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Elementary Psychology

by: Celia O'Hara

Elementary Psychology PSY 12000

Marketplace > Purdue University > Psychlogy > PSY 12000 > Elementary Psychology
Celia O'Hara
GPA 3.93

Susan South

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Susan South
Class Notes
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celia O'Hara on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 12000 at Purdue University taught by Susan South in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/207873/psy-12000-purdue-university in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Biological Processes Biological Basis of Behavior 1 Theory of Evolution 2 Genes 3 Nervous system 4 Brain structure and function 1 Evolution a Evo39LgI N mung Basic idea of Evolution Modern forms of life came about through ual changes 39om earlier forms Darwin s Co ribution Mechanism for evolutio Natural selection Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection All living species arrived at their present biological structures through a historical process involving random inherited changes Those changes that enhanced an org ni ability to survive and reproduce we a sm39s re passed along in increasing numbers from generation to generation T ose changest at hindered survival and reproduction were lost over generations Adaptation A trait selected for by nature bc it increases reproductive quot tnessquot Must be How are changes passed fro generation to generation Darwin did not know the mechanism 200quot century discovery DNA and genes GENES are the biological units ofheredity mm 3 Banana mimanm m AMLNE 5 le km mm lch Emil ul xm Chromosomal abnormalities Many are sexlin ked Turner syndrome only 1 X chromosome Fragile X n Autoiomal anomalies Do n39s syndrome iii r l is 1i F ii quot2 ll Genetic effects Mother Blue eyes bb Genotype The set of genes that an individual inherits Phenotype Observable properties ofthe body and behavioral traits Genetic effects Single gene effects Huntington39s disease HD chromosome 4 Phenylketonun39a PKU Dominant vs recessive inheritance mamml npmimm Inimitaan o 7 trim I l L n l AnalI NEHI Genetic effects Polygenic effects Effect of many genes Example schizophrenia Why are there harmful genes Balanced selection Polygenic mutationselection balance Behavioral disorders influenced by many genes Natural selection can t screen out bad mutations Complex traits entail tradeoffs Gums 7 anally summ 7 lnluacl mu Envlmmns 7 Esnvmr 613quotsz Behavior Genetics 93 Variation in a trait is due to o Genetic in uences Environmental in uences Methods Compare identical to fraternal twins Compare identical twins raised apart Compared adopted children to bio parents Heritability Proportion ofphenotypic variance accounted for by genetic differences Phenotypes Cognitive ability 50 Schizophren39a 80 Depression 3 A Molecular Genetics Linkage Lr li inl sociation Genetic variability is the fodder for evolution Reshuf ing ofgenes occurs d r39ng sexual reproduction Mutations random changes in the DNA structure Important facts Evolution is spurred by changes in the environment When conditions change previously use Jl characteristics may become harmful or irrelevant Evolution of speci c characteristics can happen slowly quic ly or not at all epending on environment Clarifying errant assumptions Evolution has no foresight Evolution is not a ladder The n aturalistic fallacy Natural selection does not produce perfection Functionalism Natural selection breeds animals to be better at doing what they must do to survive and reproduce in the natural environment So existing psychological processes may have an adaptive purpose 3 The Nervous System quot39r r r 3 l quot r u uln rr AJ 12 1 u u t1 Electro Chemical Communication System The NERVOUS SYSTEMquot ltll3511 l1y 1 0 Part 1 Central Nervo CNS Brain amp Spinal Cord Copyright 2002 Nucleus Communlcallarrs inc All rights reserved ruwtrrrucleusrrrecorn 2 Peripheral Nervous System PNS Central nervous system onetwork of nerves that link the CNS with the Peripheral nervous system Sensory Neurons receive Inter Neurons transfer information from one neuron to another Motor Neurons react Cells in the Nervous System Neurons Sensory messages to spinal cord brain Interneurons connect sensory motor neurons Motor neurons messages from spinal cord brain Glial Cells Remove wate fill in empty space help neurons communicate Cells in the Nervous System 7n Mwon s mucrUREs or m Nsunoru mmmn mm um Imwtsesmmugh usamm uch isms me new imvulsas mman nsaxonwxh mm muonswher neumvinsm illlrsnn mleasmmxnmular um um Aww 11 Example Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Involved in triggering muscles to contract Dopamine Inhibitory effects Involved in schizophrenia Parkinson39s sease Serotonin Involved in sleep and dreaming mood 39sorders Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA Involved in regulating anxiety Drugs and the Brain Agonists Mimic the action of neurotransmitters Example Nicotine mimics acetylcholine 39 t Antagonls s Block the action of neurotransmitters Example Curare blocks acetylcholine Neuromodulators Increase or decrease effectiveness of other neurotransmitters Example Endorphins Discovery Function Localization Lateralization Plasticity Right about Localization Wrong about Bumps Traits Isolation Permanence ACCIDENTAL BRAIN MAN I PU LATIONS INVASIVE BRAIN MANIPU LATIONS TEMPORARY BRAIN MANIPU LATION Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation MS Electroencephalography EEG Magnetic Resonance Imaging MR 15 fMRl functional MRI lnternal scanning technique that measures changes in blood flow to specific areas of brain tissue PET scan depicts brain activity hot spotsquot l ll Brand New39 Really Old Ancient Hindbrain Voluntary action complex judgment symbolic thought Emotion motivation simple judgment Sensory information Repetitive movement Breathing 17 Forebrain Cerebral Cortex LeftJrig hemispheres Divided into lobes Frontal planning decision making memory personality Parietal processing sensations of touch temperature pain Temporal auditory processing speech language comprehension left hemisphere Occipital vision BODILY SE NSATIONS Parietal Frontal be Occipital quot9 VISION Temporal Lobe 39 amp HEARI NG LANGUAGE IPREHENSION Brain Plasticity Plasticity ability to change structure and function as a result of experience Experience changes in brain Brain snze cortical thickness dendrmc branching Examples education exercise 21 Development Brain 1 Cell migration 2 Growth of axons 3 Formation of dendrites 4 Synaptic connections 5 Myelination Growth spurts a er birth Environmental in uences Critical periods Summary Biological Basis of Key Ideas l n 22


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