Elementary Psychology PSY 12000
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celia O'Hara on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 12000 at Purdue University taught by Susan South in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/207873/psy-12000-purdue-university in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Human Development WW1 PSY 120 Professor South 91 42009 Announcements Exam 1 Tuesday September 22 EE129 1030 50 multiple choice questions OnIine review quiz Blackboard Extra Credit 20 minute time limit i What is developmental psycholugy 2 Physical Development 7 Brain Development e Studying cognitive development me Piaget Vygutsky 4 Social development 7 Attacnme nt 7 luprnent 7 Personality identity Development 9142009 1 WHAT IS DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology a branch of psychology that studies physical cognitive and social change throughout the life span Is Development continuous or stagelike with distinct phases to intellectual development Are there critical periods when an individual is particularly sensitive to certain environmental experiences 2 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal period 02 weeks Time from conception to the implantation of the zote fertilized egg Embryonic period 28 weeks Heartbeat begins recognizable body parts appear sexual differentiation begins Fetal period 9th week birth Last 3 months Rapid growth of body and brain 9142009 Germinal Period Begins when egg is fertilized in the fallopian tube Ends 2 weeks later wh n te is implanted in the wall uterus 3quotan Wanmum Mm from implantation t 8 weeks after conception body parts are formed during thi Fetal Period From 9 weeks after conception to birth Highlights Increase in size systems begin to function Age of viability 22 to 28 weeks 9142009 Person A uur budies deveiup We have basicaiiy aii uftne same pans uf euurse they change in SiZE aswe get Hider 3 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The Developing Brain The brain is nutlike the restufthe may ltdues nut begi a lime adult brain that merely needs in gruvv lri size tart With a brain that is fundamentally different rrem huvvitvvill be later lri life Em brain is 25 ufadultvveight Age 2 75 Age 6 am FEWnEW neurens are pruduced after prenatal periud 4m ufsvnapses are pruned during hildhuud and adolescence Brain Development Develops 39om back to 39ont Brain stem and spinal quot cord are nearly fully orga 39 myelinated at birth Midbrain and cerebellum begin myelinating just er birth Last of all the cerebral cortex matures frontal lobe is not nished until the late teens 9142009 How is the Brain Maturing It wires upquot Develop connections between di erent neurons Technically referred to as Synaptogenesisquot39 process of formin synapses with other neuro i 15 months h 3 rnunlhs comcai Neurons The Aging Brain Neurons do die with age However they can continue to increase in com lexit Dementia Loss in mental functioning caused by physical changes in the brain n 1 ofthose over 65 have ntia About 20 over 80 have dementia 9142009 9142009 How can we figure out what people know at different ages The Tools of Investigation Longitudinal designs test the same person or group of persons re eatedl at different oints in time Crosssectional designs test different people of different ages at the same point in time Methods for Studying lnfants Abilities Preferential Looking Procedure Present two objects sideby side Record how long the infant looks at each object lfthe infant cannot distinguish between the two objects then she will look at each one equally o en Preferential Looking Method Will gaze at facelike pattern rather than similar non facelike pattern Preferred 9142009 Methods for Studying lnfants Abilities Habitu ation 7 newberns b eerne bereg Witn a repeated stimulus but renew tneir attentiein tei a slightly dlffererlt stimulus Procedure Keep preseiiiiiig lankan tirne greps Now Present a new ebieet lrtne dlfference is salientte tne lnfanttnen lankan tirne Will inerease Baby Minds me spent lnnkilg mums 9142009 The Newborn Pacmlage m um spam innkmu Familiar Invel smulus sumuius Growth of Cognitive Development Some Infant Reflexes Born with a number of re ex behaviors 1 More Re ex 2 Grasping Re ex 3 Babinski Re ex quotin main 3 mild PemepumlDevdopment Newborns highly sensitive to touchpain Preference for sweet taste and certain sweet odors at birth Newborns can distinguish wide variety or speech sounds Esp response to slow clear highpitched expressive voices native language own mother s voice Vision is the last sense to mature 9142009 Memow Implicit memories newborns Explicit memories Semantic memories 10 or 12 months Episodic memories 2024 months begin 34 years reliably Working memory Increases as we age peaks age 15 Physical Knowledge Infants seem to understand the concept of gravity knowing by 3 months that unsupported objects will fall and will not be suspended in space 9142009 How do humans develop thought Piaget sTheory Challenges and Critiques Jean Piaget 1896 1980 Had a profound effect on developmental psychology How Schemata Change Assimilation Fitting experiences into mata Example Seeing a horse for the rst time and classifying it as a doggie Accommodation Changing schemata to incorporate new experiences Example Creating a new category called horses 9142009 Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development All mental growth involves major qualitative changes as the child passes through several mental stages Believed there were 4 developmental stages that differ in terms ofhow the world is understood Sensorimotor Stage birth 2 Information gained through senses and motor actions Child perceives and manipulates but does not reason Object permanence is acquired at around 6 to 8 months 9142009 Object Permanence The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived For young babies under 6 months when an object is no longer visible it ceases to exist But note some evidence of object permanence in babies under 6 months Preoperational Stage 7 years Begin to represent world with language mental imagery and symbolic thought Egocentrism unable to take another s point of view Concrete Operational Stage 711 years Less egocentric Can reason about concrete things Understand laws of conservation ofmatter But inability to reason abstractly or hypothetically Conservation Concepts A 7 l V eimnnnnanm mmnmmMm wwmgnnm mwm treinntmnmnnneen mmnnnnw Mutheyhmmem Ml unennnmaelrl nmwmm w nvWlmm mun 9142009 Formal Operational Stage age 11 adulthood Acquires logical reasoning Children can think deeply about concrete eve ts and can reason abstractly and hypothetically Can use systematic ways of solving problems Thinking is now adultlike Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development TypicalAge Des n Dwelnpmenlzl Range nlSIzge Phennmem ainnie neeiy 2yeene seneennmn nmeei pennenenee e enennneinemneinneugn sneneenennety ene newer Mn inemninei Anemziesyeene pneenennenei yneienape nepneeemineininge eeeeeninen mnweeeneinegee teneueeeeeeiepneni ceneeneemen e Mathematical exams Weeping eeneeeeneieeies inenaenneiens and penennine althmaticd openeiens n mm 7m 11 yeee Concrete Dyeri ional out 2 through Formiloyer ionil Ab raa logic imermal tor Ab adulthood Ahgram neeenine mural neeeenine 91 42009 Was Piaget Right Wellaccepted contribution Children ave unique schemata that change systematically overtime Challenges Piaget tended to underestimate children s cognitive abilities such as object permanence Stages may not be as rigid as he thought Culture affects cognitive development too Piaget s Theory Challenged New studiesindicate infants do more than sense and react One study had 1 month old babies suck one of two paci ers without ever seeing them o h paci ers infants stared more at the one they had felt in their mouth Vygotsky s Theory Emphasized the role of child s interaction with the social environment Language as the foundation for develo ment of higher human thought Development occurs first at social level than at the individual level Summary Babies brains develop dramatically in the rst years of li e 39 Baby minds are completely different than adult min s lfyou want to know what a baby knows don t ask watch Babies are actively engaged with learning about how the world works 9142009 Attachment Harlow s Monkeys Strange Situ ations 9142009 Harlow s Monkeys Attachment in humans John Bowlby British psychologist combined evolutionary perspective and child social development Attachment emotional bonds Observed attachment behaviors Distressed mnen careglver leaves Pleased Wlth return Distress vvitn stranger Explores unfamiliar places if caregiver present Strange situation Developed by MaryAinsworth M ii Secure Some distress when Con dent exploring new places wi h mother around The largest group of American babies have this type of attachment 6070 9142009 Insecure Avoidant May or may not show distress when mother ignore or turn away Lacks trust About 20 have this type of attachment Insecure Resistant Upset when mother leaves room when mother returns Resists mother39s affections Don39t explore new 2 S 3 3 m 1 type of attachment Attachment Styles Secure Attachment 70 Insecure Avoidant 20 Insecure AnxiousResistant 10 Disorganized Based on StrangeSituation Test 9142009 Child Care 1960 165 A ofmothers kids lt 3 years worked outside home Mid 1980 50 1995 60 2001 64 Day care quality predicts later academic performance Children in day care centers can show more pro em ehaviors Quality of parenting generally a better predictor Parenting amp Discipline Early theories emphasized parenting as top downquot 7 Parent Was the culture trainer Judith Rich Harris peer groups much more important than parents Harris Peer Influences Our friends have more influence on who we become amp how we think than primary caregivers 91 42009 Parenting amp Discipline Early theories emphasized parenting as top down 7 Parent was the culture trainer Judith Rich Harris peer groups much more important than parents Current View bidirectional relationship between parents and kids m 4 m Parenting Discipline Baumrind s parenting styles Permissive minimal restrictions rarely use punishment Authoritatian parents impose rules impose forceful punishment unresponsive to needs Authoritative parents are attentive and response but also impose clear standards of behavior Rejectingneglecting disengaged onsiveneslearmth W law W W Permissive Reiectingrneglecting 20 Gender s quot x i MALE BRAIN 9142009 Gender Concepts Gender labeling 152 Are you a boy or a girl Gender Stability 34 Will you be a mommy or daddy when you grow up Gender consistency 67 If a boy puts on a dress will he be a girl Gender concepts Gender stereotypes beliefs about characteristics appropriate for menwomen Gender roles the re ection of these stereotypes in everyday behav39or Gender identity perception of the self as masculine or feminine Gender typing associating objects activities roles etc with biological sex 21 Gender in development Late infancy kids can discriminate faces by ender 2 years label self as boy 0 39 23 sexstereotyping oftoy preferences 3 refer playing with same sex peers 39 39 tereotypes about occupations and es that are right39 for males an 4 rIgId activiti fema es 5 personality traits ascribed 9142009 Moral Development Moral Development Konlberg stnemyofrnoral development 7 Moral reasonlng develops overtlrne tn stages need to mastertne prevlous stages before helng more to progress to tne next stage e Moral reasonlng l5 Contlngent on cognltlve development l e Plaget e We determlne tne stage ofdevelopment by lackler at tne reasonlnghehlnd tne declslon not by examlnlng tne declslon ltself do 9142009 Preconventlonal Ru es are externaL n mtemahzed Decrsrons based on se f centered reasomng and pumsnment Corresponds to Praget s preoperauonar stage Level l Stage1 Pumshment and Obed ence nsmereu Stage 2 nstrumenta Re atmst 7 Bath mmemate and uerayeu cunsequences cunsmereu e meated by desrrefurrwam What gum wm mrs u me Conventional Level Moral decisions are based on r Ies laws norms andor public pinion Corresponds to Piaget s concrete 0 erational stage I Stage 3 Interpersonal Concordance r The Good BoyGm Onentatron e Whatwou d everyone erse do I Stage 4 Law and Order e gnores motwes and crrcumstances Wrong rs Wrong e Postconventional Level Must mature level 7 it is believed that many penple Wlii never reasun atthls level ssuclated With the ablilty in than abstramly Declsluns based un What is best fur satiety and un higher ethical principles tage 5 Sacral Cuntract 7 ll is righttu make an exceptlun tuthe law when ll is lquot the bes1 interest utsucletyas a wnule Stage E Universal Ethical Principles 7 Declsluns are based an abstract principles at right urwrung Whetherurnuttheycunespundtu laws 7n 9142009 Moral Development Criticisms of Kohlberg s theory sense erlusue e Thus wumen are inherently lnlevlu Crosscultural issues lndlvlduallsrn vlulate nennsrer higher principles Cullectlvlsrn nenn adherence is must impenant Moral Development Ph siolo Man agree that it izokay togy hrow the switch but not to push a person offthe bridge e two scenarios engage different psychological processes with different levels of l 3 emotionality People with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage made no distinction between the two scenarios Moral Development Physiology Pe pie with damage to the prefrontal cortex during early childhood tend to s t in adulthood People who sustained similar damage when adults exhibit more advanced stages of moral reasoning The prefrontal cortex seems to be important for LEARNING moral reasoni Erikson s Theory INFANCY 7 Trust my vs Mistrust Ear 9142009 9142009 Stage 2 TODDLER Autonomy vs ShameDoubt 18 mos3 yrs Ages 36 Stage 3 Initiative vs Guilt Learns to initiate tasks and deals with self control 9 l 4 0 Elementary School Competence vs lnferiority Learns how to make it in the world 6 yr puberty 26 Stage 5 Adolescence Identity vs Role Confusion People who did not deal wlhis issue would have identity confusion Teen yrs 39s 9142009 Adolesence Time of intense physical cognitive and socioemotional chan es 1 Moodiness New awareness of sexual feelings and impulses Risky behavior A time of storm amp stress 7 Nutnecessanlyl VuungAdult 7 lntimacyvs lsulatiun Stage 6 7 zu s74u s lntimacyampadultattachment Transmuntu parenting Occupationalsuccess Stage 7 MidAdult Generativity vs Stagnation To feel that you made a contribution in the world 40 s 60 s Stage 8 Late Adult Integrity vs Despair 60 s on Growing Old in Society Ageism Discrimination or prejudice against a person based on age Common stereotypes SICK In mental decline lonely depressed In fact older people tend to be more contented less depressed than younger people Some positive stereotypes as well 84 9142009 28 9142009 Was Erikson Right Wellaccepted contributions Personal development is lifelong Emphasis on social and cultural interactions Challenges Sharp transitions between stages Mechanisms that allow for resolution Difficult to test scientifically 29
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