Elementary Psychology PSY 12000
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Chapter 9 Psy 12000 Spring 2009 The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time It is our ability to store and retrieve information What are typical indications Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends your neighbors the English language the national anthem and yourself If memory was nonexistent everyone would be a stranger to you every language foreign every task new and even you yourself would be a stranger Flashbulb Memory A unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear strong and persistent memory called ashbulb memory However this memory is not free from errors 2 Pres What Would Life Be Like Without Memory The case of Clive Wearing Pts I amp II A i a ident Bush being told of 9 11 attack 5 Stages of Memory Encm ng Storage Remeval l K Keyboard Monitor Disk Encoding Storage Retrieval Sequential Process Information Processing The Atkinson Schiffrin 1968 three stage model of memory includes a sensory memory b short term memory and c long term memory wmm Problems with the Model Some information skips the first two stages and enters long term memory automatically Because we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment we select information through attention that is important to us The nature of short term memory is more complex Working Memory Alan Baddeley 2002 proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive through an episodic buffer Immedlllc maxmm 9 mm mm 1 Encoding Getting Information In How We Encode I Some information Where the dairy section is in the grocery store is automatically processed I However new or unusual information friend s new cell phone number requires attention and effort Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly such as the following I Space While reading a textbook you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page I Time We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day I Frequency You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you Effortful Processing Encoding Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories Ellonlul Automatic m a mu uxvxgxaandg mm mm Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables 39uqsxmmm duq Rehearsal Time in minutes taken to Ielearn list on day The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1 the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2 2 20 15 As rehearsal Increases derrease releaming time 5 u 3 Number of repetitions nllisl on day 1 14 TUV YOF GEK xoz I lI binghaus 18501909 13 Memory Effects I Next in line Effect I When you are so anxious about being next that you cannot remember what the person just before you in line says but you can recall what other people well before or after you say Jill 1mm Spacing Effect Distributing rehearsal spacing effect is better than practicing all at once massed practice Robert Frost s poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHT Robert Frost l have been one acquainted with the night I have walked out in rain and back in rain I have outwalked the furthest city light Serial Position Effect Primacy effect Immediate recali lasl items best Percentage 90 TUV u d ZOF Better recall em 9 GEK WAV 50 I 50 TIK Poor recall 40 f ir rrosclall item WIB 39 30 97 P Nt X 0 N recalledweil 9 SAR 20 1039 POZ Better recall to 11 REY 12 G1 0 123456789101112 Position ofwcrd in list 17 Recency effect What We Encode I Encoding by meaning I Encoding by images I Encoding by organization Encoding Meaning quotWhalequot Q Did the word begin Structural with a capital letter Encoding Shallow Q Did the word rhyme with the word Zhengmc weight mo mg Q Would the word fit in the sentence Semantic He met a Encoding in the street Craik and Lockhart 1972 Results Tynevf I s ibn39 i39 encoding y L9 Acoustic rhymes with I r 0 10 20 30 40 50 50 70 8E 90 100 Percentage whu recognized ward Visual Encoding Mental pictures iInagery are a powerful aid to effortful processing especially when combined with semantic encoding m a E E l 1 l a Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it 21 Mnemonics Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids Mnemonic techniques use Vivid imagery in aiding memory 1 Method of Loci 2 Link Method Method of Loci List of Items Charcoal Pens Bed Sheets Hammer Link Method List of Items Newspaper Shaving cream Pen Umbrella Lamp Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together 24 Organizing Information for Encoding Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories 1 Chunllting 2 Hierarchy Chunking Organizing items into a familiar manageable unit Try to remember the numbers below 1 7 7 6 14 9 2 1 8 1 2 1 94 1 If you are well versed with American history chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better 1776 1492 1812 1941 Chunking Acronyms are another way of chunllting information to remember it these are also mnemonics HOMES HurorL Ontario Michigan Erie Superior PEMDAS Parentheses Exponent Multiply Divide Add Subtract ROY G BlV Red Orange Yellow GreerL Blue Indigo Violet OCEAN Openness F 39 t39 t 39 Neuroticism also CONES Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories Minerals Metals Stones Rare Common Alloys HPrecious Masonary Encoding Summarized in a Hierarchy Encoding automatic or efforlful Meaning Imagery Organization Chunks Hierarchies Storage Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory Three stores of memory are shown below Sensory Working Long term Memory Memory emory Events Retrieval V High Tone 50 5 120 second Sperling 1950 argued that sensory memory capacity was arger than what was originally thought Sensory Memory Whole Report Sperling 1950 Sensory 1 Memory Recall R T M z 44 recall 50 ms 120 second The exposure time for the stimulus is so small that items Cannot be rehearsed 31 2 Partial Report Time Delay Low Tone Recall T Low Tone Recall Medium Tone J R S 1312 Medium Tone 7 7 100 recall 33 recall High Tone Sensory Memory The longer the delay the greater the memory loss pment Recogmzed Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory Varies for the di erent senses Working Memory Working Memory Working Memory Working memory the new name for short term memory has a limited capacity 7i2 and a short duration 20 seconds Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember up to 7 beans thrown on the oor If there were more beans he guessed 38 Capacity The Magical Number Seven Plus or Minus Two Some Limits on Our Capacityfor Processing Information 1956 Ready MUTGIKTLRSYP You should be able to recall 7i2 letters George Miller 3 Chunking The capacity of the working memory may be increased by Chunking F B I T W A C I A I B M FBI TWA CIA IBM 4chunks Duration Brown Peterson and Peterson 1958 1959 measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec 41 Working Memory Duration Percentage 90 who recalled 80 consonants 70 60 Rapid decay Wllh no Also called the so rehearsal forgetting curve 40 30 20 1 10 3 6 9 U 15 18 Time in seconds between presentation olconsonants and recall request no rehearsal allowed LongTerm Memory Long term Memory LongTerm Memory Unlimited capacity store Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1000000 billion bits of information Landauer 1986 mg 1quot 1 i 3 t The Clark s nutcracker can locate 6000 caches of buried pine seeds during Winter and spring a a 31 g s a 43 went MEMDRV CHAMPIONSHIP RECORDS me wand memory competition irere are some current recprds as nlzans Contest Description Record Speed cards snprtest time tn memorize a snumed pack 33 seconds or 52 playingcards onehour cards Mosl cards memurized in one hour 52 mo cards paints far every park Mien 26 paints if t m stake Speed numbers Mnsl randnm digits memnrized in 5 minutes act digits Names and races Most rst and last names memuvized in 15 is names minutes aner being shnwn with laces p i t rev ryrprrectiys isi last na v2 point r every phonetKally correct but inrarrertiy spelled name ainary 1ng Most binary digits mum etc memavixed 3705 in an minutes when presented In rows of a digits faintes psamemanancpm amt warldmemaryrhampmnsmp mm 45 Memory Stores Shallow vs Deep Processing Deeply processed information is better remembered than shallowly processed information Shallow instructions 7 look at word list and determine if each word has a capital letter in it or not 7 Is the word a verb or noun 7 What rhymes with each word Deep instructions 7 What is the meaning of each word Does each word have more than one meanmg 7 Relate each word to yourself Adaptive Memory SWS L39t tlw v i39i n iii Adaptive Memoiy Survival Processing Enhances Relenlion James S Niiimc Sarah R Thompson and Imefit N S Pundeimtlix wine tinnmn rem ilk MIA Nu m t wt u with ta min 0 i ui mtwn 1nd Niuivlirqlh 7 minimaqu m n n putMd rm m cum nunmne4lumiri n ul sum amumm Another example of evolutionary psychology s in uence this time on memory Storing Memories in the Brain I Through electrical stimulation of the brain Wilder Penfield 1967 concluded that old memories were etched into the brain I Loftus and Loftus 1980 reviewed Penfield39s data and showed that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported ashbacks I Using rats Lashley 1950 suggested that even after removing parts of the brain the animals retain partial memory of the maze 49 Synaptic Changes When Aplysiu Californian a type of large sea slug are threatened they release clouds of ink to blind the attacker Thus this ink release behavior can be conditioned and neurobiologists can study changes that results Kandel and Schwartz 1982 showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning Therefore a biological trace that represents memory mme agnuaus EIqu Synaptic Changes Long Term Potentiation LTP refers to synaptic enhancement after learning Lynch 2002 An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses xvimammogram m3 mslsz all 20 m N rumor lime swerve Stress Hormones amp Memory r stronger memories but still vulnerable to misinformation effects Prolonged stress may disrupt memory Heightened emotions stress related or otherwise make fo Storing Implicit amp Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows Types er long l2rm memories Implicit declarative lpmcedural Willi conscleus retail Withnul anst mus recall Processed in Processed in pan hippacampus hy cerebellum Faere Personally Skills Classkal and nperant general knewledge experienced evenis mnmvand cagnilive currdilierrirrg eiiecls 53 Hippocampus Hippocampus a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories 55 E g e e 5 i e Anterograde Amnesia After losing his hippocampus in surgery patient Henry M HM remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories We call this anterograde amnesia Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative explicit but he can form new memories that are procedural implicit HM learned the Tower of Hanoi game after his surgery Each time he plays it he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game 55 r J Amngsia M iiio ry lnf39a39c tz No New Memories HM Surgery 55 Cerebellum Cerebellum a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories 7 Cerebellum Spinal cord Retrieval Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store a qu mm 5ng mm W lms Measures of Memory In recognition the person must identify an item amongst other choices A multiple choice test requires recognition 1 Name the capital of France a Brussels b Rome c London d Paris Measures of Memory In recall the person must retrieve information using effort A fill in the blank test requires recall 1 The capital of France is Measures of Memory In relearning the individual shows how much time or effort is saved when learning material for the second time M et Original Releammg Dagger Trials Trials Tree x 100 Kite Releaming Trials Silk 10 39 5 x 100 Frog 10 Ring It took 10 trials It took 5 trials 50 to learn this list to learn the list 61 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory water smell Priming To retrieve a speci c memory from the web of associations you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it This process is called smoke heat truck red Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land Godden 8 Baddeley 1975 Permmave of want retaiied m aima mu when icarmnganalesnnq miiinnmmmrmmvi so 20 I I m I n wMim m i im M mm Diiierurv unions Same caniem in a wig iurhearinr d m an i an reiaii and mail 64 priming Activates concept Primes spelling Seeing or hearing I the spoken the word rabbi 39 word hairhare s hare 63 Dea Vu D ja Vu means lll39ve experienced this before Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience We 1 Mr pm Ms 250799 A WMMTE A150 7 mg mm W mmwwm mam m1 um wvamoomm mm me p Context Effects After learning to move a mobile by kicking infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context Butler 8 Rovee Collier 1989 m 51 m sxaimg quotmay Uguli mvg Jamming 66 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood Emotions or moods serve as retrieval cues E i E Forgetting An inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding storage or retrieval Encoding Failure We cannot remember what we do not encode External Sensory Attenllon anking mm 249quot events memory shovHern Mm memnry Enmdlng allure leads 0 favgeulrlg 69 Which penny is real Storage Decay Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve PEKEME euf list rcamed 3 when releamln 60 quot 50 Relenllon 40 drops so then levels off gt u I 2 3 4 5 lo 5 20 25 Tlme in days Since learning list 71 Retaining Spanish Bahrick 1984 showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years Pemenlage nl moon original vumhulary remined 80 Retenunn 7D drups 50 men levels an 0 lZS 9V 4quot 2 497 lime ln veavs arler complellan of Spanish course 72 5mm laxnmnuvlx murmv Retrieval Failure Although the information is retained in the memory store it cannot be accessed K Encudins External Sensnry Aneniinn tms J mayquot events memury 5 n 39 39139 memory memory Retrieval RElrleval iailuie leads tn mrgziilng Tip of the tongue TOT is a retrieval failure p enomenon Interference lOlder learning may interfere with learning new material prmzctive interference 39Learning new information may disrupt retrieval of old information retroactive interference Retrieval of information may interfere with other retrieval uutput interference Spanish learned afterwards interferes Iehaaclively with a French exam rang lliw plume 3wie Study Flenrtl Sludy Spanish 7 pioarllve 39 Retroactive Interference Sleep prevents retroactive interference Therefore it leads to better recall Percentage 90 ofsyllables 30 Wirlioui inmrlcri ng l ll reCBHEd 70 Afterslaep 23 rem 395 After remaining awake 2 3 4 S 6 7 Hours elapsed after learning syllables Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting People unknowingly revise their memories Repression A defense mechanism that banishes anxietyarousing thoughts feelings and memories from consciousness Why do we forget tntulmallnn bits Ihe senesifsmi l mliyegisia amazing derail Forgetting can occur at i any memory stage We initi 39r i39r39irltfmm filter alter or lose MM much information i during these stages rami i t i irm 1 l l Reirlml mm ianrrcim mullnly nupendl i ng on lnirilmenre i level rues muads an malivns snmu lhlngs grl mlrlevvd same dan39l Memory Construction While tapping our memories we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into one39s memory of an event Misinformation and Imagination Effects Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event Depiction of the actual accident Misinformation Group A How fast were the cars going when they hit each other Group B How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other Memory Construction A week later they were asked Was there any broken glass Group B smashed into reported more broken glass than Group A hit mum class 1 SwapMW Gmup mashedmm vm Source Amnesia Source Amnesia Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced heard read or imagined misattribution sometimes called unconscious transference Discerning True amp False Memories Just like true perception and illusion real memories and memories that seem real are difficult to discern b a When students formed a happy or angry memory of mor hed computer blended faces they made the computer assisted faces a either happier or b angrier 83 False Memories Repressed or Constructed Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse False Memory Syndrome A condition in which a person s identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a traumatic experience which is sometimes induced by well meaning therapists Children s Eyewitness Recall Children s eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed However if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded the accuracy of their recall increases In cases of sexual abuse this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse Memories of Abuse Are memories of abuse repressed or constructed Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories However other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be constructed Constructed Memories Loftus research shows that if false memories lost at the mall or drowned in a lake are implanted in individuals they construct fabricate their memories False Memories iquot r quot i5 manna m us rnnulnumim rmnninsv healing False Memorles a ummsmuy mm 4145 Sam quotHun mums Wand m m my Consensus on Childhood Abuse Leading psychological associations of the world agree on the following concerning childhood sexual abuse Injustice happens Incest and other sexual abuse happens People may forget Recovered memories are commonplace Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable I Memories of things happening before 3 years of age are unrelia e I Memories whether real or false are emotionally upsetting Improving Memory I Study repeatedly to boost long term recall I Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material I Make material personally meaningful I Use mnemonic devices I associate with peg words something already stored I make up a story I chunk acronyms Improving Memory Activate retrieval cues mentally recreate the situation and mood Recall events while they are fresh before you encounter misinformation Minimize interference 1 Test your own knowledge 2 Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know 5mm mmquot mamx 1 s gr 4 Social Psychology Chapter 18 PSY 12000003 Spring 2009 Focuses in Social Psychology We cannot live for ourselves alone Herman Melville Social psychology scienti cally studies how we think about in uence and relate to one another Social Thinking 1 Does his absenteeism signify illness laziness or a stressful work atmosphere 2 Was the horror of 911 the work of crazed evil people or ordinary people corrupted by life events Social thinking involves thinking about others especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution Theory Fritz Heider 1958 suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone s behavior often by crediting either the situation or the person s disposition npa spmmpais mm a q Fritz Heider Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations A teacher may wonder whether a child s hostility re ects an aggressive personality dispositional attribution or is a reaction to stress or abuse a situational attribution Dispositions are enduring personality traits So if Joe is a quiet shy and introverted child he is likely to be like that in a number of situations Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error We see Joe as quiet shy and introverted most of the time but with friends he is very talkative loud and extroverted Effects of Attribution How we explain someone s behavior affects how we react to it YnlEram veadi on Sim innxl nuribuhnn warm mummy allow Mwhv mm mm lSlll 39 de mum MEET ch behavior 5 l 1 i Mi e 1E reg 392 a V Dispusilinn atllihminn Unllvnuhle reatll II 39n mused up and vet pas the mm 1 mm a 4 Wm unsung in we a ski Attitude A belief and feeling that predisposes a person to respond in a particular way to objects other people and events If we believe a person is mean we may feel dislike for the person and act in an unfriendly manner Attitudes Can Affect Action Our attitudes predict our behaviors imperfectly because other factors including the external situation also in uence behavior Democratic leaders supported Bush s attack on Iraq under public pressure However they had their private reservations Attitudes Can Affect Action Not only do people stand for what they believe in attitude they start believing in what they stand for AKhnns Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking beliefs 1 Small Request Large Request In the Korean War Chinese communists solicited cooperation from US army prisoners by asking them to carry out small errands By complying to small errands they were likely to comply to larger ones FootintheDoor Phenomenon The tendency for people who have rst agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Role Playing Affects Attitudes Ziinbardo 1972 assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role appropriate attitudes u A WM Namuxpquqqndl e WI WW Z D d39u39lhu Actions Can Affect Attitudes Why do actions affect attitudes One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed we experience tension This is called cognitive dissonance To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions Festjnger 1957 Cognitive Dissonance We don t like to hold inconsistent thoughts or have a thought that is inconsistent With our behavior When faced with an inconsistency for something relatively important we experience cognitive dissonance We are motivated to reduce this dissonance We change the beliefattitude to come in line with the behavior 7 13320 Study by Festinger amp Carlsmitli 7 Severity of initiation by Aronson amp Mills Social In uence The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes beliefs decisions and actions and the way they are molded by social Conformity amp Obedience Behavior is contagious modeled by one followed by another We follow behavior of others to conform Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance obedience toward authority m in uence NON SEQLIITUR by WiHN memm 9 i 9 3 39 avg YouTR E9 MRRKETM i ii 2 5 5 a f 25 momma i 15 The Chameleon Effect or N onconscious Mimicry Conformity Adjusting one s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard Chartrand amp Bargh 1999 Number 08 oftimes 07 06 05 04 03 i Pariicipam Participant ru 5 ace shakasfoot iCunfederate rubs i Confederate shakes Group Pressure amp Conformity Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard 3 Standard line Comparison lines 18 Group Pressure amp Conformity An in uence resulting from one s willingness to accept others opinions about reality Conditions that Strengthen Conformity I One is made to feel incompetent or insecure I The group has at least three people I The group is unanimous I One admires the group s status and attractiveness I One has no prior commitment or response I The group observes ones behavior I One s culture strongly encourages respect for a social standard Reasons for Conformity Normative Social In uence In uence resulting from a person s desire to gain approval or avoid rejection A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected Informative Social In uence The group may provide valuable information but stubborn people will never listen to others Informative Social In uence Baron and colleagues 1996 made students do an eyewitness identification task If the task was easy lineup exposure 5 sec conformity was low in comparison to a dif cult 12 sec exposure task Informative Social In uence Dif cult judgments Percentage of 50 conformity to confederates wrong answers 4D Conformity highest on important judgments Easy judgments Hig Importance Baron et al 1996 Slide 1 Obedience People comply to social investigates the effects of authority on obedience pressures How would they respond to outright E command E E Stanley Milgrain designed a study that r 39 E I Sanley Milgram 193371984 Milgram s Study Sllghx Mndemp smug Vew Intense Extreme Danger xxx h h39 1 m w w Ian m w mummy seven r ms i J m w m 4m snouiuwisnwuus Milgram s Study Results Percentage nrsunjens who obeyed experimenter l 50 40 The Mammy or I suhyetlsnonunuud 30 y o obcv w the em in ID i n I sugm Mndmu Suong Intense Ver memo Danger xxx vsrom warm 1357mm mqu lt15 30m Ullkusxlv severe 43574501 Wselaoy m5 3w IVSJQCH Shack levels in vulls 26 Individual Resistance A third of the individuals in Milgrarn s study resisted social coercion l I mu mmm am a V K 1 bk I l m An unarmed individual single handedly challenged a line of tanks at Tiananmen Square 27 Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies In both Ash39s and Milgram39s studies participants were pressured against following their standards and be responsive to others In Milgrarn s study participants were torn between hearing the victims pleas their own values and the experimenter s orders Group In uence How do groups affect our behavior Social psychologists study various groups I One person affecting another I Families I Teams Committees Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Social facilitation Refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others Triplett 1898 noticed cyclists race rnes were faster when they competed against others than when they just raced against the clock samwu 1m zsu www Social Loa ng The tenden of an individual in a group to exert less ef ort toward attainin a common goal than when tested individually Latan Williams 81 Harkins 1981 Deindividuation The loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint in group situations that foster arousal and Mob behavior 32 Effects of Group Interaction Group Polarization enhances a group s prevailing attitudes through a discussion If a group is like minded discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes High 4 Hish39weludlce gmups Distussmn mung likeMinded a peopielendsmsvengthen pleaxisung anitudas Preiudize u 1 an rejudlce groups a 73 Low 74x seiore HSLHSSIDH Aher Liiscusaimi 33 Groupthinllt A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decisionmaking group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives 0Attack on Pearl Harbor 0Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis 0 Watergate Coverup 0 Chernobyl Reactor Accident Power of Individuals The power of social in uence is enormous but so is the power of the individual Nonviolent fasts and appeals by Gandhi led to the independence of India from the British pm In via mmmamfm Social Relations Social psychology teaches us how we relate to one another through prejudice aggression and con ict to attraction and altruism and peacemaking Prejudice Reign of Prejudice Simply Fa ed Preludgmel ftr a Pljeludice is an Prejudice works at the conscious and more at unlustl able ufgua y negatwe attlFud toward the unconscious level Therefore prejudice is a grou and its members Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural ethnic or more like a kneejerk response than a conscious gender groups decision Components of Prejudice l Beliefs stereotypes 2 Emotions hostility envy fear 3 Predisposition to act to discriminate How Prejudiced are People Racial amp Gender Prejudice Over the duration of tjine many prejudices against interracial marriage gender Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice but prejudices still exist homosexuality and minorities have decreased Percentage s an waxy Percent appraying MGR a 90m 70 60 fxggavnmgggggg g I pramsagmmmwn n39 P 39 J andbluckslmsfdtlcnshavpty w 99 so 7 7quot inreremdewdes o W 40 D 5quotquot 30 3 wimes have a n m d 20 m keep mmurmes cm a 21 m then neighhorhoods 4 vsquot mu mm m mm mm Nmn Jam 0 1935 HMS I950 WES mso yeav 39 955 i970 1975 wage was man Veav Race Gender Nine out of ten white respondents were slow when responding to words like peace or paradise when they saw a black individual s photo compared to a white individuals photo Hugenberg amp Bodenhausen 2003 Most women still live in more poverty than men About 100000000 women are missing in the world There is a preference for male children in China and India even with sex selected abortion outlawed Gender Although prejudice prevails against women more people feel positively toward women than men Women rated picture b feminized higher 665 for a matrimonial ad Perrett 1998 55 u Azsmunsmvwv zs awed wax Social Roots of Prejudice Why does prejudice arise I Social Inequalities I Social Divisions I Emotional Scapegoatjng Social Inequality Prejudice develops when people have money power and prestige and others do not Social inequality increases prejudice In and Out Groups Ingroup People with whom one shares a common identity Outgroup Those perceived as different from one s ingroup Ingroup Bias The y y 4quot4 Scotland s famed Tartan Army fans Emotional Roots of Prejudice Prejudice provides an outlet for anger emotion by providing someone to blame After 9 11 many people lashed out against innocent ArabAmericans Cognitive Roots of Prejudice One way we simplify our world is to categorize We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them Foreign sunbathers may think Balinese look alike Cognitive Roots of Prejudice In vivid cases such as the 9 11 attacks terrorists can feed stereotypes or prejudices terrorism Most terrorists are nonMuslims w Cognitive Roots of Prejudice The tendency of people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get the justworld phenomenon lt w ml n y Hindsight Bias After learning an outcome the tendency to believe that we could have predicted it beforehand may contribute to blaming the victim and forming a prejudice against them Aggression Aggression can be any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy It may be done reactiver out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end Research shows that aggressive behavior emerges from the interaction of biology and experience The Biology of Aggression Three biological in uences on aggressive behavior are 1 Genetic In uences 2 Neural In uences 3 Biochemical In uences In uences Genetic In uences Animals have been bred for aggressiveness for sport and at times for research Twin studies show aggression may be genetic In men aggression is possibly linked to the Y chromosome Neural In uences Some centers in the brain especially the liinbic system ainygdala and the frontal lobe are intimately involved with aggression In uences Biochemical In uences Anjlnals with diminished alnounts of testosterone castration become docile and if injected with testosterone aggression increases Prenatal exposure to testosterone also increases aggression in female hyenas 25 The Psychology of Aggression Four psychological factors that in uence aggressive behavior are 1 Dealing with aversive events 2 Learning aggression is rewarding 3 Observing models of aggression 4 Acquiring social scripts Aversive Events Studies in which anjlnals and hulnans experience unpleasant events reveal that those made miserable often make others miserable m1 WEI stxm gt1 gal Environment Even environ1nental temperature can lead to aggressive acts Murders and rapes increased with the temperature in Houston Murders and vanes per day in Huuslon Texas As temperature soavs so does 75 aqgtessmn 1quot 55 1quot 0 40758 69778 79435 8579192799 58 Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit FrustrationAggression Principle A principle in which frustration caused by the blocking of an attempt to achieve a desired goal creates anger which can generate aggression Learning that Aggression is Rewarding When aggression leads to desired outcomes one learns to be aggressive This is shown in both anjlnals and humans Cultures that favor violence breed violence ScotchIrish settlers in the South had more violent tendencies than their Quaker Dutch counterparts in the Northeast of the US Observing Models of Aggression Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their rela onShips With Coerciveness women This against coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of R and Xrated movies Sexual promiscuity Hostile masculinity Acquiring Social Scripts The media portrays social scripts and generates mental tapes in the minds of the viewers When confronted with new situations individuals may rely on such social scripts If social scripts are violent in nature people may act them out Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence The general consensus on violent video games is that to some extent they breed violence Adolescents view the world as hostile when they get into arguments and receive bad grades after playing such games Summary Biolagical in uences allelic influences a biochemical inlluellles such as testosterone and alco nl 39 neul al in uentes suth as severe head lrliulies Psychological in uences dominatlllg hehavinl which hnnsts testaslelone levels In the blood bellevlllgyou ve dlunkalcahcl whethel you actually have or not rruslmlion aggressive role models I rewalds braggresslve behavior Agglessive behavior Sntlalvcultural in uences deilldividuallall from being in a uawd challenging environmental factors such as lowding heal and direct plovocatinlis narenlal llludels nfagglessiall minimal rainei involueniam being leierled min a eioua exposure to violenl media Con ict Con ict is perceived as an incompatibility of actions goals or ideas A Social Trap is a situation in which the con icting parties by each rationally pursuing their selfinterest become caught in mutually destructive behavior A Game of Social Trap By pursuing our selfinterest and not trusting others we can end up losers rsnn 1 hunseA ChonseB Optimal outcome 5 510 Chaos A Persnn a Probable outcome Choose 8 510 Enemy Perceptions People in con ict form diabolical images of one another um uu mm a m quotz Saddam Hussein GeorgeBush quotWicke d Pharaoh EVil Psychology of Attraction Wroximity Geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction mere exposure effect A rare white penguin born in a zoo was accepted after 3 weeks by other penguins just due to proximity vsnmi Psychology of Attraction 2 Physical Attractiveness Once proximity affords contact the next most important thing in attraction is physical appearance W W a a 3 3 n n a a r i r Psychology of Attraction 3 Similarity Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen Similarity breeds content Romantic Love Passionate Love An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning of a love relationship Twofactor theory of emotion Physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion depending upon what we interpret or label the arousal Romantic Love Companionate Love A deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined ANOWINLVW COURTSHIP Altruism An unsel sh regard for the welfare of others Equity A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give SelfDisclosure Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Bystander Effect Bystander Intervention The decisionmaking process for bystander intervention inleupms m mm as gt Emmgvnry lug lam 1m 7 emu Yrs Assumes Yes Axumprs lnci cm quot uspansibiluy mth No Na Na help help help was ms mst Tendency 0f any glven Percentage gm mowing bystander to be less mg 30 W likely to give aid if other 70 bystanders are present 0 50 4f 30 20 H 0 l 2 3 4 Numhev of others pvesumed available in help 74 The Norms for Helping Social Exchange Theory Our social behavior is an exchange process The ai1n is to maximize benefits and minimize costs I Reciprocity Norm The expectation that we should return help and not harm those who have helped us I Social Responsibility Norm Largely learned it is a norm that tells us to help others when they need us even though they may not repay us 76 Peacemaking Superordinate Goals are shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation Communication and understanding developed through talking to one another Sometimes it is mediated by a third party 77 Peacemaking Graduated amp Reciprocated Initiatives in TensionReduction GRIT This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party
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