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Behavioral Neuroscience of Sensation And Arousal

by: Celia O'Hara

Behavioral Neuroscience of Sensation And Arousal PSY 32000

Marketplace > Purdue University > Psychlogy > PSY 32000 > Behavioral Neuroscience of Sensation And Arousal
Celia O'Hara
GPA 3.93

Gerald Wasserman

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Gerald Wasserman
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celia O'Hara on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 32000 at Purdue University taught by Gerald Wasserman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/207866/psy-32000-purdue-university in Psychlogy at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Meeting 22 Motor Command Systems and a Model of Behavior Similar to sensory systems but in reverse We will proceed proximally However movement in conscious preparations creates technical problems So less is known I Muscles are reverse receptors p 1 p 1 Transduce bioelectric signals to mechanical forces Synaptically driven 7 EPPs end plate potentials End plate potential 0 The synapse is called the end plate 0 Excitatory post synaptic potential Many subtypes 7 today focus on striated skeletal muscles 0 Striated 7 appear at low magni cation o Slides go from large scale to small scale to show basis in sliding laments Muscle controle mechanisms Two systems 7 alpha and gamma motoneurons Alpha for main force Gamma for control feedback system 111 Spinal mechanisms Re exes o Segmental organization 0 Reciprocal inhibition 0 Recurrent inhibition 0 Crossed extensor o Suprasegmental organization et Jendrassic s maneuver Central pattern generators o Rhythmic actions ying walking breathing 0 Classic invertebrate studies e g the y 0 Command elements 7 escape best understood IV Brain mechanisms 7 see ch 14 7 not assigned Many brain structures and many pathways Another slide tour 7 it will outline some Four main findings 1 Motor cortex I Direct and indirect inputs and outputs I Weakness and clumsiness 2 Reticular formation I Global rigidity or faccidity 3 Cerebellum I Automatic skilled acts 4 Basal ganglia I Intention tremors I Related to motivation and decisions V A Nonhumuncular Model of Behavior Feature analyzer hierarchy drives command neuron hierarchy 0 Too rigid I Vulnerable to critiques of any SR theory 0 Leaves out exible plastic0 modi cations I E g learning arousal early experience etc 0 These will occupy the remainder of our semester Figure 131 Skeletal muscle 7 connected to bones Sliding laments 9 striated muscles Axons coming from CNS that make synapses on end plate Each ber gets its own synapse End plate 9 EPPs 9 APs 9 twitches sometimes Calcium g 1311 A muscle ber contains smaller pieces called myo brils etc Calcium changes polarization Release of calcium from storehouse produces a depolarization of a portion of a muscle Fig 133 Innervations of muscle by lower motor neurons Figure 1316 Stretch receptor Also gogli tenton organ 9 1b afferent Figure 1323 Recurrent inhibition Altemation of twitches Muscle bers don t get used up Figure 1325 Flexing leg extending leg Wire going Figure 1327 1c 7 command neuron ng 7 pattern generator Motoneurons Figure 6 Giant ber Get signals down to y s body really quick Slight delay because of one more synapse on DLM side Similar 7 mauthner cells in sh brain stem Jump 7 TTM Fly 7 DLM Fly 7 DVM Meeting 20 Feature Analyzers Review Parallel Processing n Retina Independent events going on side by side proceed back to brain color contrast motion are independent features cells that respond were originally called feature detectors currently feature analyzer FA is more common 0 cells that analyze specific features of the outside world also called sensoryfilters The Main Point some cells do not respond unless they are challenged by an appropriate spatio spectro temporal pattern I The Work of David Hubel amp Torsten Wiesel Made it clear that these cells have to have the appropriate spatio spectro temporal pattern in order to go This problem gets more and more severe as you get farther into nervous system review anatomy of visual system monocular lamination in the lgn binocular convergence in striate cortex simple cells complex cells hypercomplex cells no response if the key does not fit the lock cortical columns the basic cortical unit ocular dominance columns orientation columns color blobs these all make up a hypercolumn ca 1 mm2 Changeux conjecture humans have more columns IV Other Species fly pigeon frog Lettvin s frog work led him to coin the FD term V Two Challenges for Brain Science 1 How to describe and interpret FAs o mathematicalformalapproach o intuitivenarrative approach 2 How to find FAs and characterize them 0 get no response without right challenge 0 can t frame question properly till answer is known fig 10 1 the LGN lateral geniculate nucleus ofa macaque monkey 6 clear layers Large cells in 2 layers bigger axons larger cell bodies 4ofthem are smaller cells Three from each retina One large 2 small from each retina Figure 1012 Go into striate cortex Portion of it has visible stripe due to cytoarchitecture All the way in back of heads Some layers subdivided Main thing to remember the input to the cortex goes into the middle layer 4 Nerve fibers coming up from below end up in middle layers of cortex What you see there is very much like what you see in geniticulate Hubel and Wiesel 1959 Area in center of retina Retina o Nerve cells and everything are finer more resolving fiber 0 More color processing capabilities 0 Part of brain Cats used Use anesthesia and restraint Held in clamp fixed heads so they wouldn t move Fixation point place on screen arrange animal use instrument that allowed you to see into brain Had something that they could point at screen coordinate system Saw excitatory and inhibitory responses Elongated area center was excitatory surrounding area was inhibitory Detail figure 1 Figure 1023 Different responses from light on Some places inhibits exhibits in others Fig 1020b Take a cell that is like the one we just looked at Receptive field region you can get responses Adjust stimulus yellow bar in picture Orientation selected Simple cell Fig 1024 Cannot be activated unless you use bar of light Move stimulus through receptive field get excitatory responses ofthe same sort regardless of where you are Rotate it and you get no response Figure 1025 Hypercolumn 1 mm2 Blobs color Orientation columns electrode data Push electrode through cortex Responded to orientation Discovered columns that go through cortex except layer 4 Hng Hng Hng Hng Hg4 Preferred orientation shared by cells that are above and below Most cells achromatic 14 Radioactive Transported down axon Radioactive label goes across synapse Stuff that goes from geniculate to cortex will acquire radioactive stuff 15 Parts of tissue that are connected to eye in which radioactive stuff is inserted come out different 17 Horizontal dector Requires certain size in or der to respond Microelectrode in eye offly Spot of light very little spike responses but do get ERG Arrows direction spot of light is moving spikes that come at certain times but not at other times Put all together semicircular movement detector responds when its gong up around left 6 to 12 big response 12 to 6 no response Lettvin feature detector Used tad poles and adulst Different kidns of structures quotbugquot detector make living by tongue that s coiled up you see something it goes out unrolls quickly This kind of retinal anatomy was associated with that kind of perception Edge detector center edge quotbugquot moving construct dimming detector


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