Biology 110 - Basic Concepts and Biodiversity PowerPoint - $2.00
Biology 110 - Basic Concepts and Biodiversity PowerPoint - $2.00 BIOL 110
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Michaud on Monday September 8, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 110 at Pennsylvania State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 270 views. For similar materials see Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity in Science at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/14
Biology 110 Overview of Tutorials 13 Stephanie Michaud Tutorial 1 Overview Life and Natural Selection Life and Living Things Biology is the study of life x I ah nun Ir 1 I I quot 1 1 quot711 Q qf in Timeline ofthe R Evolution of Life Ev7iLu1iE im i NitumrH SHit m i Z ampCd EiE Living things have the ability to Grow and reproduce Maintain homeostasis Respond to stimuli Adapt to evolution Use energy Have a metabolism Create order I H r 1 Tutorial 1 Pop Quiz What important Differential reproduction process in biology or natural selection says explains the diV quot5itV adapted individuals of life in this world are more kew to and pass on their to Answer Evomtion the next generation than others And this describes etter survive traE loo Poorer reproduce genes 0 Poorer die off genes Tutorial 2 Carbon and Life The Properties of Water Polar molecule High heat of Covalent bonds vaporization Sharing 01 CtF0nS Floats when frozen Less dense High specific heat I1prrLrruglt11 atiin1 llydmgaan atrn1I1 t1tjrgEn a t1i17rI Water is also Cohesive Adhesive Holds water molecules together with hydrogen surfaces bonds High surface tension Adhesion Attraction Water to water Cohesion Climb H39l39lr 3lEn Ilydrngen I Cmralent Band 39 quot mwuen IIytlrnngen II it I II II 39quot9Equot Hydrogen Band xygen Attraction Water to other Cohesion ink Adhesion Water Water is capable of dissolving many compounds It is a solvent However not all molecules are watersoluble Nonpolar molecules Atoms with equal electronegativity Hydrophobic molecules Hydrocarbons Petroleum Oil Fats Water Sugar O solution Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Reacts well with Doesn39t react well with water dissolves water doesn39t dissolve Sealit CCDEH Amphipathic Both Pltnesplmel p el PIsphnlipid Ellilajrart 0 R i Hjrdruphilic W 3 ruphuIin l 1 The Properties of Carbon Inorganic Compounds Organic Compounds Water Contain carbon Mineral rocks Provide colors tastes NO Carbon odors how we respond to Exception of CO2 the environment etc Carbon is essential to life Why is Carbon so essential It has four valence electrons It can form up to four associations with other atoms including carbon itself Thousands of compounds exist Organic molecules with carbon Molecular Structural BallandStick SpaceFilling Formula Formula Model Model T U u Methane CH4 H C3 H D H 3 h T i i Ethane G2He H C3C3 H M w H H V Eth I C H Hc cH U V l yene 00 2 4 H H 39 U U Organic Compounds Macromolecules Nucleic Acids Macromolecules are 39 Pmtelns polymers They are made Carbohydrates Up 0f manv m0quot0m TS Lipids joined together A ab0 5m Catabolism 39 5Ynth 5i5 Breaking down Monomer Hydrolysis reaction 39V390 0m r Catabolic reaction P0Ym r Addition ofwater Condensation synthesis Anabolic reaction Removal of water molecule fw b Energy A F Elerg Macromolecule Carbohydrates 39 Carb39O HYdrate Monosaccharides Carb z OXV8e r basic monomer HVdr 8e structure 39 FUHCUOHSZ Simple sugars Energy storage starch Disaccharides two Structure cellulose mgngsaccharides Information storage in jgined tggether nucleic acids Sugar formed by Made of sugars condensation ose suffix describes dehvdratio Carbs Polysaccharidesz Glucose polymer that can have Fructose thousands of monomers Macromolecule Lipids Hydrophobic Saturated fats fatty NOT polymers acids with single bonds Functions Energy storage fats Structure phospholipids Hormones testosterone Steroids Unsaturated fats fatty acids with double bonds Macromolecule Proteins Functions Protein structure Primary chain Secondary folded Tertiary 3D folding Quaternary more than Break down food Affects skin color Move muscles Attack bacteria Transport oxygen to cells We Chair Amino acids Amino Acid Rgroups monomer of proteins 20 total polypeptide bond Polar nonpolar charged bond between two amino acids Macromolecule Nucleic Acids Includes RNA 0 DNA and RNA 0 adenine guanine Nucleotides cytosine and uracil monomers of nucleic 39 DNA3 acids 0 adenine guanine Structure cytosine and thymine K Bonds H c 9 ca Nitrogenous A 9 T DNA base adenine A 9 u RNA Tutorial 2 Pop Quiz What properties of 39 The molecule in the water are obvious in Center SUFF0Un0l 0l this picture by water molecules is most likely Po I a r H vdrophobic lt P0SitiVe V C ar8edgt Negativelycharge r N e u t ra I Hi quotblt1squotH gquot I I 39 Q O a O O W e quot fl e p l e 0 Wl ll Il O Hf e Z quotl39is l l U U U ll l l l 4 O U Q J U 5 VJ U C P 3 Wig P l LA in 3 C H ea 9 ll Q Q 9 H How many amino acids make up proteins Answer 20 Which of these is NOT a function of cholesterol in yourbody 0 It is a precursor molecule for steroidal hormones like estrogen 0 It is a molecule found in cell membranes 0 It enables the body to make Vitamin D ltl Fstores chemical bond energy that can be convejedo ATP 0 It is used to make bile acids for digestion Tutorial 3 Antiquity of Life Earth and the Universe Universe is approximately 137 billion years ago all matter arose from a common point Earth is approximately 45 billion years old First life at around 35 billion years Autotrophs and heterotrophs Early Earth39s atmosphere consisted of little oxygen Dynamic surface not static Plate tectonics movement of large plates on Earth39s crust Continental drift result of crust movement Pa ngea continental drift 130 My v i a When all land masses 2quotquotquotquot were joined together as a supercontinent today Fa 7390 lulya Fossil Record Foundin Sedimentary rocks Lakes swamps oceans Most fossils are the remains of Animals who lived in or near water Divided into age groups according to geological time gggg iie iirir LiF Heezicz Msezeic n2i Ea Q E gt E Ways to Date Fossils Relative Dating Ab5 39quotte Datmg 0 Fossils found in 0 Radiometric dating sedimentary rock Uses radioactive isotopes o ReatjVe age 0ny C14 dating haf ife compares fossils 0 Dendrochronology Looking at the age of trees by their annual growth rings Dates lt 9000 years old Diversity of Life Scientists have only discovered about 18 million species out of a possible 10 to 100 million Three major domains Archaea Simple cells Prokaryote Bacteria Eukarya complex cells Eukaryote Tutorial 3 Pop Quiz What happens when How far back can we 2 plate tectonics trace Carbon14 intersect Earthq ake5 Answer 50000 years Volcanic eruptions Mountain building GM of the am ii gto AVr 7a39H39 71 gtie 7i2391 391 439quot y 5 4 39393939 r
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