Introduction To Cognitive Psychology
Introduction To Cognitive Psychology PSY 20000
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Introduction to Cognitive Psychology PSY 200 Greg Francis7 PhD Department of Psychological Sciences Psychological Sciences Building7 Room 3174 765 494 6934 email gfrancisturdue edu http www psych purdue eduNgfrancisClassesPSYZOOindex html Study Guide for Exam 2 Exam Date 28 February 2011 The exam will include 35 multiple choice questions worth 2 points each7 and 3 short answer questions worth 10 points each Total points on the exam is 100 This exam makes up 16 of your class grade The exam is given in class Make sure you understand the following topics Basically7 for each of the topics listed below7 you should be able to think of a corresponding question and be able to write a paragraph or so in answer to that question If you understand all of the following topics well7 then you should be able to answer a variety of questions on the topics Lecture 10 H Understand what the critical icker frequency is Be able to explain how it relates to the characteristics of some electronic devices lights7 computer screens to Understand what is meant by persistence Be able to describe an experiment that would measure persistence Be able to summarize the ndings of the experiment7 especially as the duration and intensity of the stimulus increases 03 Be able to explain how excitatory feedback in a neural network could be responsible for persistence Be able to explain how after responses could shorten this persistence and how this relationship might explain the ndings of the persistence experiment involving the duration and intensity of the stimulus F Be able to explain what is meant by masking and how masking effects are related to persistence and performance for detecting very brief stimuli 01 Be able to describe the properties and behavior of a Reichardt motion detector Be able to explain why a given Reichardt detector is sensitive only to motion ofthe proper direction and speed a Know what apparent motion is and how it differs from real motion 7 Be to describe the circuit responsible for producing a motion aftereffect Be able to describe a motion aftereffect Lecture 11 1 Know that some facial expression are interpreted in the same way around the world to Be able to describe the Margaret Thatcher Illusion Be able to explain how the illusion suggests that people identify features of faces and then put them together F Imcn 00 H to gt9 H to 03 F U a Be able to describe a facial adaptation experiment Understand what is meant by saying that average faces are almost always beautiful Know how the attractiveness of the averaged faces matters Know what facial agnosia is Be able to summarize the use of Moody images for the fMRl study of face perception Be able to summarize the experiment that suggested that the FFA was involved in expertise rather than face processing Be able to describe the basic properties of the Jennifer Aniston and similar neurons Lecture 12 Understand how attention is related to information processing and processing re sources Be able to explain how not processing information is the same as ignoring it in some contexts Be able to describe one of the demos in class magic trick basketball video ashing images and explain how it tells us something about attention Be able to brie y describe the effect of attention on neural responses Be able to describe the attentional paradox and why the conclusion is that normal vision is not veridical or accurate Lecture 13 Be able to describe the CogLab attentional blink experiment the expected data and the conclusions Understand how the attentional blink is related to information processing and pro cessing resources Be able to describe the CogLab visual search experiment the expected data and the conclusions Be able to discuss what pattern of results indicates the use of attention What varies as the number of distracters is increased Be able to explain the results of a visual search experiment in terms of feature maps Be able to explain why search for a target absent with conjunctive stimuli has a slope twice as sleep as for target present Understand the idea of automaticity Understand the Stroop task and the basic explanation 7 Lecture 14 4 Understand the methods of the wholereport and partial report experiments Under stand the key differences between the partial report and wholereport experiments Understand why the partial report method indicates that more items are stored by some sensory memory than the wholereport method indicates to Be able to explain the iconic memory experiment that can be used for both adults and infants 03 Be able to explain how masking effects in uence iconic and echoic memory F Know what is involved in an immediate serial recall experiment 01 Know the different properties of iconic and echoic memory a Be able to explain the hypothesized role of iconic and echoic memory on the serial position curves produced under immediate serial recall modality effect 1 Be able to describe the suffix effect and explain how the properties of echoic mem ory account for the suffix effect Be able to explain how phone operators avoid the problems of the suffix effect Lecture 15 H Be able to describe Ebbinghaus7 experiment and results to Understand how Ebbinghaus7 results suggest the existence of a long term memory LTM system Know the properties of the LTM system OJ Be able to describe the Peterson amp Peterson also called the Brown Peterson exper iment memory experiment Know the general ndings of the study Know how it suggests a short term memory STM system with certain properties F Know the procedure and results of Miller s memory span study Know how it suggests a short term memory STM system with certain properties 01 Be able to explain why the properties of STM make games like Simon challenging a Be able to describe the modal model of memory 1 Be able to explain how the STM and LTM system might offer an account of the u shaped serial position curve that is seen in some memory experiments Lecture 16 H Be able to describe the three types of hypothetical searches of STM considered by Sternberg Be able to describe the predicted pattern of experimental results for the different search types to Be able to describe Sternberg s experiment on the search of memory Be able to describe the details of the experiment eg7 as on CogLab Be able to describe the results found by Sternberg and what the results mean 03 Be able to explain why it might make sense for search of memory to be serial exhaustive instead of serial self terminating F Be able to describe the procedure and general ndings of the study by Brooks Un derstand how the existence of separate visuo spatial sketchpad and phonological loop systems is consistent with the results 0 Understand the similarities and differences between STM and working memory Lecture 17 H Know the two subsystems of the phonological loop articulatory control process and phonological store Know the characteristics of each to Understand how loop capacity is related to both the time needed for items to decay from the phonological store and the rate at which the articulatory control process can rehearse items 03 What aspect of the phonological loop seems to vary with development F Know the word length effect Understand the explanation provided by working mem ory Understand why the rate of rehearsal is very important for this explanation 0 Understand how the properties of working memory explain some aspects of digit span for different languages Understand how these properties may affect measured IQ scores a Know what the subject must do in a study of articulatory suppression Understand why the properties of working memory make auditory stimuli much more susceptible to articulatory suppression than visual stimuli What happens to the articulatory control process 7 Know the basic effect of phonological similarity on memory performance Know how the working memory theory accounts for the data Understand what subsystem of the phonological loop is hypothesized to be involved in the effect you have to understand articulatory suppression effects 00 Know the basic results of the irrelevant speech effect Understand how the phono logical loop accounts for those results Why does the model say that even foreign languages can cause an irrelevant speech effect to Understand the basic properties of the visual spatial sketchpad O Be able to describe the 77swimmer77 experiment and the differences in the visuospatial sketchpad for video game players compared to non video game players PSY 200 Exam 4 4172011 110000 PM Culture influences language o Norman invasion produced some language more proper and polite o This does not determine our capability to have language Humans instinctively learn language o Language is a specialized skill of human animals Darwin o It is effortless unconscious and uses procedural knowledge Learning Language c Language needs the proper environment to be developed o Needs exposure to other people for communication but needs less exposure than expected o Children do not learn language just by mimicking 0 Children form statements that people who know language do not use Don t giggle me 0 Each child reinvents language Pidgin mixture of different languages originally formed by slave plantations in the South pacific o Not a true language no rules no tenses to prefixessuffixes o Can only be understood in the context of the conversation Creole language developed by the children of the pidgin people o Removed from parents unable to learn native tongue Transform pidgin into a fullfledged language with tenses rules etc Similar to children learning sign language Suggests children can reinvent language and communicate if removed from their parents learning language is not imitation Dialects and language BEV and SAE o In SAE some words are able to be replaced with contractions and some are not o In BEV many words are able to be dropped that do not follow the rules of SAE but follow the rules of BEV o If you are bad 9 if you bad Yes he is 9 Yes he No correct English speech c There are many different dialects in English c A dialect may give away personal history but it is not fundamentally worse than any other dialect Key Aspects of Grammar o Symbols words are arbitrary o The word dog has nothing to do with dogs 0 You drive on a parkway but park on a driveway blueberries are blue but cranberries are not cran hamburger has no ham o Grammar the order of words matters 0 Dog bites man vs man bites dog Grammar o Discrete combinatorial system combinations of words c We tend to say things in valid ways o Many combinations 0 If interrupted in the middle of a sentence there are about 10 words one could use to finish the sentence There is a infinite number of difference sentences There is no limit to the length of a sentence and you can always add to make sentences longer You can create a sentence that has never been uttered in history before but you can understand it 0 O Recognizing grammar o You sense when a sentence is ungrammatical o You might even understand an ungrammatical sentence is raining c There are also sentences without meaning that are grammatical o colorless green ideas sleep furiously II Knowledge of grammar is distinct from meaning and understanding o Knowledge of grammar is a basic component of language systems c We are interested in how people perceive grammar this is different from the grammar rules learned in school which often focuses on forming sentence that are easy to understand o Language is quite different from other types of learning c We recognize we would normally never see the words colorless and green together but we still recognize it as grammatically correct LongTerm Dependency o Language has rules that determine what types of words can be used when o A word choice early in the sentence can have an effect at the end of the sentence o Longterm dependencies can be very long 0 Sentences with if then either or o Recursion cannot be learned by statistics it has to be based on rules Rewrite rules rules for noun phrases NP9detAN o NP noun phrase det determinant a the A adjective N noun optional as many as you want o Helps describe rules as phrase trees o Specifies both what can be used in the phrase and where it can be used Phrase Tress o Creates grammatically correct sentences o With rewrite rules and mental dictionary lexicon create a sentence by liking rules together o In tree a phrase is like a component that snaps into the right place o Simplifies the description of language When learning phrases you do not have to relearn the role of a word for each use Longterm dependencies in phrase trees o Phrase trees have no problem with long term dependencies and recursion o Rewrite rules provide the structure needed to insure the right if then combination Language Universals o The pattern of subjectverbobject is normal for most of the world s languages o Most have coappearance of linguistic features Words o Even if all languages have similar rules for combining phrases they use different words o Words are symbols that are arbitrary 0 Dog is nothing like a dog We are better at identifying a word than an individual letter o Showing more than one wug to a preschooler they will say there are wugs o Implies there are rules for pluralizing nouns Morphology the study of words and the rules of word formation o Morpheme is the smallest component of a word o English has a very limited morphology nouns have two forms and verbs have four forms 0 Other languages use many different variations 0 Other languages have many different verb forms to indicate different conditions SuffixesPrefixes Examples of morphemes English uses lots you probably know consciously what they mean but your language system does not You keep track of what can attach to what you have a mental dictionary lexicon of morphemes Word creation Lexicon 0 Compounding two nouns are put together to create a new word and combinations can be combined unmicrowaveability To pluralize add an s Root some morphemes can only be attached to certain types of words 0 A root is a word that cannot be split into smaller parts 0 Some morphemes attach only to roots ian must attach to a root Must have a mental dictionary of morphemes able Exceptions to morphology Many words seem to follow arbitrary rules These exceptions generally come from other languages 0 English adopts the rules but not the languages Common words drinkdrank sinksank throwthrew ringrang o All derive from a protoIndoEuropean language that formed past tense by replacing one vowel with another Head most words have a head that indicates what the word is about In English it is the rightmost morpheme o Crunchabe the things that can be x ed o Cruncher that thing that does x o Workman a type of person 0 Sawtooth type of tooth Some compound words are headless o Walkman is not a type of man 0 Thus head is not what the word is about 0 This tells us that walkman is more of a new word that a compound word electricity No plural form feels appropriate because the world has no head Eliza Principle o Picks up on key phrases and generates some stock responses o Eliza does not really understand anything o Requires identifying the subject object and verb a system that does this is called a parser Parsing o Identifying the subject object and verb o You can learn about a sentence s meaning by knowing the tree structure of the sentence 0 Indicates some aspects of meaning THE GREEN IDEA EATS THE GIRL S CANDY 0 We know the sentence is about an idea rather than a girl Building Phrase Trees o You create sentences with the ideas in your head o Two different ideas can give rise to the same sentence 0 Leads to ambiguous sentences parser does not work in the same way as the creator o Mentalese when two different internal thoughts give rise to the same language statement it suggests that we think in some way that is different from language Parser building a phrase tree o Something like building a phrase tree in reverse o Once every spot is filled the sentence is parsed a mental click of understanding o Each word has its role defined and the order of the phrases identifies the meaning Problems with parsing o Phrases are not always consistent with word order o The same spoken sounds are sometimes used for words with different meanings sometimes a noun can be a verb or an adjective Difficult Sentences o These sentences are difficult for humans because of limited memory 0 When a phrase tree has unfilled branches of the same type the parser becomes confused as to which phrase is associated with a new word 0 It ends up backtracking to sort out the phrases and sometimes falls apart Word Ambiguity o A word can be ambiguous o THE PLASTIC PENCIL MARKSthe word pencil is inconsistent with the structure created o A different tree handles the new word making the new word consistent o Parsers build phrases on the fly so backtracking is often required 0 Many times it is so fast that we do not notice seems effortless Lexicon Decision CogLab o You see a pair of wordsnonwords and we measure the reaction time for you to decide if the second word is a word 0 Reaction time is faster if the second word semantically related to the first word Reaction time is faster if the second word is meaningfully related to the first word 0 Effect of ambiguity o People often miss ambiguities in sentences TIME FLIES LIKE AN ARROW o Humans recognize only one interpretation but computer algorithms can find 5 interpretations that are all grammatically correct The sentencebuffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo o This is a valid sentence that computer algorithms can correctly interpret o This suggests that words and grammar are not enough to insure communication o In a certain sense a speaker and listen must already be agreeing about the topic before anything can communicated o Thus we understand the following Woman I m leaving you Man who is he Schemas cognitive devces o Fill in the missing information that is critical for understanding language explains why it is difficult to communicate across cultures even with a common language o Schemas remove the almost constant ambiguities of language Human Speech is blurred o You think you hear the words and separate syllables when someone talks but words actually overlap in speech signal o It is almost impossible to take a speech signal and separate it into separate words o Speech is blurred oronymsmondegreens 0 It s a doggy dog world it s a dog eat dog world o The ear is a bottleneck similar to the flicker frequency in the eye 0 the ear can distinguish clicks as separate only if they are given at less than 20 Hertz above that a continuous buzz 0 speech is perceived much better distinguish phonemes Phonemes o The smallest utterance of human language o Speech is made of them different combinations of phonemes correspond to different syllables and words c We hear more phonemes than the ear can actually handle Packing c We can only distinguish 20 sounds per second but we can interpret speech that contains 50 phonemes per second o The speaker combines phonemes together to overcome the limits of the ear o Phonemes are being smashed together creating blurriness and also leading to misinterpretations sometimes o This is why computers have a hard time reading the mind they cannot combine the phonemes together in the right way o Speech is made of sounds and sound is a pattern of pressure on the ear Controlling the sounds of speech o lungs push air out to make sound and other organs shape sound o position of the tongue shapes the vocal tract and makes different sounds o the lips add additional frequencies to make different sounds o This is why you can hear someone smile on the phone their lips are shaping the sounds differently Consonants described through three different variables Voicing vibration of vocal cords b d m w p t f Place of articulation o d t upper gum o m b p lips o f v lips and teeth Manner of articulation o d t stop 0 m nasal o f v fricative o Each consonant is uniquely identified by its voice and its place and manner of articulation o All languages use them and some have other characteristics as well tone 0 Some languages do not use the same consonants Japanese does not distinguish between r from I NH 0 0quot Why razzledazzle instead of dazzlerazzle o For phrases like this people always say first say the word with a leading consonant that impedes air flow the least this is a rule 0 Super duper willy nilly helter skelter roly poly Coarticulation Moving the tongue and other articulators is hard and takes time so to say sounds faster people use coarticulation We shape our tongue in advanced preparation for the next phoneme this adjusts the sounds of phonemes 0 We do not usually notice the adjustments we are tuned to recognize the new sounds in coarticulation o This is why computers have a hard time recognizing speech 0 In casual speech you do not enunciate correctly Written language is different than spoken language The spelling in English has been complained about you could spell fish ghoti using tough women and nation If words were spelled the way they were pronounce we would lose the visual connection between words 0 Slappedeslapt writing wridding NPReMPR Korean hangul o Drawn characters indicate how consonant are to be pronounced o Is a sensible form of written language Infant linguistic skills o Infants have linguistic skills as soon as they are born attach tape player to pacifier and each suck causes the player to sound c When syllables change the babies suck more often babies hear all phonemes even ones their parents cannot distinguish ba pa o Babies show preference for what will become their native tongue occurs because they hear mother s voice in womb o French babies prefer French and Italian but playing the language backwards keeps many consonants but distorts melody and babies become uninterested this is how it is measured Babeng o Babbling teaches child how sequences of muscle combination lead to different sounds which are necessary to produce speech later on o At 10 mos Babies learn the sounds of their native tongue 0 They can no longer distinguish phonemes that are not part of their language learning is forgetting Language stages 1 Cooing first several months 2 Babbling 6 months 3 One word utterances 1 year 4 Twoword utterances and telegraphic speech 13 years 5 Basic adult sequences with grammar 4 years rate of learning varies Errors in learning Three year olds make a lot of mistakes 0 There is a lot of room for error but most follow grammatical rules most of the time Children make errors but the errors are consistent with language Children overgeneralize a rule mouseemouses English has rules but they do not apply to all words so it is hard for child to distinguish Overgeneralization English has 180 irregular verbs and they must be remembered word for word a child cannot remember in its lexicon so they default to the rule These are the most difficult in language to learn because they do not follow the normal rules Adults make the same kind of mistakes so we know it is difficult adults regularize words thus language changes Second Language It is difficult for an adult to become fluent in a second language but children do it easily There seems to be a critical period during which the language can be learned beyond six is it more difficult to learn a second language Should learn in preschool or kindergarten not hs or college Learning a language after six never fully learn might create a pidgin of some sort Broca s Aphasia o Some stroke patients seem to know what they want but are unable to say it show agrammatical speech 0 Repetition short sentences both written and spoken no problem controlling mouth o Affects Broca s area of the brain Difficult getting ideas across o Plays a role in learning the rules of language o fMRI while subjects judge whether Italian sentences are grammatically 0 At start did not know rules of Italian Broca s areas was activated Wernicke s Aphasia o Seems to be able to say things but what they say is meaningless o Patients show poor comprehension poor vocabulary and empty speech o Affects Wenicke s area o Difficulty getting ideas across difficulty naming objects Anomia o Damage around Wernicke s area produces a deficit in the ability to name things o Cannot retrieve nouns he wants to use o Some patients have difficulty with only one certain types of nouns O O O O 0 Concrete vs abstract Nonliving vs living Animals and vegetables vs food and body parts Colors Proper names Problems with teaching chimps language o It is easy to attribute language ability where is does not easily exist o You can teach an animal a lot using simple conditioning tricks o Researchers are quick to excuse mistakes as play jokes puns or metaphors Evolution o Failure of chimps to learn language does not go against the idea that language evolved in humans o Chimps are the closest to humans so if any nonhuman could learn it would be them but in history chimps and humans split from a common ancestor o Humans evolved a language skill and chimps did not 4172011 110000 PM 4172011 110000 PM PSY 200 Exam 1 512011 10700 AM Forebrain cortex Hindbrain brain stem o Hypothalamus appetite thirst temperature o Thalamus sensory except smell o Cerebellum muscle control learning o Limbic lobe sexual lobe emotional behavior Contralateral Processing o Control is opposite side of brain o Neural fibers from eye cross on way to cortex Corpus Callosum o Allows passing of info from sides of the brain o Cutting it 0 Deals with epilepsy o Sees word nut with left eye cannot name it but can pick up with left hand 0 Sees word nut with right eye can name it but cannot pick it up with left hand until says it out loud CogLab Chimeric Faces o Half normal face half aged face o Info to left of face should dominate decision o Left handed people do not show as much brain asymmetry as right handed people Cortex know position of lobes o Parietal lobe pain temp touch pressure o Temporal lobe hearing memoryattention o Frontal lobe largest planning prediction motor area speech area o Limbic lobe sexual emotional memory o Occipital lobe receives info from eye Primary Sensory Area in parietal area o Disproportionate areas of the bran relative to size of body part Broadman Areas divides lobes into areas that do different things Spatial Resolution over area what is active Temporal Resolution over time when is something active o Finer resolution is better but can be difficult to deal with so much data EEG reads electrical current change over time o Good temporal resolution o Uses electrodes to measure the electrical activity produced by the brain MRI like xray but also looks at soft tissue Good spatial resolution Provides a slice of time no temporal resolution Takes multiple slices and can look at soft tissue Can identify anatomical differences between brains Allow for early detection of brain disease tumors PET track radioactivity increase radioactivity increased blood flow which shows cognition o Limited spatial and temporal resolution o Also takes slices useful for identifying brain deficits o Fuzzy because 0 Blood flow spreads radiation to near areas 0 Radiation is sampled over time 0 Person moves during scan Functional MRI differentiates between active and inactive neurons by the concentration of oxygen o Good spatial and temporal resolution o Can identify areas involved in certain tasks Misconceptions about brain scans o Brain scans tell how the brain works o Brain scans demonstrate a physiological basis to things that were thought to be emotionally or cogitatively based 0 Truth all behavioral traits are physiologically based Difference Map o Two scans are done and signal strength is subtracted pixel by pixel and what is left is the change in activity Used to identify where a task is done in the brain c To identify where in the brain some cognitive task is accomplished the right types of scans must be contrasted BOLD Bloody Oxygen Level Dependent o The result of the subtraction approach in fMRI o The differences between a brain in two conditions Colors of fMRI o Colors represent signals which are differences in brain activity Reading Minds o People are told to choose to addsubtract o At end we can figure out if they added or subtracted o Take fMRI scan during selection to see difference in brain for addingsubtracting o Depends on place in brain different places for intention and execution Thought Reconstruction o Shown image fMRI scan to show pixels that light up o Depends on where signals come from o More errors with higher brain areas Rotating snaked illusion o Subject stares at one place o Guided movement with jumping dot o For guided movement differences in hMT o Focused on BOLD signal in two areas Problems with brain scanning o Statistical analysis is complicated o Too much data to do anything with o Difficult to compare across subjects o Blurring images difficult to deal with o Some cognitive events faster than technology can read Neuron Action Potential o Input crosses threshold and cell fires o AP generated at soma travels down axon to terminals o Affects other cells dendrites o Na channels open Na enters K channels open K leaves Na stops entering K stops leaving Excitatory excites the receiving cell and turns it on o More likely to produce an action potential Inhibitory turns off cell c Less likely to produce an action potential Inhibitory cells in brain useful for functioning of brain If too many cells are working at same time epilepsyseizures occur Synapse axon delivers to dendrites of other cell Molecular Structure every molecule has a specific structure o Certain receptors only accept certain neurotransmitters based on shape Dopamine o Tourettes too much dopamine o Haldol blocks dopamine receptor sites o Parkinsons too little dopamine 0 Similar to dopamine LDOPA used to aid Prozac an SSRI limits the use of the neurotransmitter serotonin LSD resembles serotonin Curare blocks acetylcholine so it cannot enter receptor protein Cocaine prolongs effects of dopamine Morphine resembles neurotransmitters called endorphin peptides which means receptor accepts it and produces similar effects Firing Rate the number of action potentials in a certain length of time o More action potential higher firing rate has a greater effect rapid series influences other cells Receptive Field the set of stimuli that reliably changes a cell s firing rate o The mixture of excitedinhibited cells determine the visual perception CogLab Blind Spot light that hits the blind spot where nerves leave the eye is not visible Inhibition of oncenter offsurround cells o Stimulation of a center region gives strong response o Adding light to surround region reduces response to center Oncenter offsurround cell c Light excites center of cell and inhibits the surrounding area Simple cells sensitive to bars or edges of an orientation at a particular location o Strong response to edges Complex Cells many cells feed in to create complex cells o Responds to an orientated bar at many different places o Complex cells feed into hypercomplex cells receptive fields become more complex Grandmother cell c Not enough cells to create this o Cells are constantly dying and being created o In monkeys only responded at certain angle Resonance Hypothesis o 1 Initially cells firing rate may vary o 2 In some networks cell firing rates stop changing o 3 Remaining active cells are those that support each others activities through excitation resonance o cognition cells exciteinhibit one another until network is worked outstable and correct any errors o a network creates cognition Connection weight neural connections synapses between cells o Cells update activations one at a timenot simultaneously Update Rule o A cell s activation is onoff o Cells update activations one a time through a network o A cell is neither turned on or turned off Settling down once a network has reached a stable point and corrected any errors it settles down and the emergent properties of the cell are seen Feedback acts to clean up other sensory information and make the network consistent with what the system expects o The expectation is created by connection weights 0 Excitatory inhibitory Illusory Contours created because this is what the networks expects Learning o A network can remember things it has previously experienced o Can interpret new information based on things it previously learned o Connections make it possible to activate other neurons in a similar way to remember Hebb s Rule o If two neurons are active simultaneously then the connection between them is strengthened c As brain learns changes structure and changes to environment Handeye Coordination c As you grow your brain must knowlearn exact length of arm o Continually modifies to catch up with arm length Virtual Reality o The network adjusts to the new camera c When taking off hands are still adjusted to old places spills drink Percept of brightness o inability to respond to homogenous fields respond to edges o edge responses are influenced by surrounding light Centersurround cells o Computes brightness as something like local contrast o In illusion compare to white background so look the same color but rest of checkerboard is added it compares to surrounding area and color is distinguished Hermann Grid o Cells at interactions receive more inhibition than calls at single roads o Some cells are inhibited by white and excited by black Filing in the edges fill in competition Color Competition gated dipole c When a color is seen opposite color begins firing o Once a color is gone we see opposite color because it was firing o Redgreen blueyellow blackwhite Orientation competition horizontal orientation win everytime PSY 200 Final 512011 10700 AM Framing Effect o Decisions are influenced by a way a set of choices is presented o Phrasing makes a difference in the choices of subjects Risks those events that occur with probability Events that occur with certainty are without risk Human sometimes prefer risky options over nonrisky options and viceversa When the choices are seen as losses subjects tend to be risk seeking When choices are seen as gains subjects tend to be riskaverse Rarely picked alternatives o Store often stock merchandise for the sold purpose of influencing your purchasing behavior usually towards a more expensive model o Companies make lowend models simply to bias you toward higher end models and against competition Loss Aversion o People tend to be more sensitive to losses than to gains o A choice is a or gain depending on where you start o Los aversion dramatically affects many topes of choices magnifying those characteristics of a choice that leads to a perceived loss Problem Solving o A hallmark of intelligence often used as a definition of intelligence o Experts vs Novice o Experts know how to describe problems other than that no fundamental difference Chess Study o Show subjects a chess board then clear it have subjects recall positions of the chess pieces on the board o Master players have schemas that allow them to organize the piece positions 0 Better than beginners when pieces are positioned in the middle of a real game 0 Worse when pieces are randomly placed Experts try to use the schemas but end up misremembering the actual piece positions Expert Schemas o Experts have a lot of problem solving schemas specific to their domain expertise o Expertise in one domain does not transfer to another Analogies o Rarely used to solve problems because they are very difficult to apply 0 The need to identify what is common between two problems o Analogies are often assigned after two problems are solved and well understood Set Effects o Refers to mindset 0 Negative set bias toward solving a problem makes it more difficult Positive set bias towards solving problem makes it easier Chessboarddominoes problem 0 0 Functional Fixedness o Limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used c Mental block against using object in new way 0 Using wrench to swing string Aha Feeling c We sometimes feel as if we have a strong insight in to a problem and its solution becomes obvious o Does not seem to correspond to true insight into problem people can still have the same feeling and get problem wrong o Using tree planting problem subject judge progress with warmth rating o Same aha feeling shows up even when subject gets problem wrong 512011 10700 AM PSY 200 Exam 2 2272011 121300 AM Critical Flicker Frequency the frequency of slashing at which subjects do not detect flicker o About 50 Hertz o Lights and computers do this but they flicker so fast our eyes are not able to keep up with it Persistence o Subjects adjust duration of a blank stimulus so onset of probe matched perceived offset of target did one stimulus disappear before the other one appeared c As duration increases its persistence decreases o Something must reset the network or it would keep persisting forever 0 New inputs inhibit old responses 0 Afterimages act as new images As target s durationluminance increases o The afterimage produced at target offset increases in strength so there is stronger inhibition to break the feedback so the persistence of the original percept decreases Masking o Our visual percept clears every 100ms which is why our world does not seem blurry as we see things move o Our visual system is unable to develop a complete percept of a scene in a very short period of time o Masking interferes with processing of letters by shortening their persisting responses and prevents perceived blurring of changing scenes Reichardt Motion Detector o Learned from studying flies o At lots of different positions in the visual field o Sensitive to lots of different motion directions and speeds c When objects move there is a continuous path of motion Reichardt do not require continuous motion o Apparent motion is the perceived motion from one place to another rather than the actual real motion o Precept of motion depends on stimulus duration interstimulus interval distance o For it to indicate motion the signal from the second area must follow the signal from the first by just the right length of time o 151 interstimulus interval the time between offset of the first and onset of the second stimulus Motion aftereffect o Competition between opposite directions of motion LR UD o Offset of one direction leads to rebound of other Margaret Thatcher Illusion People focus on certain features of the face eyes mouth and fail to notice when others things are wrong Two images upside down look the same rather when they are turned the right way deformation in the face is noticed Possible people are not able to piece together features and do not detect true facial expression Facial Adaptation o People either stare at a mascfem face and then to a neutral face o The neutral face will look the opposite sex than what was previously stared at No matter what when faces are combined together and averaged a pretty face is seen Facial Agnosia o Some people are not able to recognize faces or read emotions from the face prosopagnosia o They use different clues to help them recognize people Mooney Images Images that look like a face when looked at in one direction but when flipped look like nothing And fMRI scan is done and the responses are subtracted to find the difference map Stronger responses are seen to faces Fusiform Face Area FFA o Might just be responsible for practice and expertise 0 People that have an expertise in birds or cars showed a spike when they saw something relating to their expertise 0 Faces might only be special because we practice a lot Jennifer Aniston Neuron Since she and many other things are things we see on a regular basis we become practiced at them so we recognize them easily They become a part of our expertise so to day Attention We are not fully able to interpret all the information in the world The ability to deal with some stimuli and not others is attention Mental processing attention Attention is due to mental effort attending lecture ignoring whispering Attention is a natural side effect of mental effort ignoring uhs and ums ignoring feel of clothes When paying attention we also ignore other things to better focus on what we are trying to pay attention to o The cues could be masked by other stimuli 0 Seeing is not the same as attending Attention Effects Attention strengthens stimulus representations if they are weak Perceptual processing is better with attentional focus 0 Detection masking discrimination Some neurons respond stronger to stimuli that are attended Attentional Paradox We sometimes see things different than they really are Attention can change perceptual properties Normal vision is not vertical or accurate It is only with attentional focus that we normally see things that are correct If you focus on something you will not process much information about other things going on CogLab Attentional Blink o Had to identify rapidly presented letters o Detection of the first letter tends to make the detection of the second letter very difficult attentional blink o All of the resources that would be used to detect the second letter we used to detect the first letter CogLab Visual Search o With distracters on the screen person must say whether the target was there or not o The more distracters the more difficult is was to identify the target Visual Search Results o Conjunctive search for target absent has a slope twice as steep as for target present 0 bc when the target is present you find it on average after searching half the items and then can stop the search 0 for target absent searches you must search all items to verify each is not the target Automaticity c When a task is unfamiliar it seems to require a lot of attention to perform but later it requires less attention Stroop Task o Pitting an automized task against a nonautomized task o Identify the color of ink for words takes longer when the words are color names measure reaction time o Word names interfere with color naming o Word naming is well practices color naming is not the automatic one tends to mess up the unpracticed one it takes more mental effort Whole reportPartial report o Whole report write down as many letters as you see 0 Subjects claim they saw more letters but lost percept while they reported cannot report fast enough o Partial report indicate a certain row after matrix disappears o 3 of every row is available for viewing 0 Longer the delay the less letters are reported 0 Better bc you can focus on one row before percept fades away Iconic Memory Experiment o Item was changed for small set sizes o In adults asked to report the location of the changed color item o Masking effects influence iconic memory 0 Persistencebased memory is very brief and is easily destroyed by a mask Iconic memory is brief and easily disturbed When you mask you do not have enough time to focus attention on the indicated row 0 0 Immediate Serial Recall Experiment o After given a list of items subject must report them back immediately in the correct order and with no cues o Often recall the first and last ones best o Depends on the modality of the presentation Echoic Memory o Stimulus is coming from left right and middle o Based on sounds Modality Effect Recency depends on sensory memory It takes time to report all the items in the list In visual presentation iconic memory of the last item is gone before subject tries to report it poor recall In auditory presentation echoic memory of last item is still present when subject tries to report it good recall Auditory presentation shows recency but visual does not Suffix Effect Words are physically different from tones o Suffix words act like a mask to wipe out last word in list from echoic memory 0 The situation similar to being unable to report the letters in the partial report task with the xmasks This is why phone operators do not say good bye Ebbinghaus Experiments Measure how long it takes to learn a list of nonsense syllables perfectly Measure how long it takes to relearn that list Results suggest that memories can last a very long time in some form Memories were believe to be stored and not just fade away memory loss was due to interference of other memories Peterson amp Peterson Experiment Give subjects a trigram ask subjects to count backwards by three and then recall the trigram varied durations of counting backwards Suggests some aspects of forgetting are process driven 0 Keeping memory active requires memory 0 If you are distracted you cannot apply the effort to keep memory Some aspects of memory are passive 0 Even if distracted you can recall the trigram if only short period of time has passed 0 Memory has decayed while doing distracting task Miller s Memory Span Study o You can recall 7 items immediately after exposure The magic number o Suggests STM has small capacity short duration STM makes games such as Simon challenging because people are have hard time recalling immediately after exposure and the capacity is very small unless rehearsed Modal Model of Memory o Requires transfer from STM to LTM o Input Sensory stores decay9Short term store forgetting69 Long term store forgetting c When something is memorized it is first held in STM then may transfer to LTM but takes time to transfer Ushaped serial position o can be explained by the properties of STM and LTM o Primacy use LTM o Recency use STM Hypothetical searches of STM o Parallel target item is compared to all the item in memory at same time 0 Number of items does not matter for reaction time o Serial terminating target item is compared to each item one after the other 0 Reaction time increases with the set size and a yes reaction time is quicker o Serial exclusive target item is compared to each item one after the other all items are searched 0 Reaction time is same for yes or no response but RT increases with set size Sternberg s experiment o Supports exhaustive search always goes through all items o Is serial one item at a time is checked Serial exhaustive search makes more sense than serial selfterminating search if search of STM is done by some process that is o Very efficient o Doesn t bother to stop itself o Initiated by some other system controller Brooks Study o Two types of tasks visuospatial and phonological o Two types of responses o Either a spatial mental task or a verbal mental task o Measure time to finish each task c When you have to respond by pointing it is easier to work with sentence information than diagram information c When you have to respond verbally it is easier to work with diagram information than sentence information o Suggests there are two separate systems 0 One deals with visuospatial information and must do the pointing response and mental diagram task 0 One deals with verbal information and must do the spoken response and sentence task have only limited resourcescapabilities asking a system to do two things at once slows it down splitting responsibilities between systems can be done quickly o suggests a controller that tells systems what to do 0 O 0 Working memory o Extension of STM small capacity rapid forgetting o Just a processor of information does not store anything like STM Phonological Loop o Articulatory control process ACP converts nonspeech information into speech code o Rehearsal refresh information o Phonological store PS similar to how we first described STM items decay from memory 0 Refresh starts the decay process o Loop capacity depends on duration before decay from PS and speed of rehearsal rehearsal rate X PS decay time o A set of items that takes longer to rehearse should be harder to remember o Around 7 items around 4 items per second for English speakers o Rate of rehearsal changes with development Word Length Effect o Memory span is related to length of words o Some languages are spoken faster than others allows for larger memory span o Lower rate of speech effects IQ scores because memory span does not last as long Articulatory Suppression o Subject seeshears a list of phonemes while repeating a simple phrase over and over o Recall is worse because repeating the phrase ties up the ACP and does not allow to process information Phonological Similarity o Memory of a list of items is worse when the items sound the same o Items are stored in the loop and similar sounding items interfere with one another o Happens because the items fade more quickly effect in PS since phonological similarity effect is there even when the ACP is not involved o Phonological similarity effect for auditory stimuli under articulatory suppression Irrelevant speech effect o No background music is best background noise with nonsense words is worst o Background phonemes interfere in the PS o Even foreign music acts as phonemes to English speakers Visuospatial Sketchpad o Briefly holds visual and spatial information important for tasks that require interaction with the environment Video gamers have better VSS Swimmer experiment 0 Told to determine if an item in VSS was actually moving or not 2272011 121300 AM 2272011 121300 AM PSY 200 Exam 3 3272011 90000 PM Interference o Retroactive RI new information prevents recall of previous information o Overwriting a computer file o Proactive PI prior learning prohibits new learning 0 Learning new cultural customs BrownPeterseon test o Counting backwards prevented the rehearsal of information thus serving as an interference Bowshape serial position curves Primacy RI o Recency PI o RI is stronger than PI Proactive Interference in memory experiment o Shown three slides each time something addedchanged o You do no know if the test photo is new or old o Previous trials make memory discrimination more challenging Keppel and Underwood Study o PI takes effect as the trial continues o Memory decay does not occur on the first trial but it does on the later trials Release from PI o Presented with letters for three trials and then numbers on the last trial compared to just letters on all four trials c When the trials are similar STM gets worse c When the numbers were presented the memory was released form PI Experiment for Working memory o Test PI by changing instructions after the list was presented o Stimuli are names of indoor and outdoor games subjects do not notice that word on fourth trial is an indoor game and others are outdoor games o One group given traditional PI experiment other group is told difference of fourth at time of trial c When the subjects were told it was an indoor game it showed a release from PI and better memory compared to those that were not told o The difference comes at recall not at memory storage The context in which you learn and recall can have a major impact on memory o Partset cueing given part of a set that has been learning subjects recall fewer of the remaining items than with normal free recall 0 Class exercise with word lists o Memory is more about discrimination of memory traces not about the strength of memory traces c To measure memory you must consider the conditions at test Encoding Specificity Principle o Information must be encoded in memory as well as recalled o Encoding can alter what features are stored as part of the memory 0 This changes the discrimination of subsequent recall o Experiment 1 0 Subjects in two groups see the same words but have different tasks semantic judgment or rhyme judgment Each group split into subgroups for recall of information One subgroup does normal recognition task and the other is shown a word and asked if any word rhymed with it o Encoding information and recall need to match it is very difficult to test for absolute memory o Experiment 2 0 Memory is better when cues available during recall match the cues available during encoding groups given tasks with cues or no cues O O 0 Results show cue is not always helpful o Experiment 3 deep sea divers on land and water learning words Forgetting Forgetting is defined operationally Specify the task and context of retrieval You can never be certain that that if you are placed in a different context you will still show forgetting Recall of information was best when it was studied in the same classroom as it was tested in Longterm memory o People brought their high school yearbooks and asked to match names with faces o Not many people forgot the names from high school suggests if you learn something well you have a good chance of remembering it forever Penfield Study o Electrodes placed and people reported vivid memories when parts of the brain were stimulated o Showed that memories are stored but unreachable o People were describing memories that were not possible something happens when stimulated but not inducing memory Flashbulb Memories o Highly emotional events produce strong memories o People vividly recall details surrounding events where they were what was said clothing worn time of day 911 o People are very confident about the memories but may not be the true memory o These memories are a real phenomenon but all the information is not likely to be accurate Constructive Memory c We combine information to form memory o Woman was raped while tv was on and reported her rapist as being the actor on tv because that is what her memory constructed during the event o See a picture and then asked to write down things saw in pic Might write down things that were not in the office pic because your constructive memory recognizes things that usually belong in office False Memory o Given list of words and then after subject must go through another list and identify which words were in original list o The target work is often identified as a word seen in list because people associate it with the rest of the words in the list Influence on Memory Eyewitness Testimony o Loftus Experiment subjects see sereies of pictures showing car driving down street stopping at stop sign turning and knocking down a person o Later shown slides and asked if part of original set or new one showing original stop sign and one showing yield sign c When asked with a misleading question only 20 accurately answered o Suggests eyewitness testimonies cannot always be trusted especially if asked in special ways Memory is a cognitive event We have a different in confidence of different memories this difference is also a cognitive event o Both memory and confidence are cognitive events o You can be confident and still be wrong usually go hand in hand but not always Amnesia loss of memory or memory ability Retrograde forgetting events prior to injury Anterograde forgetting events after the memory Amnesia is usually limited in scope and duration Scope the memories you have trouble with c As time progresses you recover more and more information o Hard to study amnesia because memories cannot completely be wiped clean 0 It could be they are just not accessible is forgetting just a recall problem 0 No way to study what is forgotten LTM and Amnesia o Amnesia tends to affect declarative memory not nondeclarative o Declarative explicit names parents address o Nondeclarative implicit how to walk talk etc Patient HM o Had anterograde amnesia unable to learn new information o Thought it was 1953 shocked by age in mirror reintroduced himself to doctors could carry on conversation o Had a normal STM very difficult to extend span of items o Could learn new things though location of cafeteria o Mirror task as did it day after day had less and less errors suggests learning of information Infantile Amnesia o People report they cannot remember anything that happened to them before age 4 o True reason unknown but theory children under 4 view world different than adults by encoding specificity one needs to be in similar state to best recall and adults are very different from children and this prevents recall Repression o Psychotherapists suggests infantile amnesia occurred because childhood was filled with painful events and memory of pain is prevented by psychological defense systems repression o Unlikely bc people remember painful events well o In lab and therapy no evidence is seen of repression o No techniques used by therapists demonstrate a verified memory Encoding Specificity o Memory is best when study and test contexts are better o Variability in study promotes more general recall c When studying in neutral contexts tends to have better recall To better remember something in lots of contexts study in lots of contexts Level of Processing o Rehearsal is not as important as depth of processing o The higher the depth of processing the better recall o Level of processing is more important than intent 0 Five groups Shallow study task look at letters in word a 1 Told they would be tested on recall words n 2 Not told they would be tested Deep study task rate pleasantness of word a 1 Told they would be tested on recall words n 2 Not told they would be tested control told they would be tested to recall words not given any study task could do anything 0 People do not know how to study the deeper studying produced better recalls even over control Judgment of Learning JOL o Subjects estimate how likely they are to remember one word if shown another JOL o Immediate JOLs do not match memory performance o Delayed JOLs are pretty accurate o Study wait estimate learning better JOL Method of Loci to remember a list of words or key ideas o Visualize waling around area with distinctive landmarks o Like items to be remembered with landmarks by using bizarre mental imagery remember in order by walking through scenery o Memory easy on bizarre landmarks and associations Subject SF increase his digital span to 81 digits o Created hierarchy of memory tricks o Learned to use LTM for the digital span task o Did not transfer to any other memory tasks Sleep o Some memory improves with sleep serves as a consolidation of memory o Subjects learn to identify order relationships between random shapes memorize the appropriate answer to each pair shown one and then decide what comes next o Subjects with more time between learning and being tested at a different time without sleep show much better results o Study early and sleep Recall Practice o Subjects study SwahiliEnglish word pairs o Studied and tested in different ways o Performance is best when every pair is tested even if you already have it memorized o Amount of time studying does not matter as much suggests you learn how to recall the information Learning Styles o No evidence that reported learning style preference has anything to do with learning Definition approach o Lots of definitions for a single thing hard to classify one set definition because everyone has their own definition o For every definition you come up with you can find examples that seem not to fit it Prototype Theory o Instead of a definition similarity is judged relative to a prototype of the concept an ideal average or most frequent version of the concept o Something can be more or less a certain concept coffee cup 0 Can have many different variation Posner and Keele Experiment o Learn category names for random dot patterns o Each variation is prototype of one of two patterns o Subjects learn to classify many different variants of the prototype they never see c Reaction time is faster for prototypes suggests that mental representation of the categories are build to favor the prototype of category Prototype theories o Has issues with some categories c There is not way we can have prototypesad hoc concepts for all things in the world our brains are not big enough o This is why the Exemplar theory was presented Exemplar Theory of Concepts o A concept consists of a lot of examples of the concept c When see something new we compare it to each example in memory and see if it matches anything else well enough c We can determine what something is because we have a general idea what the conceptprototype is o Some things prototypical because they match a lot of exemplars this defines a prototype Propositions o Higher order ideas o Propositions connect the appropriate concept nodes c When something is said a certain proposition is turned on it allows us to respond in the proper way Graphical Network of Propositions Ratcliff and McKoon When a proposition is opened when another word within same propositions is said it is quicker to respond because propositions is already activated rather than closing one proposition and opening another proposition priming We think in terms of propositions Mental Representation When we see an image copy of image in head and we can retrieve it convert to propositionsconcepts You can remember the image and it feels like you picture it in head but it could be a proposition If you had an exact copy in head you would be able to answer any question about it but you cannot Verbal descriptions dominate memory for images We think in terms of propositions so real images are not like mental images Size and mental images If mental images is solely based on description set of propositions you should be able to describe all information and size of body parts should not matter When people asked to mental imagine a lion respond more quickly when asked about the mane compared to the claws it is bigger This implies images are different than propositions People that did not mental image the lion responded quicker to claws because it was more accessible in some network of propositions Mental Rotation Experiment o Shapes were rotated and then decide if the shape was same or different measure time to decide o The more rotated the stimuli the longer it takes to respond o Suggests mental images are not just propositions it takes time to mentally rotate the image on the plane no reason why propositions would be able to give data that incorporate spatial and temporal relations between aspects of mental images fMRI on Mental Rotation o subject performed mental rotation task or comparison task o both activities have activities in occipital lobes o increased activity for mental rotation task in areas of brain associated with mental perception and visuopatial processing tasks o males consistently better on metal rotation tasks Cartesian Dualism o Pineal link between body and spirit how do they connect Materialism the brain is the mind o The mind derives from the brain Distributed Processing o Information processing is spatially and temporally distributed in the brain c There is no moment of consciousness different brain areas know different things at different times o No moment of understanding understand things at different times when does someone understand completely o Is something putting it all together Turing Test o How to know if a person is consciousintelligent 0 They behave in a way we interpret as consistent with a conscious being This test apply same logic to computer if a conversation with a computer is indistinguishable from a conversation with a human conclude that computer is intelligent No computer has passed test Though other things would not pass test either that could be considered intelligent mute people children mentally retarded people who speak another language Passing test is not necessary for consciousness Chinese Room problem Qualia 0 Attempt to argue the Turing test is not a good test of intelligence Receive a piece of paper with symbols look them up and told to write something in response From other side seems you are giving a convo with intelligent person but person in room is not having convo because they do not know what they are writing only writing what they are told Similar to computer does not know what it is doing just links up answers and responds Though if questions can be on any topic then understanding is required for that type of complex processing no book will have answers to all possible questions Understanding is restricted to consciousness People have different perceptual experience of the world There is no way to distinguish one experience from the other this immeasurable experience is qualia o How different people see the color red No one can do an experiment to measure how people see the world 3272011 90000 PM 3272011 90000 PM
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