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Introduction To Behavioral Neuroscience

by: Celia O'Hara

Introduction To Behavioral Neuroscience PSY 22200

Marketplace > Purdue University > Psychlogy > PSY 22200 > Introduction To Behavioral Neuroscience
Celia O'Hara
GPA 3.93

Edward Fox

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Edward Fox
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celia O'Hara on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 22200 at Purdue University taught by Edward Fox in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see /class/207869/psy-22200-purdue-university in Psychlogy at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
9 Key 0 PSY 222 Intro to Behavioral Neuroscience Chapter 2 Study Guide Words Dorsal on the top above Ventral on the belly or below Anterior located near the front or head Posterior located near the tail or rear Caudal near the tail or rear Rostral toward the front Inferior located below Superior located above Sagittal parallel to the length cut from front to back Medial midline Lateral toward the side of the body Afferent conducting toward a central nervous system structure Efferent conducting away from a central nervous system Meninges three layers of protective tissue dura matter arachnoid and pia matter that incase the brain and spinal cord Du ra mater tough double layer of fibrous tissue that encloses the brain and spinal cord in a kind of loose sack Arachnoid layer thin sheet of delicate connective tissue that follows the brains contours Pia mater moderately tough membrane of connective tissue fibers that cling to the brain s surface Subarachnoid space filled with CSF Cerebrospinal fluid CSF clear solution that fills the ventricles inside the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord beneath the arachnoid layer in the subarachnoid space Cerebrum major structure of the forebrain consisting of two virtually identical hemispheres right and left Cerebellum major structure ofthe hindbrain specialized for motor coordination n largebrained animals it might have other role in coordination of other mental processes Brainstem central structures of the brain including the hindbrain midbrain thalamus and hypothalamus Cortex outermost layer of the brain part of the forebrain outer part ofthe cerebrum Cranial nerve on of a set of 12 nerve pairs that control sensory and motor functions ofthe head neck and internal organs Gyrigyrus small protrusion or bump formed by the folding of the cerebral cortex Sulcisulcus groove in the brain matter a grove found in the neocortex or cerebellum Central sulcus The central sulcus is a prominent landmark ofthe brain separating the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex 3 Longitudinal fissure the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain Frontal lobe cerebral cortex anterior to the central sulcus and beneath the frontal bone of the skull Temporal lobe cortex lying below the lateral fissure beneath the temporal bone at the side of the skull Parietal lobe cerebral cortex posteriorto the central sulcus and beneath the parietal bone at the top of the skull Occipital lobe cerebral cortex at the back of the brain and beneath the occipital bone Ventricles cavity in the brain that contains cerebral spinal fluid Lateral ventricles Classified as part of the telencephalon they are the largest of the ventricles Third ventricle cavity of the diencephalon Forth ventricle wrmrr Wm r0147 wind 0 White matter areas of the nervous system rich in fatsheathed neural axons 0 Gray matter areas of the nervous system composed of predominately of cell bodies and blood vessels 0 Corpus callosum fiber system connecting the two cerebral hemispheres o Subcortical regions lying below the cerebral cortex 0 Nucleinucleus group of cells forming a cluster that can be identi ed with a special stains to form a functional group 0 Neuron specialized cell engaged in information processing 0 Glial cell nervous system cell that provides insulation nutrients and support as well as aiding in the repair of neurons 0 Axon root single fiber of a neuron that carries messages to other neurons 0 Nerve large collection of axons coursing together outside the central nervous system 0 Nerve tract large collection of axons coursing together within the central nervous system o Spinal nervous system consists of spinal cord nerves supplying skin muscles joints contros movement of the body circuits are in spinal cord automatically senses body ie muscle length positition brain sends movement commands and coordinates movement is segmented dermatome and myotome 0 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral nervous system all the neurons in the body located outside the brain and spinal cord 0 Hindbrain evolutionally the oldest part of the brain contains the pons medulla reticular formation and cerebellum structures that coordinate and control most voluntary and involuntary movements 0 Midbrain central part of the brain that contains neural circuits for hearing and seeing as well as orientating movements 0 Diencephalon between brain that contains the hypothalamus thalamus and epithalamus thought to coordinate many basic instinctual behaviors including temperature regulation sexual behavior and eating 0 Reticular formation midbrain area in which nuclei and fiber pathways are mixed producing a netlike appearance associated with sleepwake behavior and behavioral arousal o Tectum roof of the midbrain its functions are sensory processing particularly visual and auditory and producing orientating movements Tegmentum floor of the midbrain a collection of nuclei with movementrelated speciesrelated and painperception functions Hypothalamus diencephalon structure that contains many nuclei associated with temperature regulation eating drinking and sexual behavior Thalamus diencephalon structure through which information from all sensory systems is integrated and projected into the appropriate region of the neocortex Neocortex cerebral cortex newest outer layer of the forebrain and composed of about 6 layers of gray matter that creates our reality Limbic system disparate forebrain structures lying between the neocortex and the brainstem that form a functional system controlling affective and motivated behaviors and certain forms of memory includes cingulated cortex amygdala hippocampus among other structures Basal ganglia group of nuclei in the forebrain that coordinates voluntary movements of the limbs and body loaced just beneath the neocortex and connected to the thalamus and to the midbrain Motor cortex term that describes regions of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning control and execution of voluntary motor functions Sensory cortex umbrella term for the primary and secondary cortexes of the different senses the visual cortex on the occipital lobes the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes located at the back of the brain Cytoarchitectonic maps map of the neocortex based on the organization structure and distribution of the cells Vertebrae bones or segments that form the spinal column Dermatome area of the skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single spinal cord dorsal root Peripheral nerves nerves ofthe PNS Law of Bell and Magendie sensory fibers dorsally and motor fibers are located ventrally aldeas Sequence of brain processing IN a INTEGRATE 9 our mall 95 most neurons have incoming and outgoing connections with other cell types there might be a receptor cell for each color and they send input to one neuron to be integrated Sensory and motor divisions In the Periphery o spinal nerves are either sensory or motor 0 cranial nerves are exclusive and some are shared In the Brain Ventral motor Dorsal sensor Spinal cord Thalamus o Cortex O OO Circuits are crossed each hemisphere receives sensory stimulation from the opposite contralateral side of the body and controls muscles on the opposite side as well Both symmetrical and asymmetrical Left and Right Hemispheres are symmetric as well as asymmetric asymmetry is important for integrative tasks language and body control language is only controlled on one side so is spatial processing Excitation and inhibition o neurons pass on information so that they can tell other neurons to be on or off Multiple levels of function 0 Hierarchy and in parallel O Localized and distributed 9Questions 1 Identify the brain39s three primary functions 0 Creating a sensory reality 0 integrating information o producing behavior 2 Differentiate between an astrocyte and a neuron Astrocyte is a type of giia cell one type of process one way street no axons fuctions as a support cell no signals gives nutrients to neurons removes wastes bloodbrain barrier 3 What do the ventricles do 0 maintaining brain metabolism 0 allow certain compounds to access the brain 0 excrete metabolic waste 0 help cushion blow CSF 4 List the meninges from the outside to the surface of the brain Where is the cerebrospinal uid Dura Matter Arachnoid ayer Pia Matter CSF is located in the subarachnoid space between the pia matter and arachnoid layer 5 Differentiate between gray matter and white matter 0 white nerve fibers and fatty coverings o gray blood vessels and cell bodies 6 List the principal structures in the forebrain o Cerebral Cortex o basal ganglia o limbic system 7 List the principal structures in the hindbrain cerebellum pons medulla oblongata reticular formation 8 Differentiate between the central and peripheral nervous systems 0 CNS brain spinal cord 0 functions to coordinate the activity of all parts of the body 0 PNS connects CNS to limbs and organs 0 no bloodbrain barrier 9 What are the functions of the hypothalamus 0 takes part in almost all aspects of behavior feeding sexual behavior sleeping temperature regulation emotional behavior hormone function and movement 10 What are the principal structures of the diencephalon o Hypothalamus o Thalamus 11 What do the basal ganglia do 0 control voluntary movements of the limbs 12 De ne afferent and efferent o Afferent conducting toward a central nervous system structure 0 Efferent conducting away from a central nervous system 13 What are the parts and function of the limbic system controls affective and motivated behaviors and certain forms of memory cingulate cortex amygdala hippocampus 14 What is a dermatome 0 area of the skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single spinal cord dorsal root 15 What are the differences between the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord 0 dorsal roots carry sensory info 0 ventral roots carry motor info 16 F 18 Differentiate between sulci and gyri Gyrilgyrus small protrusion or bump formed by the folding of the cerebral cortex Sulcilsulcus groove in the brain matter a grove found in the neocortex or cerebellum 19 What are the major functions of astroglia support remove waste provide energy keep the bloodbrain barrier keep tightjunctions 20 What are the major functions of Schwann cells Gigial cell Wrap aruund penpnerai nerves axun fur myehri List the components of a nerve cell dendntesreceiveinfurmatiun Ceii new integrate X n e axun hiHuck min at sian er axun rrnai decisiuns are made nere myehn sheath cuveraxun and increase eenemren e iermrnai butturis Eminent nerve eeiis re eaen Either Brie y describethe bloodbrain barrier biuud vesseisusuaii Eak irgnirunctruns uri menu vesseis in me brain astmcytes are transpuners rurwnaune brain needs e aminuaci s astmcytes neieruneirens ght Brain Anatomy Sl mal Vlnw Pmmi van gt new uhnium r Gimpmi mm Rum unneran Ynkviuv Vrew TH Canuai swans rm Panm rm owwi in em new be


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