFundamental Aeronautics Student Competition CollegeUniversity Division 20082009 Academic Year httn39 aem larc ha a I I univhtm cited 12 January 2009 still air range 4000 nmi 200 nmi Figure 1 Example Transport Aircraft Design Mission The speci c mission segments are Taxi out 9 minutes at ground idle Takeoff to 35 ft Climb to 1500 ft accelerate to 250 KCAS Climb to 10000 ft at 250 KCAS Accelerate to climb speed Climb Step cruise for best range Descend to 10000 ft Decelerate to 250 KCAS Descend to 1500 ft Approach and Landing Missed approach climb to 1500 ft 5 ight fuel reserves Climb Cruise for best range Descend to 1500 ft 30 minute loiter at 1500 ft Approach and landing Taxi in 5 minutes at ground idle apwozgrwrrwpwwpowgt IV Deliverables for the Course There will be three deliverables for the AAE 451 course each of these will entail a written document and an oral presentation review The first deliverable will be a System Requirements Review SRR and an accompanying report This review and report will identify the markets that the team has chosen to focus This report shall include an assessment of the number and type of aircraft the team expects this market to require typical aircraft utilization trip ranges maximum number of passengers per trip and operating costs of current aircraft used by this segment of the market The report shall present additional requirements for subsequent studies based upon this initial market analysis These requirements may include but are not limited to minimum cruise speed minimum passenger capacity minimum or maximum cruise altitude and eld length of airports used The second deliverable will be a System De nition Review SDR and an accompanying report Based upon the market analysis and the subsequent aircraft design requirements the team will present the trade studies concept generation and concept selection that led to the aircraft concept that the team will develop more fully The team shall make a comparison of the team s aircraft concept with a relevant current technology system or design A list of technologies to enable ef cient supersonic ight to reduce noise during takeoff and landing to reduce emissions to reduce sonic boom overpressure and or to perform low speed ight The system de nition review and report should include constraint diagrams and results from initial sizing studies for the aircraft This review shall include an initial threeview and isometric drawing of the con guration This review shall highlight any changes in aircraft design requirements from the previous review The nal deliverable will be a Conceptual Design Review CoDR and its accompanying report This report and review needs to present the best available description of the team s alternate fuel aircraft concept The review and report shall present the size dimensions and performance predictions of this aircraft based upon the results of a credible sizing tool e g FLOPS ACS or a teamdeveloped approach and other supporting analyses This nal review and report shall present the nal aircraft design requirements and a comparison of the team s design to a comparison of a current system technology and design This report and review shall contain additional details about the aircraft that the system de nition review did not include These additional details include but are not limited to performance estimates weight and cost estimates internal layout drawings initial structural layout integration of advanced technologies landing gear placement integration of propulsion estimates of stability etc V Advanced Technology The challenges presented by the need for ef cient supersonic cruise reduced noise reduced emissions fuel burn and low boom will require that the small supersonic transport aircraft incorporate advanced technologies 7 many of which are only in early development today 2009 7 to meet these goals Each design team must gather a list of potential technologies and or advanced concepts that they will incorporate into their aircraft design concept The description of these technologies and or advanced concepts must include the level of technology development ie the NASA Technology Readiness Level of the technology concept and an assessment of the projected readiness by the technology freeze date These technology concept descriptions must also include impacts on the aircraft design These impacts will include descriptions such as aerodynamic ef ciency eg this technology provides a C Dcmise reduction of 15 from Concorde empty weight e g meg increased 10 above wing weight predicted by a parametric weight estimator aircraft emissions eg reduces NOX by 10 below current technology and acquisition cost eg acquisition cost increases by 5 above current technology VI OffCampus Review Panelists I Consultants To match the classroom experience more closely to that of industry or government aircraft conceptual design studies panelists from Lockheed Martin Advanced Development Programs more commonly known as the Skunk Works will provide act as review panelists for all three of the design reviews Because of the time zone difference between West Lafayette and the Palmdale CA area these will take place in the late aftemoon early evening Eastern Time zone The dates for the review presentations are planned as follows SRR Jan 27 SDR Feb 24 and CoDR Apr 21 The exact times will be established early in the semester Eric Schrock is the manager of the conceptual design group at ADP he will likely participate in many of the reviews He has a very useful way of describing four parts of an answer and I agree with this principle There is an extremely high probability that the Lockheed Martin review panelists for AAE 451 this semester will look for these four parts of an answer in the review presentations These are the four parts of an answer the answer 2 the assumptions and ground rules used to develop compute the answer 3 sensitivities about the answer ie how much does the answer change if one of the independent variables is changed a small amount 4 a fallback position in the event that your current answer is not correct


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