New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Elementary Psychology

by: Celia O'Hara

Elementary Psychology PSY 12000

Marketplace > Purdue University > Psychlogy > PSY 12000 > Elementary Psychology
Celia O'Hara
GPA 3.93

Susan South

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Susan South
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celia O'Hara on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 12000 at Purdue University taught by Susan South in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/207873/psy-12000-purdue-university in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

Similar to PSY 12000 at Purdue


Reviews for Elementary Psychology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/15
Introduction to Psychology PSY 20 Professor South 9 09 8312009 Announcement 0 Extra Credit Opportunity 0 View Discovering PsychologyVideos 0 Episode lzPast Present Promise 0 Episode 2 Understanding Research 0 Next Tuesday Sep 8 lnclass quiz 0 All points count toward Extra Credit 0 Videos available online through Blackboard Today 0 History of Psychology 0 Why it s important 0 Roots of psychological science 0 History of the discipline 0 Current status 0 The Tools of Psychological Research 0 The Scienti c Method Psychology Short history long past 0 Roots of psychology go back centuries 0 Psychology as a scienti c discipline is relatively young 0 Is a science of the mind and behavior possible and if so how is it to be de ned and what should its methods be 8312009 0 Ancient Greeks 0 Hippocrates PlatoAristotle 0 Religion 0 Saint Augustine Bishop of Hippo I his Confessions is notable for its analyses and descr of his own psyche 0 StThomas Aquinas iption I human reason is a complement to religious faith in the search for truth Influences on the developing field of Psychology Rationalists Dualism of mind amp body Empiricists Mind develops from experience Nativists Mind is influenced by an inborn structure Associationists Mind plays a role in forming associations Physicalists Physical causes of mental processes Descartes Locke Psychology is Born 1879 Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 opened the first universitybased psychology lab at the University of Leipzig His goal for psychology integrate the social and physical sciences oHis impact oDefined psychology as a new science oDeveloped the first methods of psychology oAdvised the first generation of psychologists 8312009 Structuralism I Edward Titchener l867 l 927 I Born in England student ofWundt s I Set up a lab at Cornell I TookWundt s ideas in a different direction I More restricted and inflexible I Structuralism the study of the structure of the conscious mind I Wundt had been interested in the synthesis of conscious elements into a whole I Titchener concentrated on the elements alone WilliamJames l842l 9 l 0 mdwduuimmndaememmam 19mm I47I48 I lst professor of psychology in an American school I Introduced experimental psychology to America I His contributions I Principles of Psychalagy I Goal of psychology study living people as they adapt to their environment I Functionalism I Human consciousness is adaptive allows us to adjust to our environment Functionalism I ls American school of psychology Understand conscious process and behavior in their role of helping humans adapt to the environment I Cannot break down behavior and consciousness into component parts I Consciousness mediates between the environment and human needs Structuralism Functionalism Mental elements Mental operationsfunctions The whatquot of consciousness The hoW and why of consciousness 8312009 The New Psychology in America I Paradox of the first generation ofAmerican psychologists I Many trained byWundt but established a psychology with little resemblend toWundt I Wundt s ampTitchener s psychology not practical I American psychologists studied what the mind does not what it is I Growth of applied psychology I Testing movement Cattell GoddardTerman I IQ testing for children I Army testing I Rapid growth of psychology in American I Labs journals PhD s awarded Gestalt Psychology I Founded in Germany eventually moved west to America I Gestalt shape or form I Focuses largely on learning and perception I 4 principles I The whole is more than the sum of its parts I Psychology is concerned with phenomena I Use lifelike experiments with small numbers ofsubjects I Psychological processes are directly related to biological processes 8312009 Psychoanalysis 0 Grew from two areas of inquiry 0 Ideas about the nature of the unconscious 0 Medical interventions for mental illness 0 Sigmund Freud l856l939 0 Dynamic unconscious 0 Psychopathology of Everyday Life 0 Techniques of Psychoanalysis 0 Free association 0 Dream analysis 0 Transference 0 Defense mechanisms Behaviorism 0 Founded byJohn BWatson 0 The real subject of psychology is behaviorovertvisible indisputable action 0 Behavioral acts described in terms of stimulus and response 0 Used animal research as a model 0 Incredibly popular 0 Decline and fall Cognitive Revolution 0 Around I960 began to challenge behaviorism 0 Focus is a return to the study of conscious processes 0 Prominent principles 0 Examine the process of knowing not merely responding to stimuli 0 How the mind gives form amp coherence to mental experience 0 The individual actively arranges stimuli from the environment 0 Cognitive neuroscience integration of cognitive psychology and neurosciences Biological Factors 0 New emphasis on linking brain m 0 Modern technology allows us to 0 Record the activity of brain cells in response to stimuli in the environment 0 Create images of brain activity during different mental processes psychological states 0 Better understand normal and abnormal brain chemistry ind and behavior 8312009 PsychologyToday 0 8922 rst meeting l2 charter 42 0 American Psychological Association APA members 0 2008 48000 members 53 divisions annual budget of 40 million publishes 29 journals 0 No standard method or techni ue integrates the eld Nor does there seem to be any fundamental scientific principle comparable to Newton s laws of motion or Darwin s theory of evolution George Miller I985 p The Scienti c Method WHY PEOPLE BELIEVE WEIRD THINGS muwmua sunmun I Julmm y I 0 Why people don t buy psychology 0 The Scientific Attitude 0 Testing hypotheses 0 Barriers to developing good theory Resistance to psychology s ndings I Judgment Overconfidence 8312009 I Humans are overconfident in their knowledge and abilities GRABE gt BARGE OCHSA gt CHAOS Resistance to psychology s ndings I Folk wisdom I Often contradictory I Look before you leap vs He who hesitates is lost I Absence makes the heart grow fonder vs Out of sight out of mind I Two heads are better than one vsToo many cooks spoil the broth I Often wrong I Low selfesteem and aggression I Using only 0 of our brainpower Pseudoscience 0 Astrology psychic surgery speed reading therapeutic touch subliminal selfhelp tapes psychic detectives telepathy clairvoyance precognition reincarnation pyramid power 8312009 Psychology as a Science 0 Use of the Scienti c Method 0 Systematic Empiricism 0 The production of public knowledge 0 The examination of solvable problems 0 Common Unifying Principles 0 conclusions about behavior derive from scientific evidence 0 Practical applications of psychology have been derived from and tested by scienti c methods The Scienti c Attitude What do you mean How do you know To believe with certainty we must begin by doubtingquot Polish Proverb Theory and Prior Rosco rch Inlemnces Research i nicrpvc nfim Oucshmn l Dam Coilnciionx39 liv Hypoihosm Finding r1 Predmions Research Method of Design Meclsummenr 8312009 Scienti c Theory 0 explains through an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observable behaviors or events 0 must generate testable predictions hypotheses that can show the theory to be false falsi ability criterion 0 Concepts in theories must be linked to observable events that can be measuredoperationism Human barriers to developing good theory and rejecting bad theory 0 Natural functions Humans are brilliant pattern identification organisms 0 Human Credulity Humans are belief machines 0 Belief Certainty Humans are not humble about beliefs beliefs are like possessions 0 Egocentrism Locked in our own perspectives 0 Introspective unawareness Know thyself 0 ExpectanciesWe see what we believe Experimenter Expectancies Any bias in research results that derives from the researcher s expectation that subtects will behave in a certain wa 8312009 Placebo Substance that appears to be a drug but is not sugar pill Placebo Effect Conclusion In testing treatment effectiveness a control group should mimic the irrelevant parts of the treatment Subjects should be blind to whether they are in the treatment or the control condition The researcher should be blind to which subjects are in the treatment and control conditions doubleblind protocol 10 Can a theory every be proved 0 Laws 0 Is genuine knowledge imposs ble 0 Absolute uncertainty probably unattainable 0 Continuum of confidence in scientific claims 8312009 Summary Psychology as a science is relatively young and has its roots in philosophy and physiology 2 Different schools of psychology have struggled with how and whether to study the mind or observable behavior 3 Field of psychology today is diverse and fragmented but there is communication between the different branches 4 Science involves a continuous cycle of generating testing and revising hypotheses 5Theory testing is often at battle with expectancies and belief systems 6 Good psychological theories often have to complete with pseudosciences commonsense and overconfidence Next Time The Tools of Psychological Research cont 11


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.