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Child Psychology

by: Celia O'Hara

Child Psychology PSY 23500

Celia O'Hara
GPA 3.93

George Hollich

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George Hollich
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celia O'Hara on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 23500 at Purdue University taught by George Hollich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/207867/psy-23500-purdue-university in Psychlogy at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 8 Intelligence and Individual Differences in Cognition Module 81 What is Intelligence Module 8 2 Measuring Intelligence Module 83 Special Children Special Needs Psychometric Theories Use patterns of test performance as starting point Test scores provide evidence for general intelligence 9 and specific intelligences e g perceptual speed word comprehension Hierarchical theories are a compromise between general and specific theories Hierarchical View of Intelligence General Intelligence 9 I I i l I l l General A Broad Broad Fluid Crystaltired Broad Visual Processing Memory Audito Retrieval Ca nitive lntelli ence lnlelll ence Peirce flan 9 5 Bed 9 g and Learning p Perception zy Speediness 390 Sequential Printed Memory Visualization Speech Creativity H 19 a Simple s n so 39 39 language DB spam discriminame deanona test taking reaction time induction Language Assomaiive ManDquot Numerical I Quantitative coeziggil39i Closure G s3451 ammg faculty reaction time wasomng 5393 discrimination mom Pemeptua 58mm Vocabulary speed processmg knowledge spend Source Carroll 1995 9 Psychomet c Theo ies 47 Gardner39s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Type of Intelligence De nition Linguistic quot was 1 39 was 39 quot u 39 39 39 39 quot m ndid aweuas the logical mquot mathematical operations that can be performed on them Spatial Perceiving objects accurately and imagining in the quotmind s eyequot the appearance of an objectbefnre and alter it has been traisfarmed Musical 1 39 39 39 ebcelam and emotional one 39 as dancers traitspeaple and athletes do Initerpexsunal 39 39 39 39 mnrrl mntivatim Inlrdpersmal quot 139 quot 1 1 Naturalistic Recognizing and distinguishing ameng members of a gmup species and describing rela am between such groups Essential considenng ultimate issue such as the purpose of life and the nature of death Sum Men 1391 1999 2002 Copyright a 2cm Pearson Educalnn Inc Uppa Saddle River New Jersey 07458 Child Developme m Transparencies 2004 Sternberg s Theory Analytical abilityinvolves analyzing problems and figuring out a solution Logical Creative ability involves adapting to novel tasks by discovering novel solutions Artistic Practical abilityinvolves knowing how solutions and plans actually work Street Smarts Measuring Intelligence Summary Binet used mental age to distinguish bright from dull children Led to the StanfordBinet which gives a single IQ score average 00 WISC devised in the I9305 gives verbal and performance IQ scores and a combination of the two scores Bayley Scales are used to test infants Distribution of IQ Scores quot74 9544 6826 3593quot an no m1 11w quot32 13 85 1 00 IO Scores 115 92 Blnec and the Development of lnce llgence fescmg Sample Items from WISCl Items Like moss Appearing on DiliereMSublosls or we Wisc lll Vemal Scale imamaim 7739s mm 395 askw qussllarls mar mp ms ar rm factual knowledge a me world i Haw many wings due a and have 2 WM l5 slerlnl made of lllprehenson The child is asked questions ma messme his or her dgmem and comman sense i What should yw ua II yau see sameane imam ms back when ne leaves a leslsurant 2 mini is me advunlge of keeping money in a bank Cu m Sunllamles The child IS asked lo aescnne new words we related 1 in what way are a lion and a tlg t alike 2 in what way an 7 saw am a nammer IkE Performance Scale Plclule arrangement Pictures are shown and me child is Asked in plum lhsmlaldel is tell u slnry 7 Flclllm camp91mm Thlz child is mm m idemin me nnn inn is missing nan me plL lurE 92 Blnet and the Development of Inte IlgenceTestlng Summary Do Tests Work Are they reliable In the short term yes In the longer term less so BUT Infant tests do not reliably predict adult IQ although scores obtained in childhood do Are they valid Yes tests are good predictors of success in school and the workplace particularly for more complex Jobs Validity can be increased with dynamic testing measures learning potential Correlation Between Childhood and Adult IQ Canelatinn 13 Age When IQ Was Measured in Childhood 15 17 92 DoTests We kl Hereditary and Environment Effects of heredity shown in family studies Heredity also influences patterns of intellectual development twins adoptees Effects of environment shown in studie home environments children with high test scores come from wellorganized sof homes historical change in IQ scores and intervention programs Genetic Overlap 100 I 50 I 50 0950 Correlations of IQ for Family Members Relationship i Identical twlns raised togather 85 Fraternal twins raised together 58 Siblings ralsed together 45 Unrelated children raised together 3l 00 20 40 M 30 L00 Comlnlon 92 He Edna yand Envl onmental Facts 5 o 0 Cognitive Score 2 so 3 412 6 712 9101212131215161218191221 geyears Treatment IICOnfml Impact of Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status Asian Americans have highest scores followed by European Americans Hispanic Americans and African Americans Group differences reduced when compare groups of similar economic status Culturefair intelligence tests reduce the differences but don t eliminate them Stereotype threat knowledge of stereotypes leads to anxiety and reduced performance Testtaking Skill must be considered too Gifted and Creative Children Gifted traditionally refers to someone with scores on intelligence tests of at least 130 Exceptional talent must be nurtured Intelligence is associated with convergent thinking arriving at one correct answer Creativity is associated with divergent thinking aim is novel lines of thought but must be good Differences between Mozart and Salieri Children with Mental Retardation Mental retardation substantially below average intelligence Organic mental retardation retardation caused by a specific biological or physical problem only about 25 of the cases usually more severe Familial mental retardation represents the lower end of the normal distribution of intelligence Levels of Mental Retardation 0 o 9096 AAMR Severe Moderate Mild IQ Level 10 20 30 4D 50 60 7D Educators Custodial Trainable Educable 93 Child enwm Menmlkeu and Children with Learning Disabilities Children with learning disabilities have normal intelligence but have difficulty mastering academic material and have no other explanation Many different learning disabilities so difficult to diagnose and many different treatments Chapters u IiScience of Child Developmen U ZiGenetics U 3 Prenatal Growth amp Birda u 4iGrowrh and Neural Development General Points c No substitute for regular reading U No substitute for downloading and using outlines and lecture notes U No substitute for going to the companion site and doing the practice tests u The best way to prepare before the test is with practice tests Chapter Introduction 0 Know the daeorists and what their theories are what they are famous for o Bandura EricksonSkinner Gesell U Know the daemesi 0 Continuity nature vi nurture etci U Any questions USE Chapter Summaries like R25 pm m swam quotmm Am m 131mm in mmvnmapmm A Research Ammmwmmi mm mm 7 a mum it mm quotMW mama mum in WWW mmquot mm WWW W Mm pvmtnmmw 3 mm mm mWWWmmwmwmmm wax 39 Maw quot Amu i lll i m m m amwwmmmmmm mam iWmMmmammmum sM WW it i Mth mm m m w my mwmi mumnmmtuw quotmimmmw 12 39l hnunc ofchild Dmlupmm Mmmmmmmn mmmmmwa m Wm m mm mm mm WWW e m mam m 71 m mi we w m aw HK my imxrmntwmum mm C mum r mm mm mm minim em q39m mum mmmmw law1 Mm mmmm m n mwmm mm mm madammmm ntdmmmwim a m mm mm mnrywwdvnunVnnmn mammmmWMmwas Tummylt5 wiummmmmumm Manxan Wm Mumquot mum in m in t mummmwmd rm mimuwwmmimu HKKWWMWH mmmiwammu my lemmammmnimmm Manamaremnant mm mum wmvmw Chapter lb Research Methods U Know the types of research medaods o The advantages and disadvantages of each U Know about the different designs 0 Know the ethics of doing research U Know aboutApplied Developmental Science linking research to family policy Use Summary tables like p 3 I SUMMARV mu WAV or MEAEUIIW IllMVon IN cm DIVILOPMDIT manna mm i mmzmh Ay My 7 ml mm mm Chapter 2 Genetic Development 0 Know basic genetics I Chromosomes heterozygous etc 0 Know polygenetic inheritance 0 Know Genetic research methods 0 Know inherited disorders amp causes Use callouts and boldface like on page 6 Wm ma Mummmmu ducrmuu mawmnmmi Wm mm rgr N m inn 1 m m 5mm mm pm mm mm m mac mg m mm s 1quot 53 Emmy 3 23 7 mm mm in mansmunm Wm pm a xange of phenotypes nmugmmm mummymmmbmami dmn ng an m En mmam a nannmmnmmmpmm mum in whim development occurs m 0 Wk mmim m in mm w mm m 5 mm up r mnzhzd m m me u mum a max anan may my 55m mm In umztxrrypulkdu 1W oldzvcluprml nut mm Chapter 3 Birth amp Development 0 Know the prenatal process 0 Zygote embryo fetus germ disk 0 Know the labor process 0 Three stages infant mortality approaches to child birth 0 Know the reflexes O apgar babinski palmar 0 Questions7 Chapter 4 Physical Growth 0 Know the mechanisms and variations of growth 0 Puberty Secular Growth Trends etc 0 Know Brain parts and nervous system 0 Dendrite cell body axon etc 0 Corpus callosum occipital lobe etc 0 Know about malnutrition obesity anorexia 0 Questions7 Use the in book quizzes Like pl39 m m nl m mm nulmshcbmzmmmnvmni i m r nmumxmnmm mu merume nu mm a mind i 5 nmgmnm u mnnmldrmlrlxngliu mu m mmmmm M m v m mm lnmmmmarwlumm mmmrns mkdmlmwnhhnmd p m mLIA JW minaqu y Hum viwuhnslmwwrr mud mm mm m m Irmmu v m nlumi rvm39ri m wvwcd39 Use KeyTerm Lists like page 328 ml in an a nut s nsmnsunmi dnolpnmdldmntmmhlummmx 3 wallsz a Minna in mm manimmm aa 314 vxmmmmummmumy m mmmunnhmrnl m mum m


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