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Elementary Psychology

by: Celia O'Hara

Elementary Psychology PSY 12000

Marketplace > Purdue University > Psychlogy > PSY 12000 > Elementary Psychology
Celia O'Hara
GPA 3.93


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This 93 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celia O'Hara on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 12000 at Purdue University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see /class/207876/psy-12000-purdue-university in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Elementary Psychology PSY 120000 003 Prof Kip Villiams Purdue University Spring 2009 Teaching Assistants Nicole Capezza Jim Vl rth Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Chapter 1 Let s go over the Syllabus The class webpage is httgwww2gsychgurdueedukig120indexhtm Or Go to vwvw2psychpurdueedukip Click on Courses amp Teaching tab at top of page Clicl ion PSY 12000003 link under the 2009 Courses a Ing From here you can look at the constantly updated course information that includes announcements a link to download a pdfversion ofthe syllabus the calendar and the links to download pdfversions ofthe lectures Thinking Critically with Psychological Science The Need for Psychological Science I The limits of Intuition and Common Sense I The Scienti c Attitude I The Scienti c Method Thinking Critically Description I The Case Study I The Survey I Naturalistic Observation Psychology 7e in Modules Thinking Critically Correlation I Correlation and Causation I Illusory Correlation I Perceiving Order in Random Events Thinking Critically Experimentation I Exploring Cause and Effect I Evaluating Therapies I Independent and Dependent Variables Thinking Critically Statistical Reasoning I Describing Data I Making Inferences FAQs About Psychology Impression of Psychology With hopes of satisfying curiosity many people listen to talk radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves um 1mzAntnqd mmm um a Psychic Ball gazing Dr Crane radio shrink The Need for Psychological Science Intuition 8 Common Sense Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature Intuition and common sense may aid queries but they are not free of error Limits of Intuition Personal interviewers may rely too much on their gut feelings when meeting with job applicants seam A1399 ple Psychology 7e in Modules Errors of Common Sense Try this I Fold a piece of paper 01 mm thick 100 times How thick will it be 800000000000000 times the distance between the sun and the earth Hindsight Bias Hindsight Bias is the l knew it all along phenomenon After learning the outcome of an event many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome We only knew the dotcom stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet This is why you don39t look at the answers before you commit yourself to an answer on practice tests Overcon dence Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know Anagram How long do you think it would take to unscramble WREAT WATER these anagrams ETYRN ENTRY People said it would take about 10 seconds yet on average they took about 3 minutes Goranson 1978 GRABE BARGE Psychological Science1 I How can we differentiate between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions I The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions which leads to our understanding of how people feel think and act as they do 7One of the premier journals in our eld is also called Psychological Science lt s Editor Is Robert Kail Professor of Psychological Sciences Purdue University 15 The Scienti c Attitude The scienti c attitude is composed of curiosity passion for exploration skepticism doubting and questioning and humility ability to accept responsibility when wrong Critical Thinking Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly It examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions The Amazing Randi Scienti c Method Psychologists like all scientists use the scienti c method to construct theories that organize summarize and simplify observations Psychology 7e in Modules Theory A Theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events For example low self esteem contributes to depression Hypothesis A Hypothesis is a testable prediction often prompted by a theory to enable us to accept reject or revise the theory People with low self esteem are apt to feel more depressed Research Observations Research would require us to administer tests of self esteem and depression Individuals who score low on a self esteem test and high on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis Research Process 1 Theories Example an selfesteem reeds depressinn generate or re ne lead a 3 Research and Observations Example Administer tests of selfesteem I I an quot and depression See r r 39 r z Hy atheses if a law score on one Ir 1 Exam plle People predicts a high score with law self on the other amp esteem scare lead m hIgher on a depressian scale Description Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles Case Study Clinical Study 33 A clinical study is a form of case study in which the therapist investigates the problems associated with a client Psychology 7e in Modules Survey A technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative random sample of people i E Survey Wording Effect Wording can change the results of a survey Q Should cigarette ads and pornography be fora ldtzlmd on television Survey False Consensus Effect A tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample it is called a random sample unbiased If the survey sample is biased its results are nOt valid The fastest way to know about the marble oolor ratio 1s to blindl transfer a few into a smaller jar and em 28 Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self seating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation 19szpr 30 59an Descriptive Methods Summary Case studies surveys and naturalistic observation describe behaviors Psychology 7e in Modules Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another we say the two correlate Indicates strength of relationship 000 to 100 Correlation gt coeffICIent r Correlation Coefficient is a L statistical measure of the Indicatesdirectiun relationship between two of fe39atlonShlq variables positive or negative 31 Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation 100 Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables The slope of the points depicts the direction while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship 32 Scatterplots PerfeCt negative No relationship 000 correlation 100 The Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation while the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables Data Data showing height and temperament in people HEIGHT AND TEMPERAMENT HEIGHT AND TEMPERAMENT MEN MEN Height in Height in Subject Inches Temperameni Subject Inches Temperament 1 8a 75 n 6 A3 2 s as 12 75 59 3 51 60 3 71 72 4 79 90 u 66 57 5 7o 60 5 73 63 6 69 42 16 7 75 7 62 12 17 53 30 a 75 60 18 71 57 9 77 3931 t9 quot5 8 m 39 So 3939 2 7 39 Scatterplot The Scatterplot below shows the relationship between height and temperament in people There is a moderate positive correlation of 063 i Temperament 1 39 5CDquot Correlation and Causation 1 could cause D gt Low selfesteem epressmn or could cause Depfezggion Low selfesteem DI Low selfesteem 3 Distressing events 5011111 Cause and or biolo ical predisposition Depression Psychology 7e in Modules Illusory Correlation The perception of a relationship where no relationship actually exists Parents conceive children after adoption Do not Conceive conceive Adopt Confirming Disconflrmlng ence eVIdence g Do not Disconfirming Confirming e adopt evidence evidence Order in Random Events Given random data we look for order and meaningful patterns A Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same 1 in 2598960 38 Order in Random Events Given large numbers of random outcomes a few are likely to express order in 5 5 13mm Angelo and Maria Gallina won two California lottery games on the same day Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Like other sciences experimentation is the backbone of psychology research Experiments isolate causes and their effects Exploring Cause amp Effect Many factors in uence our behavior Experiments 1 manipulate factors that interest us while other factors are kept under 2 control Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships Independent Variable An Independent Variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study For example when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence type of feeding breast feeding versus feeding a formula is the independent variable Psychology 7e in Modules Dependent Variable Evaluating Therapies A Dependent Variable is a factor that may change Double blind Procedure in response to an independent variable In psychology it is usually a behaVior or a mental In evaluating drug therapies Patients and process 39 experimenter s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real For example in our study on the effect of breast treatment and which Pattents had the Placebo feeding upon intelligence intelligence is the dependent variable treatment 43 44 Evaluating Therapies Experimentation Random Assignment A summary of steps during experimentation Random assignment controlling farothervariables Ass1gning partic1pants to experimental Breast sugh as parental intelligence an environment fed and control formula fed conditions by Independent Dependent random assignment minimizes pre existing quotquotd39m quotar39ab39e y39able differences between the two groups Experimental Breast milk gigging Control Formula Lergiilc 45 46 Comparison Statistical Reasoning Below is a comparison of different research Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data methods allo A commune mum MEYNODS Researzh Method Basic Purposz Haw anduued Weaknzsses 5mm 1 retard Mnlhing Nu m nrrulatmnal Mntmng w well unevallabla ple dkrs another Experlmznlal m mm zausennd mu indupnndunlvarmhln at in mm rm mum to manmare cerlain variables Composition of ethnicity in urban locales 48 Psychology 7e in Modules Describing Data Measures of Central Tendency A meaningful description of data is important in research Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions Mode The most frequently occurring score in a distribution 5quotquot 315315 O quot Mean The arithmetic average of scores in a f quotWm 99 a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number Median The middle score in a rank ordered Periantag 00 slllllundioning Am after 10 98 60 5 of scores that were added together 97 10 30 06 20 l0 95 u distribution Brandullmck Brandoilmtk 49 50 Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Variation A Skewed Distribution Range The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard Deviation A computed measure of how E g g much scores vary around the mean f E g a g a z a 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 90 475 710 Small Dewauon Large Deviation 5 2 l Made Median Mean One family lnmme per amily in thousands oldullars Standard Deviation Making Inferences A statistical statement of how frequently an V obtained result occurred by experimental mquota WWW v manipulation or by chance Psychology 7e in Modules Making Inferences When is an Observed Difference Reliable I Representative samples are better than biased samples I Less variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones I More cases are better than fewer cases Making Inferences When is a Difference Signi cant When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large we say the difference has statistical significance For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent FAQ Q1 Can laboratory experiInents illuminate everyday life Answer Arti cial laboratory conditions are created to study behavior in simplistic terms The goal is to find underlying principles that govern ehavior FAQ Q2 Does behavior depend on one s culture Answer Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures as they often do the underlying processes are much the same FAQ Q3 Does behavior vary with gender Answer Yes Biology determines our sex and culture further bends the genders However in many ways woman and man are similarly human Psychology 7e in Modules FAQ Q4 Why do psychologists study animals Answer Studying animals gives us the understanding of many behaviors that may have common biology across animals and humans 1O FAQ Q5 Is it ethical to experiment on animals Answer Yes To gain insights to devastating and fatal diseases All researchers who deal with animal research are required to follow ethical guidelines in caring for these animals FAQ Q6 Is it ethical to experiment on people Answer Yes Experiments that do not involve any kind of physical or psychological harm beyond normal levels encountered in daily life may be carried out FAQ Q7 ls psychology free of value judgments Answer No Psychology emerges from people who subscribe to a set of values and judgments RugerShepzrd FAQ Q8 ls psychology potentially dangerous Answer It can be but it is not The purpose of psychology is to help humanity with problems such as war hunger prejudice crime family dysfunction etc Psychology 7e in Modules Example 1 Individuals primed with old people conceptsquot are more likely to walk slower than those who are not primed with old people conceptsquot Independent variable Operationally define old people concepts Dependent variable Operationally define walking speed 11 Example 1 Graph Walking Duration as a Function of Prime Seconds to walk down hall Old Primes No primes Young Primes Type of Prime Example 2 Temperature among a few other concepts like size and distance is a fundamental facet of human understanding and perception It permeates everything People primed wi h warm will construe a more favorable person percep ion of a stranger than ifthey are primed with cold h 39 Independent variable Operationally define warm and cold Dependent variable Operationally define person perception Example 2 Graph Perception of Strange Favorability of Stranger Warm Cold Type of Prime Psychology 7e in Modules Example 3 Students get better grades ifthey sit near the front ofthe classroom Independent variable Predictor variable Dependent variable 12 Chapter 5 Sensation amp Perception Goals of the Chapter Understand how external messages from the environment get translated into the language of the nervous system Understand how sensations get extracted from the message Understand how the brain builds a stable amp lasting interpretation of sensations once they ve been extracted Basic Definitions Sensations Elementary components of experience gt Simple properties of stimuli color temp brightness Perception Collection of processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations gt Detect nature of objects animate amp inanimate gt Determine object location movement etc Transduction Process of translating external messages into internal language of the brain gt Sense organs convert energy from environmental events into neural activity gt Sense organ responds to speci c energy given off by the environment gt Sense organ translates energy into neural firing Visible Light Small Part Of Electromagnetic Enerqv Spectrum We are interested in three components Wavelength Corresponds to experience of hue Intensity Corresponds to brightness amplitude Pun39ty Corresponds to saturation richness Chapter 5 Visible Spectrum of Light Wavelengm 39 Ga39vrm rs 0 Elm m 7 var rA J Mr W r 39 Jirravrc m vum 4 r Wquot Visible mrvamn mm Visual Transduction Path Li ht Enterin the E e cornea 9 pupil 9 lens 9 retina Iris Bands of muscles to control light entering eye Lens changes shape to focus image accommodation Retina has lightsensitive cells photoreceptors that react to light amp create neural impulses Photopigments chemicals that break down in bright light amp regenerate during low light periods Rods Approximately 120 million per eye ba Dispersed throughout the sides of the retina Long thin structures Allow us to see in dim light shades of grey Allow us to see out of the corners of our e es Many rods attached to each neural ganglion cell Cones Approximately 6 million per eye ba Concentrated in Fovea deepest area of retina Short thick amp tapered structures Sensitive to bright light acuity amp color Each cone is attached to one ganglion cell Chamer 5 Neural sual Pathway Rod amp Cone Bipolar Cell Ganglion Cell Optic Nerve Lateral Geniculate Occipital Lobe Bipolar Cell receive neuroreceptor messages Gan iiuuceiio 39 Iacross retina 7 I h39 h order information to brain receptive elds cage Len visual new Elam visual new OBIHawe mm m mm I luv carter Ocnlnlral obes Neural sual Pathway Neural messages splits at optic chiasm gt Info from lelt side ofboth retinas goes to right hemisphere amp vice versa Messages move to the thalamus gt Moderates color vision amp perception of intensity From lateral geniculate neurons information goes to the primary visual cortex Feature Detection Feature Detectors Neurons in visual cortex that react to speci c visual events gt Simple Cells Respond to stimuli such as lines angles gt HigherOrder Cells Respond to complex patterns corners moving bars faces facial expressions Prosopagnosia inability to recognize faces Akinetopsia inability to track moving object Vision Is a Sense of nthesis Rather than analyzes audition Addition of two or more re ected wavelengths causes mixing of colors gt When blue amp yellow are present we see green Chapter 5 TriChromatic Theom Von Hemholtz amp Young The eye can synthesize any color from any set ofthree color wavelengths 3 Types of Cones in Retina Blue Green amp Red gt Each maximally sensitive to one range ofwavelengths gt Colors sensed by comparing amount of activation coming from each type of cone Photopigment Chemical from Viatamin A that breaks down into two molecules when light strikes gt 4 speci c kinds 1 for rods 1 for each color cone Opponent Process Theom TriChromatic theory has a few problems gt Eyes amp brains often report Yellow as a pure color gt Colorblind people have trouble with 2 colors are a time gt We never see yellowish blues of greenish reds So each ganglion must have sensitivity for 2 hues gt Red Green gt Yellow Blue RedGreen Ganglion excited to re faster when exposed to red light gt Green light inhibits redgreen ganglion to re slower gt Brain distinguishes red amp green by rate of neuron ring YellowBlue Gangion excited to re faster when exposed to blue light gt Yellow light inhibits yellowblue ganglion amp re slower Negative Afterimages caused by adaptation of ring rates of retinal ganglion cells gt Consist of true image s complimentary colors Rebound Affect occurs when ganglion cells are excited or inhibited for long periods oftime gt React later by ring faster or slower Visual Interpretation amp Perception Importance of Context amp Expectations BottomUp Processing data driven perception is construed out ofelements ofthe stimuli gt Successive levels of visual system process data gt Once highest level is reached you achieve perception TopDown Processing controlled by context amp expectations about the world gt Looking at the big picture KyXHa Chapter 5 Gestalt Principles of Organization Laws that govern visual organization amp allow people to see objects as organized wholes Proximity Elements that are close to each other are seen as being part ofthe same object Similarity Items sharing physical properties are put into the same set Closure Figures w gaps or small missing parts of a border are seen as complete Good Continuation Lines that are interrupted are seen as continuously owing Common Fate Things moving in the same direction are seen as a group Visual Interpretation Object Recognition Geons genomic icons elementary shapes that serve as a prototype in recognizing objects gt All objects can be broken down into geons gt Makes it easy to identify incompletedegraded objects Visual Interpretation amp Depth Perception Depth Cues Visual clues that help us perceive distance between us amp other objects in our environment Monocular Depth Cues Cues that require input from only one eye gt Linear perspective shading relative size overlap texture haze elevation gt Motion parallax Binocular Depth Cues Arise because visual fields of both eyes overlap Depend on comparisons between images seen by each of the two eyes gt Vary w distance of object from eye amp xation point Retinal Disparity Cue for depth that occurs when image ofobject falls on two slightly different parts of two different retinas Convergence Depth cue that depends on how far both eyes must turn inward to focus on an object gt Eyes must turn inward to see objects close to the face gt Eyes remain nearly straight to see objects far away Chapter 5 Brain senses angle ofthe eyes amp uses these angles to calculate range between the eye and the object gt Important when reaching for nearby objects Visual Interpretation amp Motion Perception Phi Phenomenon Our ability to see not only motion in environment but the direction ofthe motion amp relative speed Perception of movement in absence of motion gt Same visual system that allows us to see movies as continuous rather than separate or disjointed Perception of Motion Requires Brain to Integrate Changes in retinal image Changes in motions of the eye Change in relative position of object Visual Interpretation amp Perceptual Constancies Despite the always changing environment in which we move objects move and light changes our perception remains remarkably constant Size Constancy Images change with distance but size seems to stay the same Shape Constancy Images change with motion perspective but shape seems to stay the same Mechanisms Behind Constancy Brain make assumptions perceptual leaps that allow usto make guesses gt About relative distances of objects gt About the lightness darkness ofan object gt About relative shape of rotated objects Perceptual Illusions Inappropriate interpretations of physical reality gt Often result from use of cues amp principles that are othenNise adaptive Example assumptions and related illusions gt Ames room illusion gt Linear perspective cues 9 Ponzo illusion Chapter 5 Auditory Transduction Sound Physical message delivered to the auditory system Mechanical energy that requires a medium Vibrating air molecules pushing others Dimensions of Sound Pitch Psychological experience that results from processing ofa particular frequency gt How high the tone sounds Range of Maximum Sensitivity 1000Hz5000Hz Intensity Psychological experience that results from processing a particular amplitude loudness Mechanics of Transduction Pina Helps capture amp funnel sound Tympanic Membrane rst thing to vibrate Middle Ear Between the eardrum amp the choclea gt Malleus incus amp stirrup help intensity of the sound Chocea Snail shaped sound processor of inner ear gt Translates sounds into nerve impulses gt Filled with fluid gt Vibrations displace hair follicles on basilar membrane gt Motion of hair cells triggers action potential Anuan rarwx irl mutual Hui5 a Mum Outs Ear Ear lrmcr Em am am Malleus ll lmaanr pawn mama gm sum rm WW Dzrlriwe 39 a39rarnph Chapter 5 Extracting the Message Auditory Pathway Extracting Pitch Auditory pathway is similar to visual pathway Place Theory Pitch perception determined by location of basilar membrane activation gt Partially explains why we loose hearing for high pitch Frequency Theory Pitch perception determined by rate of neuron firing higher rate higher pitch gt Refractory periods vs Volley signals Interpretation Auditory Perception Organizing the Message Auditory signals are often ambiguous Brain uses organizational rules to compensate gt Gestalt principles high voices female gt Ability to organize increases with experience gt Topdown processing will in uence sound perception music lyrics Sound Localization As sound hits each ear at different times the first sound is judged as closer gt Differences as small as 110 sec As sound hits each ear at different intensities the louder sound is judged as closer Touch Transduction of Pressure Receptor cells imbedded in nger are disturbed amp send neural message to brain amp spinal chord Specialized PressureSensitive Receptor Cells gt Constant pressure gt Intermittent pressure gt Information about shape rmness texture weight Somatosensory Cortex Body maps in parietal lobe Chapter 5 Temperature Perception of Warm amp Cold Cold Fibers Neurons responsive to cooling ofthe skin by increased production of impulses Warm Fibers Respond vigorously as skin temperature rises Perception oftemperature is determined by temperature change Temperature Illusions Metal seems cooler than wood Experiencing Pain GateControl Theom Pain Adaptive response by body to any stimulus that is intense enough to cause tissue damage GCT Neural impulses generated by pain receptors can be blocked in the spinal chord gt Gating messages come from the brain gt Large bers close the gates amp stop the pain gt Small bers open the gates amp allow pain sensation Chemical Senses Olfaction Chemoreceptors receptor cells sensitive to invisible molecules in the air or in liquid gt Responsible for transduction of both smell amp taste Receptors imbedded in upper area of nasal cavity Airborne molecules bind with cilia on receptors Message sent to olfactory bulb amp on to forebrain There are at least 1000 different types of receptors Receptor cells are activated by more than one kind of odor Smell is Complex There is no one defining molecule for the smell of bacon or coffee gt Yet we make quick amp easy distinctions Smell is Special Only sensory system directly connected to the amygdala hippocampus and hypothalamus forebrain gt Linked to brain functions that regulate feeding drinking memory sexual behavior gt May explain emotional power ofolfactory cues Chapter 5 Chemical Senses Gustation Taste Sensations produced by contact with and firing oftaste receptors Flavor Combined in uence oftaste smell visual appearance expectations gt Psychological experience of taste Four Basic Tastes Sweet Bitter Salty amp Sour gt The Fifth Taste Umami ie savory Taste Buds Receptors distributed across the tongue within tiny bumps called papille Transduction Occurs When gt Tastes directly penetrate the membrane of receptor cells gt Tastes alter chemical structure of cell membranes Given taste receptor cell reacts to many stimuli Taste is likely determined by patterns of activity across groups of receptors Prior exposure to one taste often changes the perception of another Chapter 7 Learning from Experience Goals of the Chapter Understand how we recognize signi cant events when they occur and react to them appropriately Understand how we learn about the signaling properties of events in the environment Understand how we learn about the consequences ofour behavior Understand how we learn from observing others Recognizing and Reacting to Events Repeated Exposure to Events Can Change Behavior On39enting Response Inborn tendency to notice amp respond to surprising events Habituation Reduced response to an event gt Event has become familiar through repeated exposure gt Most likely when ozoEvent stimulus is of moderate intensity ozoEvent stimulus repeats itself frequently Sensitization Increased responsiveness to event gt Reactions become more prolonged amp intense gt Most likely when ozoEvent stimulus is of great intensity ozoEvent stimulus repeats infrequently Habituation amp Sensitization Simplest form of Learning Behavior changes as a function of experience Evolutionan39ly Adaptive learn to respond or overrespond to events that occur repeatedly gt Allows organism to remain somewhat distraction free gt Ignore petty events amp focus on important ones Classical Conditioning Process of learning signaling properties ofan event gt Conditions that predict a signi cant response Learning connection bw events that occur outside ofone s control Response normally elicited by one stimulus comes to be controlled by another stimulus as well Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning Beginnings Ivan Pavlov Discovered the phenomenon of conditional re exes involuntary responses gt Dogs fed dry meat powder learned to salivate before they were fed the powder Showed that onceneutral stimulus could elicit a response similar to the original re ex gt Learning allowed connection bw original stimuli automatic responses and other unrelated stimuli Classical Conditioning Terms Unconditional Stimulus US A stimulus food powder that naturally elicits an observable response without any training Unconditional Response UR An observable response salivation that is naturally elicited by the unconditional stimulus without training Conditional Stimulus CS A neutral stimulus the bell that is eventually associated with the unconditional stimulus food powder Conditional Response CR The acquired response salivation elicited by the conditional stimulus bell in anticipation ofthe unconditioned stimulus food powder Classical Conditioning Process Timing as the Critical Component Dogs do not learn to salivate if gt Bell rang during or after food is put in their mouth gt There was too long a time frame bw bell amp feeding In order to achieve association of CS w UR gt CS must be presented before the US gt US must be presented soon afterthe CS Chapter 7 Conditioned stimulus should function as a signal that unconditioned stimulus is about to occur gt CS should be a source of new information Blocking Preventing association of CS with US Second Order Conditioning Established CS used to condition a second neutral CS Functionalist Perspective Allows learner to make appropriate responses faster amp more effectively gt Learner recognizes stimuli amp predicts occurrence of important events Allows previously unimportant stimuli to acquire some properties of the important stimuli gt Serves to modify behavior Emotional Response Ability of stimuli ie song place someone s voice face to arouse emotional responses gt Feelings of disgust fear anger sadness Stimuli had no meaning at one point but were paired with emotional reactions gt Classically conditioned to take on emotional signi cance Staats amp Staats 1957 People come to like nonsense words associated with positive words and disliked nonsense words associated with negatives Berkowitz 1964 People receiving electrical shocks while in the company of another person later acted in a hostile mannertowards that person Responding to New amp Different Stimuli Stimulus Generalization Once a response has been conditioned to a CS similar stimuli will elicit the same response gt Similar CS leads to similar CR gt Watson Little Albert amp the Bunny Stimulus Discrimination lnvolves learning the difference between two or more stimuli gt Responding differently to a new stimulus than to a similar CS gt Accomplished when two different CS s are used during training gt Watson Little Albert amp a block ofwood Extinction Eventual amp entire elimination of CR gt Accomplished when you continue to present CS without the US Chapter 7 gt Just not presenting the CS is not enou h gt You learn that CS no longer predicts occurrence of US Spontaneous Recovery Return of extinguished CR after a period of non exposure to OS gt R oes not disappear from organism s behavioral memory store permanentl gt Once you begin pairing CS WI US again behavior tends to return again very quickly gt CR may not be as strong as it once was um nl 5am Ellcmd by as Operant Conditioning O perant Defined Organism learns by OPERATING in its environment How organisms learn about consequences of their own voluntary actions Classical Conditioning Vs Operant Conditioning 1 Chapter 7 Operant Conditioning Beginnings Edward Thorndike amp The Law of Effect Discovered operant conditioning gt Put cat in puzzle box with lever that opened the door gt Cat would occasionally amp accidentally unlatch the door gt Trial after trial cat would unlatch door quicker gt Learning though trial ampaccidental success gt Cat learned escape response bc this was the only response allowing it to get out and eat the food If response in a particular situation is followed by a satisfying consequence it will be strengthened lfresponse in a particular situation is followed by an unsatisfying consequence it will be weakened Discriminative Stimulus Precedinq Event B F Skinner Speci c stimulus indicates that a specific behavior will have certain consequences gt Stimulus sets the occasion for a response Stimulus must be a particular situation or thing in the environment Response happens only in the presence ofthat situation or thing Learned identi ed through past experience This behavior produced good consequences in the presence ofthat stimulus in the past so why shouldn t it again Generalization Conditioned behavior beings to occur in response to a similar stimulus gt More likely when reward is given for responses regardless of stimulus Discrimination Conditioned behavior only occurs in response to the speci c discriminative stimulus gt More likely when reward is not given for responses to similar stimulus Conse uences Followin Event Consequences events that have an effect on an organism s responses Contingent On Organism s Response Must only occur if amp only if operant behavior occurs Chapter 7 BF Skinner Operant behavior occurs when it is followed by some consequence gt In presence of discriminative stimulus Consequences Are Continqent Upon Behavior RESPONSE PRECEDING Operant behavior EVENT stimulus FOLLOWING EVENT Consequence of Behavior Operant Conditioning Nature of Reinforcement Reinforcement Consequence that increases the likelihood ofa response behavior occurring again gt Must be presented after a response Appetitive Stimulus Something the organism likes needs or has an appetite for Aversive Stimulus Something the organism finds unpleasant or painful Positive Reinforcement Consequence Presented aftera Response that increases likelihood of a response occurring again gt Consequence tends to be an appetitive stimulus Response Deprivation Theory A consequence is reinforcing as long as organism is moving towards a greater level of satisfaction gt Differing bliss points baseline of satisfaction for all Negative Reinforcement Consequence Removed aftera Response that increases likelihood of a response occurring again gt Consequence tends to be an aversive stimulus Chapter 7 Example You are kept awake by the clanging radiator you kick the radiator and the noise stops next time you hear the noise you will immediately go to the radiator amp kick it Negative Reinforcement Escape Condition Situation in which response can reduce or eliminate an aversive stimulus Avoidance Condition Situation in which response can prevent the delivery of an aversive stimulus Conditioned Reinforcement Secondary Reinforces Consequences that acquire extrinsic or social value and thus reinforcing properties through learning Operant Conditioning Punishment Punishment Consequences that decrease the likelihood ofa response behavior occurring again Positive Punishment Consequence Presented AfterA Response that decreases likelihood of a response occurring again gt Consequence tends to be an aversive stimulus Example lfyou are provoking a stranger in a bar amp they punch you in the nose next time you have opportunity to provoke a stranger in a bar you will think twice Negative Punishment Consequence Removed After a Response that decreases likelihood ofa response occurring again gt Consequence tends to be an aversive stimulus Example You are driving with a suspended license amp have your car impounded by the police you are less likely to drive your car with a suspended license again Drawbacks to Punishing People Punisher becomes target of resentment fear or hostility Chapter 7 Those being punished may react in retaliation Physical punishment may result in loss of control that ultimately leads to injury Punishment does not teach the desirable responses gt Merely suppresses inappropriate behaviors Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Schedules Schedules of Reinforcement Rules conditions used to determine when particular responses will be reinforced Varied schedules strongly affect gt Speed at which you learn responses gt Rates amp consistency of responding gt Susceptibility to extinction Continuous Reinforcement Schedule Every response followed rapidly by reinforcement gt Example Salesperson paid for each sale Operant Conditioning Partial Reinforcement Schedules Partial reinforcement Schedule Reinforcement delivered only some ofthe time FixedInterval Schedule Reinforcement delivered after a xed interval oftime for rst response gt Example Salaried employee paycheck Produce low amp inconsistent Scalloping pattern rates of responding Response behavior is easily extinguished VariableInterval Schedule Reinforcement delivered after varying intervals of time gt Example Waiting in line at the grocery store Produces a strong steady and consistent rate of responding Fairly resistant to extinction Chapter 7 FixedRatio Schedule I Number of r 139 reiniurcemenl quot every reinforcement delivered gt Example Coke Machine 7 I Produces steady consistent rates of responding gt Behavior likely to stop fora period after reinforcement I Behavior becomes extinct without reinforcement VariableRatio Schedule I Number of responses required for reinforcement changes after every reinforcement delivered gt Example Slot machine gambling I Produces very strong consistent amp exceedingly high rates of responding I Extinguishing this behavior is very dif cult Cumrrlalwa Rawauses Fumuewa Schedule Vanale interval Schedule Operant Conditioning Shaping Acguiring Complex Behaviors I Complex behaviors are unlikely to occur spontaneously making them hard to reinforce I Shaping Reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response gt Demand is placed on the organism for behaviors closer to the desired behavior before a reward is given Chapter 7 Observational Learning Social Learning Learning that occurs as a result of observing the experiences of others Allows alternative to trial and error learning operant Modeling Tendency to imitate behavior of significant others gt Example Children imitate parents teachers gt Most effective when model is seen as attractive honest competent amp has social standing Vican39ous Reinforcement Punishment Occurs as model is rewarded punished forthe modeled behavior Bandura Studied effects ofviewing aggressive behavior gt Study involved film of adult hitting a Bobo doll gt Adult was either praised or punished gt Found children tended to mimic adult s behavior Selef cacy our beliefs about our own abilities gt Modeling ineffective ifwe don t believe we are capable of performing a behavior Chapter 8 Memory Goals of the Chapter Understand how we remember information over the short term Understand how we store information overthe long term Understand how we recover information from the immediate and distant past The Adaptive Function of Memory We need an internal process to help us remember information over the short term We need to store information internally so as to recover it quickly at the right place and time As we interact with the world we need to recover information from the immediate and distant past Forgetting is adaptive Memory Important Concepts Encoding The process of memory formation Turning stimulus into a code that can be used by our brain Storage The process of keeping memories overtime Maintaining information in memory Retrieval Process of recovering amp translating memories for purpose of problem solving Way we locate amp use information in our memories Memory for the Short Term Three Svstems That Prolond Incominq 39 Overthe Short Term Sensory Memory The Icon amp Echo ShortTerm Memory The Inner Voice Eye Working Memory The Mental Scratch Pad Chagter 3 Memory for the Short Term Sensory Memory An Exact Regllca of an Envlronmental Message A Fleenng Experience gt Lasting no longer than gt Physlcal features of stl perceptlon Itself mulus st N Hold ored for very brleftlme o analysls IS performed on the lnformatlon s lnformatlon long enough for It to be transformed Into shorteterm memory Iconlc Memory Stores llngerlng traces ofvlsual memory Icons gt Xample nght trac Sperllng 1960 Flash many as the could gt Whole R letters gt PartlaleReport Procedure Found people recalled one roW of letters Wlth near perfect accuracy ers ed letters onto a screen amp asked people to recall as ecall Procedure people had trouble recalllng more than a few Concluded that all letters are avallable to people s memory at Sound of the tone Too long a delay caused letters to fadefrom ICOnIC memory maklng It dlf cult to recall all 1 2 Ms W WW ld 5n mmm mm W W W XW a XLWF X1WFl39F Inov 9 IBOV IBOV O CZR KCIRXW Tlrw lsnc a 5 u it an HO quotHquot nmu WW Echolc Memory Stores llngerlng traces of audltory memory echo gt Example Syllables ofwords Chapter 8 We hear sounds one at a time amp must remember them until we hear enough of them to recognize the word gt It s a struggle to decipher words when syllables uttered more than ve seconds apart System for temporarily storing thinking about and reasoning with information Information travels from sensory memory to shortterm memory Memory for the Short Term Short Term Memory The Inner Voice Tendency to recode translate information into inner speech to keep it in shortterm memory Speci c types of mistakes are made during this kind of shortterm recall gt Tend to sound like but not look like the correct items gt Example Might mistake B for V The Inner Eye Tendency to recode information into visual images to keep it in shortterm memory Judgments made based on mental images are similar to those based on actual pictures gt When you picture something as being larger in your mind s eye easier to see small details in it gt Rabbit next to Rat vs Rat next to Elephant Rehearsal A strategic process of internal repetition that works as long as you are paying attention Can prolong shortterm memories inde nitely I Lloyd amp Peterson s Distractor Task 1959 Preventing rehearsal with another task ie counting backwards interferes with short term memory gt Without rehearsal decay amp interference will cause memory to disappear after 12 seconds Memom Span Number ofitems that can be recalled from shortterm memory in proper presentation order on half of the tested memory trials Shortterm memory has a limited capacity Capacity is limited because of the time it takes to rehearse incoming pieces of information gt Depends on how quickly items can be rehearsed Chapter 8 We remember bw ve amp nine incoming pieces gt 7 plus or minus 2 items gt Telephone numbers Chunking Rearranging incoming information into meaningful or familiar patterns Process ofencoding information while using rules to simplify the information gt We can still store only SEVEN chunks gt Amount of info in chunks depends on the rules used to organize these chunks Ability to create meaningful chunks depends on how much you know about the material you need to remember gt Example Chess experts Memory for the Short Term Working Memory Model Three Mechanisms That Control the ShortTerm Memorv svstem Phonological Loop VisualSpatial Sketchpad Central Executive System Phonological Loop Baddeley 1998 Systems of audition amp rehearsal cooperate in a looplike fashion gt Hearing the word rose and thinking the words rose gt Seeing a rose and thinking the word rose Verbal encoding allowing us to remember amp match words to experiences gt Like inner voice stores word sounds VisualSpatial Sketchpad Stores amp allows manipulation of visual amp spatial information Shepard amp Metzler 1971 had people distinguish likeness unlikeness of2 rotated 3D shapes gt People took longer to decide when rotations were more pronounced gt Concluded people capable of rotating images in their mind Central Executive System Determines which mechanism to use Coordinates among the phonological loop and the visualspatial sketchpad Chapter 8 Memory for the Long Term Svstem Used to Maintain Information for Extended Periods of Time Storage Elaboration Mnemonic Devices Transfer Of Information To Lonqterm Memorv Rehearsal prolongs neural activity long enough to make permanent structural changes in the brain gt Short termmemory is physiologically different from longterm memory gt Transfer of information takes time Example Forgetting what happens right before you get knocked in the head Long Term Memory Storage Episodic Memom Memories of particular events episodes that happened to you personally gt Stuff you have done heard amp seen gt Provides record ofour life experiences Autobiographical Memories tied to particular contexts gt Example Day you learned to ride a bike day you visited Washington DC 15th Birthday 1St week in college Semantic Memom Knowledge about the world stored as facts that make little or no reference to one s personal experiences Consists of conceptual information that has meaning gt Example Knowing what a bicycle is or where US capital is located Procedural Memom Unconscious memory that we cannot talk about directly gt lts contents does in uence behavior System responsible for remembering amp acquiring of important how to skills gt Operates automatically amp doesn t contain facts gt Example Knowing how to ride a bicycle Chapter 8 Long Term Memory Elaboration Elaboration Defined Thinking about information 8 relating it to what we already know An encoding process that involves forming connections between gt Information that is to be remembered gt Other information already in memory Thinking About Meaning Craik amp Tulving 1975 people recall mouse betterwhen asked to think about it as an animal rather than a word rhyming with other words Thinking about meaning of stimuli allows you to make more connections bw stimuli 8 other things Noticing Relationships Relational Processing looking for properties that stimuli have in common gt Embellishes 8 makes a richer more elaborate record of the stimuli Allows us to discriminate bw correct memory record 8 memories that interfere w retrieval process Noticing Differences Distinctiveness How unique a memory is from other memories in record By comparing you notice how an item shares properties with other information in memory 8 how it is different Flashbulb Memory Rich memories surrounding emotionally charged 8 surprising events gt Created with no conscious effort gt Not always accurate Forming Mental Pictures Require you to think about details that create a distinctive memory record Visual Imagery process used to construct an internal visual image gt lmages tend to be pretty abstract inaccurate 8 fuzzy eases cease Chapter 8 Seguence Position Primacy Effect Tendency to remember the words at the beginning of a free recall task list gt Works because you rehearse initial words you hear temporarily storing words in longterm memory Recency Effect Tendency to remember the words at the end of a freerecall task list gt Works because the last few words you hear stay in shortterm memory Long Term Memory Mnemonic Devices Mnemonic Devices De ned Mental tricks that help you think about material in ways that improve memory Most depend on visual imagery gt Require linking items to easily available retrieval cues Method of Loci Choose a familiar pathway then form visual images of items to be remembered sitting along the pathway PegWord Method Form visual images connecting to beremembered items with retrieval cues pegs gt Cues are based on rhyming words gt Images are usually interactive book in bun Linkword System Assists in learning foreign languages especially vocabula gt Rhyme foreign word w native word amp associate it w interactive image Chapter 3 The Biological Process of Psychology Goals of Discussion Understand how the nervous system communicates internally Understand how the brain initiates amp coordinates behavior Understand how the body regulates growth amp other internal functions Understand how we adapt store and transmit the genetic code Structure of the Nervous System Central Nervous System CNS Consists of the brain amp the spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System All other nerves that transmit info to the brain gt Somatic Nerves coordinating physical movement gt Autonomic Nerves coordinating involuntary processes Connect spinal cord amp brain stem to muscles organs senses glands Autonomic Nervous System Also Manages Sympathetic System Prepares body for arousal in emergencies gt Control activities related to expenditure of energy blood flow oxygen absorption sweating shivering Parasympathetic System Calms the body down gt Controls biological processes of relaxed states digestion salivating hunger thirst y Communication in the Nervous System Neurons Cellsthat make upthe brain spinal cord amp nerves Receive amptransmit information electric charge bw the brain muscles spinal cord organs etc Sensory Neurons Carry information from the environment to CNS Motor Neurons Carry information from the CNS to muscles amp glands to effect behavior Neurons InterNeurons cells that transfer mediate information from one neuron to another Glial Cells Neural cellsthat fill the space between neurons gt Provide nourishment amp waste removal fight infection Myein Sheath specialized glial cells gt Insulate axons to speed up neural transmission The Reflex Pathway Signal in mm Marni Signal Sellgmy sigi39nl Neuron Anatomy Dendrites Treelike growths with many branches that receive information from other neurons gt Enabte neuron to recewe rnfo from many sources Some ceH s body contarnrng rnechanrsrnsfor rnetabohsrn amp rnarntenance of the ceH Genetrc rnatenat is stored here nucteus gt nforrnatron rs processed here Mon carnes res etectrochernicat charges away from the sorna towards th rce s gt Neuron s rnforrnatron transrnrtter Termrna Buttons ocated at the end of the axon gt Secrete chernicats caHed neurotransrnrtters Whenever axon frres Anatomy of the Neuron Wnnn r t A Neuron Anatomy Synapse Trny gap oWterrnrnat buttons of one neuron andthe dendnte of the nfote tTrotransrnrtters How rnto synapse frorn terrnrnat buttons Drrectron of Neurat Transrnrssron Dendrites gt Sorna gt Axon gtTerrnrna Buttons Potentials ElectroChemical 39 39 Resting Potential Tiny charge bw inside amp outside of neuron gt Created by electrically charged particles ions gt Outside the cell Sodium amp chloride gt Inside the cell Potassium ions SodiumPotassium Pump maintains the charge gt Selectively permeable cell membrane Action Potentials change in potential based on messages from other neurons gt Current travels through axons from neuron to neuron gt Charge on membrane reverses from to for a short period of time gt Allornone reaction Excitatory Messages causes depolarization of cell gt Cell looses negative charge increasing likelihood of postsynaptic neuron nng gt lon channels allow sodium ions to enterthe neuron Inhibitory Messages causes hyperpolarization gt Cell becomes more negatively charged decreasing likelihood of post synaptic neuron ring gt lon channels permit potassium ions to leave the neuron All or none events gt Do not vary in strength or intensity gt Travel down the axon between 2 and 200 mph Speed is increased if neuron is myelinated gt Nodes of Ranvier gaps in myelin insulation on axon gt Saltatory conduction potential s capacity to jump from point to point Neurotransmitters As action potential reaches the terminal buttons it triggers vesicles sacs release these chemical messengers gt Activate receptors in the postsynaptic membrane gt May be excitatory or inhibitory depending on the receptor Acetycholine voluntary muscle contraction gt Primary messenger bw motor neurons amp muscles gt Plays an excitatory role gt Alzheimer39s Disease underproduction ofACh Serotonin regulates states ofarousal gt Involved in sleep and dreaming gt Depression underproduction of Serotonin Dopamine plays an inhibitory role gt Dampens amp smoothes out neural messages gt Parkinson39s Disease underproduction of dopamine gt Schizophrenia overproduction of dopamine Agonists Mimic the action of neurotransmitters gt Nicotine mimics acetylcholine Antagonists Block the action of neurotransmitters gt Curare blocks acetylcholine Neuromodulators Increase decrease effects of other neurotransmitters in many cells at once gt Endorphins release in times of pain or stress Techniques for Studying the Brain Brain Imaging Electroencephalogram EEG Electrodes on scalp measure electrical impulses ofthe brain Positron Emission Tomography PET Tracks blood ow in the brain using radioactive dye Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Tracks blood flow using magnetic elds emitted by hemoglobin Structures of the Brain Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Hindbrain Functions as body s Life support system gt Most primitive part of the brain Medula controls functions needed for survival gt Heart rate breathing blood pressure Pons bridge controls re exes ofthe body gt Sneezing shivering coughing vomiting Hindbrain Reticular Formation controls general arousal gt Stages of sleep and wakefulness Cerebelum coordination of complex motor skills gt Tracks position of body parts so body movements are smooth amp accurate gt Maintains our posture amp balance gt Also works in language memory amp reasoning tasks Midbrain Functions as the brain s Relay stations gt Coordinates sensory visual amp auditory information gt Helps coordinate motor responses to external stimulus Substructures Include Tectum Superior colliculus lnferior colliculus Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic neurons related to Parkinson39s symptoms Forebrain Source amp integration center of Higher mental processes Thalamus receives analyses sensory info from sense organs amp sends info to sensory cortex Hypothalamus maintains homeostasis ofthe body gt Monitors blood flow to brain temp nutrient content gt Runs autonomic system amp pituitary gland Limbic System learning amp expression of emotions gt Amygdala Effects emotional behavior especially emotions caused by pain threat or stress gt Hippocampus Plays an important role in memory Damage to limbic areas affects how people react in times of stress amp interferes with memory formation Forebrain amp the Endocrine System Pituitary Gland endocrine gland that controls all other endocrine glands master gland gt Thyroid controls metabolism amp physical growth gt Parathyroid controls mineral balance gt Pancreas controls carbohydrate metabolism gt Adrenals control blood pressure energy store breakdowns stress hormones gt Testes Ovaries production of estrogen amp testosterone Forebrain Cerebral Cortex Organizes thoughts gives us sense of self allows us to plan reason amp solve problems Divided Into Left amp RightHemispheres Control of sensory amp motor function is crisscrossed Each memrspme rs deed rrtaraurmpes gt Each has rts spema rate butthera rs DVEHEP gt Remember theas Gage FrontsLobe Ptarrmrre 2m D gt Elmca s area eartrms anguaga pmdudmn gt Mutur cartex earrtrets vmuntary musde mavemert gt Tapngrapme argamzatmrr n makmgt DENDnaH t recau strategres TemporaLobe Auertury e3 speech pracessmg gt WEmEKE s Area eartrms anguage cumprehensmn Parretatope mataserrsary cartextn pracess sensatmns Dfmuch temperature amp pam gt ereatertme serrartrvrtyta much arger eartteat area OccrprIaLobe Vtsua prunessmg ufuunmuvampm2ntampshap2 gt Damage causes mapmtyte reengmze DEVEEWE mntmnr Dundee wreatmn tau hnm sphcre r Snma osensmy cancx anew obe Ema are remamar nbe cantata rm Wemms Nee Hemtspnenc Lateranzauon ageeme Functmmng m Hemrsgneres Le Hemrsphere speerauzes m min arrawysrs gt orgamzes serrat events accumng arre a erthe Ether gt Organizes serial behaviors verbal activity understanding speech reading writing Right Hemisphere specializes in synthesis gt Puts isolated elements together for perception ofwhole gt Drawing reading maps constructing complex objects from smaller parts Cooperation of Hemispheres Adaptive as it helps the brain s labor for more ef cient processing Corpus Collosum Band of axons that connects two hemispheres amp uni es or memories and perceptions gt Allows hemispheres perceive the world differently gt Allows the two hemispheres to exchange information Genetic Principles We Are Far From Tabula Rasa Biological amp behavioral traits are carried by the 60100000 genes in each cell nucleus Genes groups of nucleotide bases gt Biochemical key to body s structure gt Send messages amp instructions to cells DNA Deoxyn39bonucleic Acid molecules that make up the gene amp contain nucleotide base pairs Pairs ordered differently on each DNA molecule causing cell to produce different amino acids proteins amp enzymes gt Adenine to Thymine gt Guanine to Cytosine Biology of Heredity Each Human Cell Carries 23 Pairs Of Chromosomes Half donated from each gamete sex cell of both mother amp father Meiosis process bywhich cells become gametes gt Number of chromosomes in each cell is halved gt Come to total46 chromosomes during fertilization zygote new cell formed by merging olZ gametes Autosomes rst 22 pairs olchromosomes pair 39 olthe child gtX chromosomes are contributed bythe lemale gt Y chromosomes are contributed by males rww WWW y cmiwmm WWW mm am has n x Mather mm Determination engmmmu of n m l tn the d V Sex ame 2 5 a baby receive x chmmmmaa lmm anquot mum m1 mum Genotype Complete genetic makeup a person s heredity 39 39 de The underlying genetic co Phenotype How underlying code is expressed as a result olenvironmental inlluence Physical behavioral amp psychological features Alleles amp Genetic Expression The halved chromosome one from each parent carrying trait inlormation m z Homozygous vs Heterozygous AHe es Homozygous Havrng 2 rdentrca aHe es for speomo trart Heterozygous Havmg 2 drffererrt aHe es for speorfrotrart Dommant amp Reoesswe AHe es Domrnan Genetrc tendency fortrartto be expressed Recessrue Genetrotendenoyfortrartto be suppressed ma a Anected molher K lather 2 39i mm n m m mm mm manna Dominant Inheritance r1 i fa Birth J Defect 2m and run sun m m Innnun Ihmr u n or the r hon mama Brnan 3 ed Nnrmu A ecm Normal Poulbla haredlmry results mm mummmuwmmm mmwmrmmmgwmwequot RetEessive 2mm quot quot quot Inherltance of a Birth Defect mseaxz mrwm E a WWW Damm if Genetics of Behavior 0 39 quot of Psychological Phenotype Traits controlled by a single gene result in eitheror phenotypes Behavioral traits can represent an entire range of different outcomes gt Extroversion gt Intelligence Polygenic Inheritance When phenotype re ects the combined activity of many separate genes gt Many genes contribute to trait gt Produces a continuum of phenotype expression Twin Adoption amp Family Studies Monozygotic Identical Twins Genetically copies formed by one fertilized ovum that splits Dizygotic Fraternal Twins Formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at the same time Twin Studies Study degree of similarity bw identical amp fraternal twins who are raised in the same home Family Studies Look at similarity amp difference among blood relatives Children are evaluated w respect their parents etc Adoption Studies Study degree of similarity bw identical twins who are separated at birth gt lfidentical twins separated at birth remain similar 9 heredity is the primary driving force gt If identical twins separated at birth turn out different 9 environment is the primary driving force Drawback of Current Methods Adoption Agencies may selectively place children to match biological parents Twin People may treat each identical twin more similarly than they treat fraternal twins Family Dif cult to separate contribution of heritability amp environment Chapter 15 Therapy Psychotherapy Treatment designed to assist people with their mental emotional and behavioral problems Eclecticism Tailoring treatment of individuals to meet their particular needs Using various type oftherapy depending on factors such as gt Speci c type of disorder gt Personality ofthe person being treated Goals of the Chapter Understand the most effective ways to treat biologically based psychological problems Understand how irrational beliefs and faulty attributions be changed Understand environmental factors can be altered to reduce or eliminate abnormal behaviors Understand how effectiveness of psychotherapy can be evaluated Biomedical Therapies Hippocrates Believed psychological distress depression amp mania should be treated as products of the body gt Subscribed to medical model disorders as diseases Opinion that abnormal behavior is related to biology gained scienti c validity in 1800 s gt Victims of syphilis deteriorated into psychosis Biomedical Therapies Medications Biomedical Therapy Biologically based treatment for reducing or eliminating the symptoms of psychological disorders Chlorpromazine Fist success with antipsychotic drugs reduced positive symptoms of schizophrenia gt Used in 1950s to treat delusions hallucinations Currently many psychological disorders are treated with medications gt Contributed to reducing the number of patients who used to live out their lives in hospitals Chapter 15 Unfortunately some medications have unpleasant and potentially harmful sideeffects Side effects include involuntary movements of tongue jaw face heart conditions disorientation suicidality Antipsychotic Drugs Medications that effectively treat positive symptoms of schizophrenia gt Act as antagonist blocking and slowing the action of dopamine in the brain gt Do not work well on negative symptoms Produce unwanted amp unpleasant sideeffects gt Drowsiness difficulty concentrating blurry vision gt Tardive Dyskenesia uncontrollable facial tics Over past decades new medications clozapine amp resperidone have come onto the market gt Reduce negative sideeffects gt Help with negative symptoms gt Work on variety of receptors dopamine seratonin amp others indicating complex of disease AntiDepressant Drugs Tn39cyclics rst successful med to treat depression gt Effects production of norepinephrine to remain in synapse thus modulating its effects Prozac advanced med that effects serotonin reuptake The true reason for medication effects is unknown gt Example Aspirin It takes several weeks for medication to stabilize levels of neurotransmitters in the brain Sideeffects including restlessness insomnia and reduced sexual drive Lithium Carbonate effective for bipolar disorders gt Prevents recurrence of manic episodes gt Must be monitored closely due to its toxicity AntiAnxiety Drugs Benzodiazepines Tranquilizer meds Valium amp Xanax that reduce tension and anxiety gt Very popular in 1970 s with declining use as doctors realize the meds addictive properties gt Increase effectiveness of gammaaminobutyric acid GABA in the brain gt Enhance ability to inhibit emotions amp lowers levels ofarousal Chapter 15 Side effects include drowsiness impaired motor coordination and substance dependence Lengthy use oftranquilizers encourages people to rely on them as a crutch Biomedical Therapies ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy Treatment in which a briefelectric current is delivered to the brain gt Primarily used for severely depressed amp highly suicidal individuals Initially it was very dangerous amp frightening as excess current caused severe convulsions gt Today the patient is given sedatives to avoid injury Research on ECT ECT is 70 effective for reducing suicidal behavior in patients who don t respond to conventional treatments gt Side effects include temporary short term memory loss gt No evidence oflong term permanent brain damage It is unclear why ECT works to change mood gt Individuals in treatment often have to repeat sessions due to relapse into depression Insight Therapies Treatments designed to give clients the experience of self knowledge amp insight into their own thought processes Treatment is conducted in the form of extensive oneonone verbal interactions with a psychologist Three types of insight therapy gt Psychoanalysis gt Cognitive gt Humanistic Each type has different beliefs about how best to guide a individual towards insight amp elevated consciousness Insight Therapies Psychoanalysis Chapter 15 Resolving Unconscious Con icts Back to Sigmund Freud Goal oftreatment isto bring hidden impulses memories amp wishes from the unconscious mind to the conscious mind gt Once the individual became aware ofthe hidden con icts between id amp superego their psychological distress would end gt Once psychological distress was relived abnormal behavior would follow suit Freud based his treatment model on personal experience with patients gt People found relief from emotional suffering after recalling amp reliving repressed traumatic or forgotten experiences gt Recalling significant childhood experiences seemed to help the most Tools or Psychoanalysis Free Association Patients are asked to freely express whatever thoughts amp feelings happen to come into their minds gt Typically cued by a word What comes to mind when I say mother house love Dream Analysis Helps understand contents ofthe unconscious amp look into our most hidden desires Resistance amp Transference It is not enough to tell a patient about the hidden meaning oftheir unconscious gt Patient must face amp resolve inner conflict on their own gt But resolving inner con icts amp achieving selfawareness is not an easy task Resistance Patient s unconscious efforts to subvert or hinder the therapy process gt Reliving con ict is anxiety provoking gt Defense mechanisms mobilize to reduce anxiety gt Patients will avoid sessions forget dreams etc Transference type of resistance that suggests progress in treatment amp shows a growing trust between patient amp therapist gt Patient expresses thought amp feelings toward the therapist that are actually representative of the way the patient feels about other signi cant people in their life gt Unconscious feelings are rising to the surface amp the opportunity for resolving those feelings presents itself Current Applications Chapter 15 Psychoanalysis is very time consuming gt Requires extensive training on the part ofthe therapist gt Time is money so therapy is expensive gt Its also dif cult to measure gains the patient makes Brief psychoanalysis moves process along faster gt Therapist takes a more active role gt Transference can be forced through role play gt Target amp deal with most stubborn amp maladaptive defenses Insight Therapies Cognitive Changing Maladaptive Beliefs Therapy designed to remove a patient s irrational beliefs amp negative thoughts gt Maladaptive thinking coupled with everyday events is seen as the cause of psychological distress amp abnormal behavior gt Example Being dumped by your signi cant other coupled with an irrational belief m never going to nd someone else leads to depression amp anxiety Examples of Maladaptive Beliefs Catastrophizing There is no hope for me Dichotomous Thinking Either you are happy or your are miserable there is no middle ground Personalizing I m personally responsible for everything that has gone wrong in my life Arbitrary Inference People are only happy when they are wealthy I will never be happy RationalEmotive Therapy Goal is to remove irrational beliefs through active amp aggressive confrontation gt Pioneered by Albert Ellis gt Client s maladaptive thoughts are verbally challenged with great vigor until the client gives up the beliefs Beck s Approach Takes the subtle road towards changing irrational beliefs by letting clients realize their own maladaptive tendencies gt Therapist acts as advisor amp guide gt Patient is asked to become a psychological detective amp keep records of their automatic thoughts amp feelings gt Experiential homework is frequently assigned Chapter 15 Insight Therapies Humanistic Treating the Human Spirit Goal is to help patient gain insight into their own inherent selfworth amp value as a human being gt Patient is already in possession of everything they need to get well but have lost sight of this potential Process ofdiscovery is geared towards nding one s own unique potential amp fundamental capacity to better oneself Client Centered Therapy An attempt is made to let the patient nd the key to their own health amp happiness gt Therapist acts as a guide sounding board amp source of unconditional positive regard gt The client is encouraged to resolve their sense of incongruence Therapist is encouraged to gain true understanding ofa client s level of affective functioning gt Through empathy the therapist learn to re ect and redirect emotions towards the client until they get clear understanding oftheir own feelings gt lfthe therapist provides the proper supportive environment the client will recognize their own selfworth Insight Therapies Group Therapy Allows several patients to be treated simultaneously Advantages to Group Approach gt Groups are more cost effective gt Hearing how others deal with their psychological distress is educational gt Hearing others talk about similar problems makes problems seem less freakish amp people feel less alone gt Group settings teach trust amp other social skills Family Therapy Goal is to provide treatment to the family as whole social system gt One family member s suffering effects all others gt Family members can collaborate amp pool resources in aiding the recovery of other members Chapter 15 gt Educating family members about the details of a mental illness will create a more understanding environment forthe patient Treating the Environment Behavioral Therapies Designed to change behaviorthrough use of established learning techniques Idea is that maladaptive behavior is learned amp can be unlearned through changes in the environment Take the mind beliefs thoughts amp feelings out of the equation to focus specifically on behavior Three main types gt Conditioning techniques gt Applying rewards and punishments gt Social skills training Treating the Environment Conditioning Systematic Desensitization Use counterconditioning amp extinction to reduce fear anxiety associated with an object or event Patients works through an anxiety hierarchy of situations that lead to fearful reactions gt Patient beings by imagine a fearful situations while working to stay remaining relaxed gt Patient can eventually face the real situation Aversion Therapy Goal is to replace a positive reaction to a harmful stimulus with something negative amp unpleasant gt Effective as long as you continue the exposure to the aversive stimulus gt Ethically questionable as well Example Give a drug Antabuse that causes severe nausea when alcohol is ingested Treating Environment Reward amp Punishment Chapter 15 Token Economies Patients is rewarded with small tokens when they act appropriately gt Can exchange tokens for privileges gt Useful in helping institutionalized patients develop life skills Potential Drawbacks Patients fail to learn the inherent value of avoiding inappropriate behavior Punishment Treatment situation follows undesirable behaviors with aversive stimuli gt Or removing something pleasant negative punishment gt Example Give mild shocks to a disturbed child to prevent selfdestructive behavior Potential Drawbacks People become vengeful amp resentful towards those who punish gt Ethically suspect especially since reward works better Treating the Environment Social Skills Training Technique uses modeling and reinforcement to shape appropriate interpersonal adjustment skills Address practical problems that accompany maladaptive behavior gt People avoid those who act in a bizarre frightening or unpleasant manner gt As a result patients never learns skills needed to properly interact with others Usually proceeds in several progressive steps To teach conversational skills the therapist might gt First discuss appropriate verbal responses gt Second show a videotaped demonstration gt Third role play a conversation gt Fourth therapist gives feedback gt Fifth client is assigned to practice skills in daytoday life prior next session Evaluating Approaches to Psychotherapy Chapter 15 Clinical researchers have contrasted outcomes associated with different approaches The Philadelphia Study Contrasted behavioral amp psychodynamic therapy w a control group on a waiting list gt Most participants had anxiety disorders gt Both approaches produced improvement but little differences between them MetaAnalysis Statistical technique used to compare ndings across many different studies gt Comparisons based on some common evaluation measure differences bw treatment amp control groups gt Can also use mathematical formula to standardize results same way Turman standardized IQ Are All Therapies Reallv Equallv Effective Results of several metaanalytic studies nd similar results as the Philadelphia study Spontaneous Remission Phenomenon where control groups improve as much as 30 over time gt Possibly caused by sheer involvement in the research gt Therapists conducted tests made frequent phone calls interacted with controls amp provided support Other research suggests that the effectiveness ofa kind oftherapy depends on the kind of problem gt Cognitive therapies are best for depression gt Behavioral therapies are best for some kinds of anxiety disorders and oppositional behavior gt Humanistic therapies are good for adjustment disorders Common Factors Across Psychotherapies Support Factors Therapist listens offers empathy Therapists are committed to forming a therapeutic alliance with the patient gt There is a spirit of collaboration Therapist amp Client Have Common Goal Help client get better i Learning Factors Chapter 15 People learn about themselves gt Learn about thought processes behavior role of past experiences Feedback helps patient find connections bw their life experience gt A reason amp rationale is given for the emotional distress Action Factors Therapists provide speci c suggestions for action gt Patients engage in relaxation techniques gt Patients try out new social skills gt Patients experiment with coping techniques Chapter 4 Human Development PreNatal Development Prenatal Development Changes that transform a fertilized egg into a newborn human Stages of Development Zygote 9 Embryo 9 Fetus 9 Newborn 2535 houvsaker r0 a noun kar a a amniqu leniliu cmzlcctls ferlilluu39un 4cels of I iznelis a Egceii divldtslor Mllvsrlima 4 days A mwa ball olalmul Inc a Quin hours alter mama mil spanquot and lemaie ea hromosomu ial uniu a 5 days Zygon mrs Failupmn mu me mam mm a mum 1 gt7 dysZygobe ins t 7 wamsh Lodmwai was in the Hype elm am an mud1 s Zy are is i m a Ovulation An 5g an lrom 633139 4 25 me ovary mus m fallopian m a 9715 my any Dr of me mum1m yell Germinal Period Weeks 12 Zygote Result of fertilization of egg by sperm gt Zygote grows through mitosis cell replication Blastocyst By 4 day it consists of 100 cells Implantation Zygote burrows into in uterine wall and connects with mom s blood supply EmbLyonic Period Weeks 38 Gasfrulation Process by which zygote begins to specialize its cells into by function amp structure Child takes shape of a humanlooking organism gt By 4m week the heart is developed and functioning gt By 8m week evidence of organ formation is clear gt First signs of gender amp central nervous system Fetal Period Weeks 938 Neurological capacity for senses develops gt Cerebral cortex comes onIine Chapter 4 gt Touch taste amp smell appear by third month gt Hearing appears by fourth month gt Vision begins at 2 weeks but is least developed at birth Skeletalmuscular system develop amp brain grow in size amp complexity Age of Viability By 6 months all systems as in place to allow fetus to survive outside ofwomb Fetus begins to exhibit behavior gt Moves in the uterus gt Recognize amp respond to sounds Risks Factors in Prenatal Development Age of the Mother Moms younger than 15 amp older than 35 are at risk gt 87 of nonmarried adolescents pregnancies unplanned gt 65 of women ages 1519 giving birth are unmarried Proper Nutrition Malnutrition can lead to gt Birth defects still birth and low birth weight Age of the Mother Moms younger than 15 amp older than 35 are at risk 87 of nonmarried adolescents pregnancies unplanned 65 ofwomen ages 1519 giving birth are unmarried Proper Nutrition Women should eat 1020 more while pregnant gt Food should be nutritious Women gain weight during pregnancy 1040 lb gt 13 forthe baby gt 13 for added fat storage gt 13 for blood amp additional uids Teratogens Substances or organisms that harm embryonic amp fetal development gt Diseases gt Drugs gt Environmental contaminants ChaEter 4 v w r tormrng gt Later rnttuence muSt be men stronger More damage wrtn ongerexposure Susceotrbrtrty to narm m uenced by genetrcs Speornc detects may not be seen rmmeoratety Teratogena A coho Atconot attects btooo oxygen teyets amp nutrmon Feta Acono Syndmme PAS seyere detects tnat tnreaten rntant s Me gt Pnysrcat deformtty neurat detects neart orobtems anc Cause of btrth defects m the Umted States Brain Development tntanc YearS t2 Bram srze grows trom bemg 25 tne srze of adutt brarn at brrtn to 75 at yeartvyo Bram oeyetoos as rt responds to enyrronment eW networ 5 formed as Want mteract W envtronment gt tateranzatron ottunctron begrns nandeoness emerges gt Myennatron starts semmg tne neurat pathways Ptastrcrg Years 175 As myehnauon aoceterates tne rougn wrnng ottne brarn becomes more soecrnc Chapter 4 Brain adapts to problems amp environmental input by building additional neural connections Adulthood Years 20100 Neurons being to die by the thousands by age 20 Survivors continue to increase in complexity Dementia Loss in mental functioning caused by physical changes in the brain gt About 20 over 80 have dementia gt Alzheimer s Disease Acetylcholine producing neurons die in the Limbic System Aging and Memom Ability for rote recall declines but recognition ability stays nearly the same Tasks requiring deliberate recollection become more difficult Ability to focus on the task declines amp we become less efficient at studying of material Intellectual Development Measuring the Thouqht Process of Babies Preference Technique attention to one stimulus over another faces voices Habituation Techniques levels of responsiveness to stimuli after it is repeatedly presented Using Rewards Fundamental behaviorist theory gt Babies amp mobiles Perceptual Abilities Smell Infants born capable of detecting a variety of odors gt Preference for sweet smells Infants born capable of learning to recognize familiar scents gt By 18th day infant recognizes smell oftheir mother s breast Perceptual Abilities Taste Infants born capable of detecting complex tastes gt Distinguish sweet sour salty amp bitter Sensitive to changes in taste of breast milk gt Nurse more if mom consumes sweet food Perceptual Abilities Touch Infants born capable ofexperiencing pain gt Produce signs of distress heartbeat facial expressions Chapter 4 Touch promotes emotionaldevelopment amp helps infant explore the world Perceptual Abilities Hearing Infants Are Reactive To Voice Attentive to sounds w pitch in range of human voice gt Especially attentive to highpitched feminine voices Sound Localization Able to determine where sound is coming from by 12 months gt Capable using sound to determine distance by 7 months Perceptual Abilities Vision VisualAcuity Measure of smallest pattern that can be distinguished dependably gt Least developed sense in the newborn gt Ranges from 20200600 cannot see beyond 20 feet gt 2020 vision achieved by 6 months Binocular vision achieved by 14 weeks cliff Color vision achieved by 16 weeks Intellectual Development Piaget Schemata How children learn to think organize the world amp give meaning to their experience Mental models used to categorize lter amp interpret experiences Progress from simple to complex Assimilate interpret amp incorporate new information or experiences into existing schema Accommodate changing schema to fit in order to incorporate amp adapt to new expenence 1St Stage Sensorimotor Years 02 Learning amp thought centered around on the ve senses and motor skills Initially baby relies on amp uses re exes 1 4 months Sucking rooting amp grasping Slowly new motions are discovered by chance gt Repeat actions that cause interesting consequences Start to showinterest in external objects amp events Seeking novelty for its own sake gt Start varying actions to try different results Become little scientists using trial and error to solve problems Object Permanence Understanding that objects exist independently of our actions amp thoughts about those objects Chapter 4 112 Months Out of sight out of mind thinking 812 Months Infants will seek covered objects 2nd Stage Preoperational Years 27 Internal Mental Representation Develop capacity to think symbolically amp store mental images gt Allows better memory development gt Allows full progress of language development gt Allows for symbolic play to assimilate realworld situations gt Allows imitation ofwhat can t be seen Problem of Centration Focus is on only one dimensions of a problem gt Attend to the most salient perceptual feature ie beads Problems w Conservation objects retain certain properties no matter how the form changes Glass of water Egocentrism Dif culty seeing the world from the viewpoint ofanother Struggle to understand ideas amp feelings of others Only able to reason about a problem from one s own viewpoint 3rd Stage Concrete Operational 711 years Mental Operations strategies amp rules we use to make thinking more systematic amp powerful gt Numbers spatial reasoning chronological events Onset of Logical Reasoning Focus of operations is real concrete DeCentration concentration on multiple aspects of any situation gt Acquire multidimensions reasoning brown small beads Transitive Inference recognition that objects are related because oftheir common relation to a third gt Jodi is older than Drew Child remains incapable ofabstract thought Limited ability to think hypothetically deductively Limited comprehension of life amp death morality etc 4th Stage Formal Operational 1218 years Understand abstract concepts wout concrete representation Hypothetical Reasoning Envision alternative realities or scenarios amp examine potential consequences of future actions Chapter 4 hypothesis testing 0 Divergent Thinking Solve problems with a number of possible correct answers Deductive Reasoning Draw appropriate conclusions form facts with systematic Moral Development Kohlberg s Theog Morality Ability to tell right actions from wrong actions Based on how people respond to moral dilemmas gt Categorized people according to reasoning amp not according to judgment of behavior PreConventional Based on gaining of reward amp avoiding of punishment from authority gures the future gt Adults know right from wrong so rules obeyed to avoid punishment gt Rules obeyed purely for self interest w expectation that favors will be returned in Conventional Based on social perceptions amp expectations of others gt Rules obeyed to gain approval of others so people believe child is good gt Rules obeyed bc expectations laws exist to maintain order in society amp to promote good of all people PostConventional Based on personal moral standards principles of an internal enlightened conscience gt Members of community adhere to a social contract as long as it bene ts all group members gt Based on abstract principles ie justice amp protection from bias Gilligan s Theog Recognized importance ofgender differences gt Felt importance of rights amp justice relationships gt Such values are male oriented based on gender roles Ethic of Caring course of moral development ofwomen based on interpersonal gt Focused on understanding caring amp responsibility to help others Social Development Attachment Attachment Defined Enduring emotional tie between child amp caretaker Initially theorized to be connected to imprinting Chapter 4 Forming Bonds with Others Bowby 1969 Forming emotional ties is innate amp happens by reciprocal interactions gt Smiling cooing distress upon hearing child cry gt Enduring socialemotional relationships built via two main mechanisms Bodily Needs Need for food leads to need for social interaction Psychological Needs Need for stimulation leads to need for social interaction Contact Comfort Harry Harlow 1971 proposed an alternative motivation for attachment gt Involves desire ofchild to be close to caretaker gt Involves a sense of security around the caretaker gt Includes feelings of distress when caretaker absent Isolated monkeys w poor attachment made for poor parents Infant offspring of isolated mothers were ignored or abused Poor social skills of isolate monkeys could be remedied Temperament General level of emotional reactivity Heritability Styles are fairly stable across time gt Inhibited amp Uninhibited Extroverted amp Introverted gt Twin studies concur Environment Styles change w child s experience gt Goodness of t bw child amp parent gt Sensitive responsive parents who recognize meaning Easy eventempered positive mood predictable habits adapt well to novel situations Dif cult overactive irritable irregular habits vigorous negative reactions to changes in routine SlowToWarmUp Inactive moody slow to adapt mild negative reactions to change Chapter 4 Types of Attachment Mary Ainsworth 1978 Develops the Strange Situation Method to gauge child s attachment gt Baby is left in a room by caregiver gt Stranger comes in with the child gt Mother rejoins the child gt Good for classifying 1024 month olds Child s Attachment Styles Secure Cry when mom leaves happy upon return gt Treat mom as security wander offamp check back gt More sociable more secure con dent Avoidant silent after mom goes avoid upon return gt Dislike being held dislike being put down more gt Not bothered by a stranger in the room Resistant anxious in anticipation of mom going ambivalent amp scornful as mom returns gt Don t explore much dif cult to comfort Disorganized varied often contradictory patterns gt Most insecure attachment style gt Combination of ambivalent amp avoidant gt Leads to inhibitions hostility behavior problems Forming Personal Identity Erikson PsychoSocial Theom Personal Identity Sense ofwho you are as an individual Described children as actively resolving social psychological amp cultural con icts in their lives PsychoSocial Theorv 8Staqe Model ooNouanooNA Trust vs Mistrust Infancy 01 yrs Autonomy vs Shame Doubt Toddler 12 yrs Initiative vs Guilt Preschool 35 yrs Industry vs Inferion39ty Grade School 6 12 Identity vs Role Confusion Adolescence 1319 Intimacy vs Isolation Young adulthood 2040 Generativity vs Stagnation Middle adult 4065 Integrity vs Despair Late adult 65 and older Chapter 12 Personality What is Personality Distinguishing pattern of psychological characteristics gt Patterns ofthinking feeling amp behaving gt Differentiate us from others gt Lead us to act consistently across situations Trait Stable predisposition to behave a certain way gt Study of personality involves study of psychological differences in personality traits Goals for the Chapter Understand the right way to conceptualize amp measure the traits that make us consistent and unique Understand why personality traits develop Understand how environment can contribute to how personality characteristics are expressed Conceptualizing amp Measuring Personality Trait Theory Formal system of assessing how people differ in predisposition amp tendency to behave consistently across situations gt Factor Analytic Approach gt Allport s ldiographic Approach gt Psychological Testing Approach Conceptualizing Personality Factor Analysis Goals Is To Understand Relationships bw Traits People s rating ofthemselves on one trait should predict how they rate themselves on anothertrait Illustrates common denominators of personality by clustering trait terms together in groups Terms that go together are seen as re ecting some general personality characteristic Cattell s Source Traits Cattell used 1000 s of terms to establish the existence of 16 main personality traits gt Each personality dimension places individuals on a continuum between two opposites Eysenck s SuperFactors Eysenck argued there are 3 main factors re ecting three primary dimensions gt Extroversion outgoing amp sociable gt Neuroticism moody amp anxious gt Psychoticism uncaring amp cruel The Big Five After debate time and crosscultural application of factor analysis results psychologists have agreed on five dimensions of personality gt Extraversions gt Agreeableness gt Conscientiousness gt Neuroticism gt Openness Conceptualizing Personality Trait Theory Allport s Trait Theom ldiographic Approach Stressed need to focus is on individuals not statistical analysis ofgroups gt Key is to measure ofa person s uniqueness gt Individual cases must be studied in great detail gt Behavior must be recorded across an entire lifetime Allport s Trait Theom Personality Characteristics Everybody s personality is best described in terms of levels or sets oftraits Dominant 9 Representative 9 Occasionally Seen Allport s Trait Theory Cardinal Traits Ruling passionsthat dominate an individual s life very rare gt These individuals are driven focused amp goal oriented Central Traits 510 descriptive traits that exist as lasting characteristics for describing a person Secondary Traits Less obvious characteristics that appear as behavior only under certain circumstance Personality Tests SelfReport Inventories Ask people to answer groups of questions about how they typically think act and feel Responses compared to averages compiled from large groups of prior test takers Main uses include hiring decisions diagnosing psychological disorders Most widely used inventories gt Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI gt Neuroticism Extraversion OpennessPersonality Inventory Revised NEO PIR Frequently used to detect psychological disorders gt Compare people s responses to responses ofthose with already diagnosed psychological problems Advantages gt Objective standardized tests gt Easily amp objectively scored gt Thoroughly studied Disadvantages gt Depend on accuracy of info provided by test taker gt Overpathologizes people due to normative sample Pro39ective Personality Measures Ask people to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli Idea is that you project true thoughts feeling into the interpretation revealing personality Most widely used gt Rorschach Ink Blots amp Thematic Apperception Test Advantages gt Allow free response so person feels more comfortable gt Test is ambiguous so its difficult to fake responses Disadvantages gt Interpretation is not as reliable as would be desired gt Takes a great deal oftraining for good interpretation Personality Development Freud Structure of the Mind Psychodynamic Theory holds that much of behavior is governed by unconscious forces Freud makes his observations while conducting psychiatric treatment with Viennese women who suffer from hysteria Freud arguesthe mind is divided into three parts Conscious Mind Contains things and thoughts that occupy one s current attention Preconscious Mind contains things that aren t currently in consciousness but can be accessed Unconscious Mind contains memories urges and con icts that are beyond awareness Role ofthe Unconscious Mind Contains forgotten memories amp primal urges that are forbidden dangerous or socially frowned upon gt Memories amp urges are kept from consciousness gt Still effect our behavior amp sometimes cause problems Dreams express contents of our unconscious minds Manifest Content Things you remember from your dreams Latent content True unconscious meaning of your dreams Structure of Personality Freud argued personality divided into three mental psychological structures Id Governed by inborn instinctual drives especially those related to sex and aggression gt Obeys the pleasure principle gt Resides entirely in the unconscious mind Superego Motivates people to act in an ideal fashion according to moral customs of culture gt Obeys the idealistic principle Ego Induces reasoned amp deliberate action while still conforming to requirements of outside world gt Obeys the reality principle Superego amp ego divided bw conscious amp unconscious Defense Mechanisms Freud believed that id ego amp superego are in constant con ict especially with regard to the id Defense mechanisms ward off anxiety amp stress that results from confrontations bw id amp others gt These are unconscious gt Often involves selfdeception or replacing one urge with another qu s Defense Mechanism Arsenal Denial Refusal to believe info that leads to stress Rationalization Creating explanation to deal with threatening thoughts or actions Projection Dealing with unacceptable feelings or wishes by attributing them to others Reaction Formation Transforming an anxietyproducing wish into a kind of opposite or behaving opposite to how you really feel Sublimation Channeling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable activities Psychosexual Development Con icts memories urges in unconscious mind come from experiences in childhood gt Emerging sexuality pleasure is the focus of many stages of development gt Each stage has a focus of early sexualitypleasure Failure to move through a stage leads to xation gt Act in ways appropriate for much earlier stage Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral Stage 012 months Pleasure comes from sucking putting things in mouth gt Fixation can cause overeating smoking nailbiting Anal Stage 1 3 years Pleasure comes from retaining or passing feces gt Fixation can cause excessive neatness or messiness Phallic Stage 35 years Pleasure comes from selfstimulation of genitals gt Erotic feelings directed toward oppositesex parent gt Fixation can cause relationship sexual problems Oedipus or Electra complex Latency Period 5 puberty Suppress sexual feelings energy directed towards school amp social relationships Genital Sage Develop ability to maintain mature sexual relationships w opposite sex Personality Development NeoFreudians Alfred Adler The individual is not internally divided or the battleground of conflicting forces gt Holistic view ofthe individual is more proper Growth amp forward movement in life results in a sense of superiority inferiority amp success SelfDetermination amp Uniqueness is the ultimate goal ofour personalities Carl Jung Everyone has access to a collective unconscious gt Symbols ideas amp knowledge shared with the rest of humanity Contents ofthe collective unconscious are called archetypes gt Act as quotorganizing principlesquot for things we see for things we do and for roles we play in life gt Mother mana shadow persona hero wise old man Karen Horney Disagreed with Freud s maledominated view of sexuality especially penis envy gt Proposed personality theory Argued that irrational beliefs not unconscious conflicts cause psychological problems gt People coped w neuroses by moving towards against amp away from their basic needs or people who help realize those needs Personality Development Humanism Humanistic Theory Focuses on people s unique capacity for choice responsibility and growth Personality develops as we strive to achieve our full potential a higher level of consciousness as human beings Carl Rogers SelfConcept An organized set of perceptions that we hold about our abilities amp characteristics gt Drives behavior as we act according to our beliefs ofwho we are how we should act given who we are gt Effected greatly by our personal experiences Personality develops from our growing selfconcept Positive Regard Approval love amp companionship we need to develop positive self concepts lncongruence Discrepancy between the image we have of ourselves amp the sum of our experiences gt Caused by preoccupation with conditions ofwo rth that others place upon us gt Problems arise from too much incongruence Abraham Maslow SelfActuaizationthe ingrained desire to reach one s true potential as a human being gt We all have a need for selfactualization gt Problems arise from failure to satisfy needs Emphasized satisfaction of internal needs amp forces gt Hopes dreams aspirations feelings values gt Personality re ects your position in hierarchy of needs Self actualized people Einstein Lincoln Gandhi share similar personality traits gt Accepting of selfamp others self motivated strong sense of ethics at peace with self amp the world Peak EXpen39enceemotional experience of raised consciousness when one s place in the universe is revealed amp realized Personality Development SocialCognitive SocialCognitive Approach Holds that experience plus how people interpret experience determine personality growth and development Has its roots in the behaviorist tradition as it emphasizes learned behaviors over innate nature Julian B Rotter Locus of Control How much control you feel you have over your environment gt External LOC Perceiving little connection bw actions amp the occurrence of reward or punishment gt Internal LOC World is seen as fundamentally responsive to direct action which ultimately yields reward or punishment Albert Bandura SelfEf cacy Beliefs you hold about your own ability to perform a task accomplish a oal gt Often related to specific situations or tasks Reciprocal Determinism Interaction of beliefs behavior and environment that shapes what you learn from experience gt At the core of personality development Personality Development Genetic Factors Twin Research MMPI scores indicate that identical twins share many ofthe same personality traits gt Higher degree of similarity bw identical twins than bw fraternal twins irrespective ofraising environment So at least some traits are genetically determined gt However expression ofthese traits depends greatly on environmental factors Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Goals of the Chapter Understand the proper way to conceptualize and de ne abnormal behavior Understand how the various psychological disorders that produce abnormal behavior are classified Understand some ofthe underlying causes of psychological disorders Characteristics of Abnormal Behavior Statistical amp Cultural Deviance Behavior must occur very infrequently among members ofa population Cannot be used as sole criterion for labeling behavior as abnormal Refers to behaviors that are not culturally expected responses Some behaviors that are acceptable in one culture are considered abnormal in another Emotional Distress Individuals experiencing great despair agitation unhappiness amp alienation This is typically the characteristicthat leads people to seek help Dysfunction Impairment in functioning can be in any or all ofthe following areas gt Cognitive gt Emotional gt Behavioral functioning Person becomes unable to engage in adaptive lifefunctioning Normal Criterion Abnormal Low Emotional stra Cummon Statistical devian tia Acceptable Cultural deviance Adaptive Dysfunction Chapter 14 Concept of Insanity Insanity as a Legal Concth Though some behavior can be easily recognized as abnormal the law has different criteria Legally Insanity isthe inability to understand that certain actions are wrong at the time ofa crime Public Perception Insanity defense is common gt Only used in less than 1 of criminal felony cases gt Cases are most often unsuccessful Abnormality as a Medical Disease Drawinq Analoqv bw Mental amp thsical Illness Abnormal behavior is symptomatic of underlying disease that can be cured with appropriate treatment Like physical illness mental illness often has gt Biological causes gt Symptoms gt Viable treatment strategies Disorders as hereditary or as disease ofthe brain Treatment should parallel that of physical illness Includes tendency to pursue gt New drug treatments gt Diagnosis and classi cation gt Study of biological brain pathology itself Is the Medical Model the Appropriate Way Some believe its wrong to draw direct comparisons Causes of mental illness often unclear gt Perhaps psychological problems are just failures to adjust to daytoday life Unlike physical illness social cultural context of symptoms is important in defining psychological problems The Problem of Labeling Diagnostic Labeling Effects Labels can become selffulfilling prophecies Chapter 14 gt Make it dif cult to recognize normal behavior when it occurs gt May increase likelihood that person acts in an abnormal way gt Attaches stigma to a person that is dif cult to overcome The Rosenhan Study 1973 Participants arrived at hospital faking auditory hallucinations amp were admitted to psychiatric ward After admission participants behaved normally gt Yet staffdid not see through the deception gt All behaviors were seen as consistent with disorder gt Hospital stays ranged from a week to two month gt Eventually released with remission label Rememberthe Lessons of Social Coqnition Labeling makes it dif cult to recognize normalbehavior when it occurs Labeling will increase the likelihood that you will act in an abnormal way Classifying Psychological Disorders What isthe DSMlVTR Diagnostic amp Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision gt Published by the American Psychiatric Association Used for diagnosis amp classi cation of disorders gt Describes nature ofeach disorder in terms of age cultural amp gender gt Describes manifestations of mental disorders Intended to give objective measurable criteria for diagnosing psychological disorders that can be measured world wide gt Does not suggest therapies or treatments gt Does not discuss possible causes gt Does not subscribe to any one theoretical approach Axes ofthe DSMlVTR Five rating axes dimensions that help classify clinical syndromes disorders gt Axis I Clinical Disorders gt Axis II Personality Disorders gt Axis III Physical or medical conditions gt Axis IV Psychosocial and environmental gt Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning GAF Chapter 14 Axis Anxiety Disorders Anxiety is a mood state characterized by gt Marked negative affect gt Somatic symptoms oftension gt Person apprehensively anticipates future danger or misfortune gt Expressed as subjective unease worried behaviors andor physiological responses Anxiety is a normal amp adaptive emotion gt Futureoriented state that prepares you to take action gt When experienced in moderate amounts Anxiety becomes problematic gt When experienced in excessive amounts gt When interferences w areas of life functioning Fear as a ight or ight response gt Presentoriented mood state characterized by strong avoidance activation of sympathetic nervous system gt Differs psychologically amp biologically from anxiety Fear becomes problematic gt Excessive amounts in absence of real threat or danger gt When interferences w areas of life functioning Panic is an abrupt experience of intense fear and emotional discomfort gt Accompanied by physical symptoms heart palpitation chest pain shortness of breath dizziness gt Can be situationally bound expected in given situation gt Can be unexpected completely unanticipated Generalized Anxiety Disorder Free oating unfounded anxiety apprehensive expectation gt Ongoing more days than not for at least 6 months gt Dif cult to turn offor control gt Muscle tension is only autonomic measures that distinguishes GADs Panic Disorder Unexpected amp recurrent episodes or attacks of extremely intense fear or dread gt Many physical symptoms gt Develop anxiety about the possibility ofanother attack gt May develop Agoraphobia fear amp avoidance of quotunsafequot situations where a panic attack may occur Speci c Phobia Extreme amp irrational fear ofa speci c object or situation gt Fear interferes with ability to function gt Recognize fears as unreasonable yet go to great lengths to avoid objects of fear Chapter 14 gt 4 Subtypes Animal situational naturalenvironment amp bloodinjuryinjection ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder Persistent uncontrollable thoughts obsessions or compelling need to perform repetitive acts compulsions gt Intrusive thoughts urges include contamination aggressive impulse sexual content or somatic concerns gt Actions designed to suppress thoughts amp provide relief hand washing checking counting praying Axis I Somatoform Disorders Psychological disorders centered around the body and experiences of physical symptoms Involves an excessive preoccupation with bodily functioning that is not grounded in physical reality gt Physiologically individuals are not ill Hypochondn39asis Longlasting preoccupation with idea that one has a serious disease or illness gt Based on misinterpretation of normal amp ambiguous bodily reactions as life threatening gt Reassurance by professionals rarely has an impact gt Focus offear is broad amp on wide variety of sensations gt Overfocused attention on normal bodily sensations Somatization Disorder Preoccupation w physical symptoms that have no physical cause gt Do not fear dying from a disease as much as they are focused on finding relief from speci c symptoms gt Multiple symptoms are reported across multiple organs or organ systems gt Individuals are impulsive unable to inhibit behaviors that yield immediate rewards attention from doctors Conversion Disorder Presence of real physical or neurological problems that has no physical cause gt Conditions are not intentionally faked gt Physical causes of impairment cannot be found gt Symptoms can being amp worsen with stressful events gt Usually involves either sensory malfunction or problem of voluntary motor activity paralysis numb amp tingling extremities inability to see hear or feel by touch Axis I Dissociative Disorders Characterized by separation of conscious awareness from thoughts amp memory Detachmentfrom Actions To point of not knowing what is being done what was done Chapter 14 Feeling ofDetachment From body mind amp outside world Dissociative Amnesia Inability to remember important personal information or expenences gt Psychological in origin not brain injury gt General unable to recall identity or family history gt Localized forgetting speci c traumatic or stressful events Dissociative Fugue Loss of personal identity followed by flight from home or area of residence gt Lasts several days months or years gt Recovery is typically sudden amp complete leaving no recollection of activities or identity assumed during the dissociation Dissociative Identity Disorder Individual alternates bw what appear to be two or more distinct identities or personalities gt Once known as multiple personality disorder gt Recognized by DSMIV but not all clinicians believe i gt Symptoms can be faked others optical changes can t gt Causes unclear but related to sexual or physical abuse in childhood Axis I Mood Disorders Prolonged disabling disruptions in emotional state gt Disturbance in mood effects daytoday thoughts perceptions amp behavior Characterized by deep depression or combination of depression amp euphoria Major Depressive Episode 5 symptoms for 2 weeks gt Depressed mood for most of the day gt Loss of interest in normal daily activities gt Signi cant weight change gt Change in activity level daily fatigue loss of energy gt Negative selfconcept worthlessness excessive guilt gt Trouble concentrating or making decisions gt Suicidal thoughts Major Depressive Disorder Occurrence of at least one major depressive episode over 6 month period gt Effects individual s entire perspective on life gt Episodes can be recurrent more than once in lifetime gt Can be milder dysthymic and less disruptive yet very persistent BipolarDisorden Mood disturbance shifts in two directions from depression to manic state gt Manic state Person becomes hyperactive talkative decreased need for sleep grandiose for at least a week Chapter 14 gt People engage in activities that are selfdestructive or dangerous such as spending sprees risktaking gt Daytoday functioning is often severely impaired Suicide One possible consequence of mood disorders especially bipolar disorder gt Third leading cause ofdeath among adolescents gt Risk factors besides mood disorders include prior suicide attempts psychiatric disorders expressing thoughts of suicide impulsive behavior recent stressful events negative consequence of substance use exposure to suicidality ofothers Suicide Being helpful to those threatening suicide gt Be Direct Talk openly amp matteroffactly about suicide gt Be V lling To Listen Allow expressions of feelings gt Be NonJudgmental Don t debate right or wrong ofact gt Don t lecture on the value of life gt Get Involved Show interest and support gt Don t Be Sworn to Secrecy Seek support Axis I Schizophrenia Characterized by fundamental disturbances in thought processes emotion andor behavior gt May include delusions hallucinations disorganized speech disorganized behavior or negative symptoms gt Must be present for at least one month with six month of clear signs Complex amp expresses itself in variety of ways Individuals commonly suffer from three different types of symptoms gt Positive Observable expressions of abnormal behavior caused by distortion of normal experiences gt Negative Expressed as absence of behavior caused by deficits of normal expenence gt Disorganized Expressed as incoherent jumbled behavior caused by breakdown in organized experience Delusions as positive symptoms gt Delusion of Grandeur one has been chosen by destiny or that one is rich titled powerful etc gt Delusion of Persecution one is being plotted against Hallucinations as positive symptoms gt Auditory hearing one s internal thoughts as if they are coming from outside gt Visual seeing things that are notcould not be there Affective attening as a negative symptom gt Individual becomes unable to respond emotionally Chapter 14 gt May also be accompanied by reduction or absence of speech and inability to experience pleasure Disorganized speech amp catatonic symptoms gt Person speaks tangentially in word salad amp neologisms gt Person adopts amp remains immobile in particular position for hours Axis II Personality Disorders Enduring pattern of inner experience amp behavior that deviates from expectations of person s culture gt Manifested in cognition affect interpersonal Functioning amp impulse control Pattern is in exible amp is pervasive across a broad range of personal amp social situations Antisocial Personality Disorder Primary feature is a pattern of behavior in which the rights of others are violated amp social norms are disregarded gt lncludes psychopaths criminals who repeatedly perpetrate illegal acts gt Violations of people s rights are typically done due to lack ofempathy amp for purposes ofamusement orthrill Paranoid Personality Disorder Characterized by pattern of excess amp unjustified distrust or suspicion gt Person believes others motives are malevolent amp assumes others are out to harm trick them gt Preoccupation with doubt as to reliability amp faithfulness of friends amp associates gt Reluctance to confide in others for fear that information will be used maliciously against them Understanding Psychological Disorders BioPsychoSocial Perspective The idea that psychological disorders are in uenced or caused by a combination of factors gt Biological brain physiology gt Cognitive psychological gt Social environmental Biological Factors Genetics amp the Brain NeurotransmitterImbalance Suggests that biochemical interactions in the brain can be implicated in various disorders gt Dopamine excess may contribute to schizophrenia gt Fluctuation of serotonin levels relate to mood disorders Chapter 14 Structural Problems Suggests that deviations in structures of brain will cause deviation of function gt Schizophrenic have reduced activity in areas ofthe prefrontal cortex gt Schizophrenic have abnormally small temporal or limbic regions gt Schizophrenic have enlargement ofthe ventricles tat contain cerebrospinal fluid Genetic Abnormality Suggests we inherit tendency amp predisposition to behave in a certain way gt lfyou have a schizophrenic brother sister or parent your odds are 1 in 10 that you will be schizophrenic gt lfyou have schizophrenic twin odds increase to 1 in 2 gt lfyou have a depressed or bipolar twin your odds of being mood disordered are 50 greater than normal It is important do strike a balance and avoid the pitfalls ofoverexaggerating biological causes gt Avoid biological reductionism gt Avoid premature conclusions gt Avoid simplistic approach Emphasis on biological causes results in less focus on economic amp societal contribution Cognitive Factors Maladaptive Thoughts Maladaptive Att butions Beliefs and thoughtsthat have no basis in reality gt Anxiety about vague threat that don t exist gt Perceptions ofworthlessness despite success Depressed individuals may be prone to distorted attributions to events in their lives gt Internal Attribution Blaming failure 0 n inner aws gt Global Attribution Seeing failure as widespread gt Stable Attribution Seeing failure are longlasting Learned Helplessness Theory of depression that says prolonged exposure to failure may lead you to give up gt Failed attempts to control your environment leads to a general sense of hopelessness amp depression gt People come to believe that things will not get any better amp they are doomed bc of who they are Environmental Factors Learning Abnormalitv Role of Culture Culture helps determine how abnormal behavior is expressed amp perceived Chapter 14 gt Swat Pukhtun Pakistan all men carry arms are vigilant to defend their honor amp trust noone including their wives whom they lock up at home gt China amp Mylasia Koro is a culture bound syndrome where anxiety surrounds sensation of penis or breasts retracting into the body gt India Amok is a trance syndrome characterized by outbursts of violent homicidal behavior once self induced by warriors prior to battle so as to ght WI indiscriminant abandon amp fearless rage gt Native American Shamanic ritual involves the healer going into a frenzy to channel spirits of animals amp natural forces Conditioning Disorders Acquisition of abnormal behaviors through basic learning principles gt Phobias learned by classical conditioning or observational learning even though you may not remember the traumatic fearprovoking event itself Chapter 9 Language amp Thought Goals of the Chapter Understand how we communicate with others Understand how we solve problems amp reach goals Understand how we make decisions when confronted with a set ofalternatives Defining Language Communication Process of sharing thoughts feelings amp desires Requires a sender a receiver a message Language Arbitrary symbols with agreed upon meanings Usually verbal but not always American Sign Language Structure of Language Phonemes Basic sounds that make up language gt English language has 45 Auditory receptors dedicate connections to the auditory cortex for these basic sounds Brain forms a perceptual map to represent similarities differences among sounds so you can discriminate Morphemes Smallest units of language that carry meaning Usually single words but can be prefix suffix too gt English language has about 50000 to 80000 Syntax Rules for combining words to make sentences Semantics Rules for understanding the meaning behind words Grammar Refers to total linguistic knowledge of phonology morphology syntax amp semantics Chapter 9 Phonology The study ofthe sounds ofa language Ability to learn store amp combine sounds into words Sense of stress intonation patterns ofa language Morphology Patterns ofword formation in a particular language Rules that make certain that some sequences occur while others do not Comprehending Language Structure ofa Sentence Chomsky 1957 Surface Structure The superficial appearance amp ordering ofwords Deep Structure Underlying representational meaning of words Pragmatics Express ideas ef ciently amp using language appropriately Relying on common knowledge ofthe listener Use of language in various contexts Pragmatic Maxims Allow a speaker to effectively communicate w receivers Be Informative Be Truthful Be Clear Be Relevant Language Development in Children PreLanguage Smiles cries gestures amp eye contact all form the basis of daytoday communication Infants respond to their care giver s voice gt Onedayolds respond to speech sounds by moving their bodies to the rhythm gt Onemonth olds discriminate between certain vowels Chapter 9 2nd Month Babies start cooing vowel sounds 57 Months Babies start to babble consonants amp syllables By 9 to 12 months they being using words First We rd Beings around 10 to 15 months gt Used in isolation then generalize to similar situations Parents use context to interpret the child s ideas gt Single words stand for complete thoughts gt UP may mean pick me up gt WET may mean change me Toddler Language By 18 months Child picks up 20 words gt Child names familiar objects gt Child uses gestures easily Words like quotnoquot quotminequot quothotquot are common gt Usage is not always consistent 18 to 24 months The naming explosion begins gt 3 4 of which are nouns gt Occurs as children learn to categorize objects By two years of age Telegraphic speech emerges gt Including absolutely necessary words for communication like a telegram gt Uses universal semantic rules Agent action Possessor possession Action object By two years six months Child is using 425 words gt More adjectives and adverbs appear gt Child beings announcing intentions amp asking questions Early Childhood Language 3 Years Sentences grow grammatical complexity gt Morphemes used to establish tense ing ed un gt Become better at applying plurals correctly Overgeneralizing Rigid application ofgrammatical rules with disregard for exceptions gt Runed gooses falled 36 Years Sentences get longer amp more complex gt Negation That ain t a butter y Chapter 9 gt Embedded sentences Bob thinks Joan took the book gt Passive voice The answer was given gt Active voice The answer is given Early Childhood Language 6 Years Child uses 2500 words in complex sentences average 7 words gt Using all parts ofspeech efficiently effectively gt Sustain longer more focused conversations gt Attend longer to one topic Middle Childhood Language 7 Years All subsystems oflanguage improve gt Learns past participles eaten gt Learns perfect tenses has been gt Use of prepositions becomes more precise if so bc Adaptive Function of Language Evidence Children learn language quickly without being taught the rules Human vocal amp auditory system are designed to receive process amp output speech Language de ciencies are inherited therefore so must language pro ciency Solving Problems Two Kinds of Problems WellDe ned Goal and starting point are clear you know when it s been solved gt Researchers mainly study wellde ned problems IllDe ned Problems Goal and starting point are unclear hard to tell when solution is reached gt Many reallife problems are illdefined Questions of Interest What thought processes amp strategies are used in problem solving Are similar strategies used for welldefined amp illde ned problems Chapter 9 The IDEAL Problem Solver Bransford amp Stein 1993 Proposed 5 hypothetical steps of problemsolving Identify Recognize the signs that a problem exists De ne Represent problem in an ef cient way gt Define the goal ofthe solution gt Correctly interpret the components ofthe problem Explore Consider a variety of problem solving strategies Act Work through the chosen solution strategy gt Anticipate obstacles that may prevent goals Look Back Evaluate effectiveness of chosen strategy gt Determine if problem is solved gt Correct errors before abandoning strategy Identifying amp Defining Problems Problem Representation Understanding exactly what information is given in a problem amp how it can potentially be used gt Finding the right tools gt Knowing who to use the right tools Problem Representation Functional Fixedness Tendency to see objects and their functions in xed and typical ways gt Hinders problem solving gt We fail to identify amp de ne all the available tools to solve a problem Exploring amp Acting on Strategies Problem Solving Strategies Systematic techniques that allow movement towards the solution ofa problem Algorithms stepby step rules amp procedures that guarantee a solution gt Can consume a great deal oftime not practical gt Don t solve illdefined problems Problem Solving Strategies Heuristics Problem solving shortcuts that allow for quick amp accurate solutions Chapter 9 MeansEnds Analyses heuristic that divides a problem into more immediately visible subgoals gt Establish staring point amp ending point is key gt Working systematically through subgoals is necessary Searching forAnaogies finding a connection bw current problem amp a previously solved problem Mental Set tendency to rely on problem solving strategies that were successfully used in the past gt Using wellestablished habits of perception is adaptive Making Decisions Thought process used in evaluating amp choosing from among a set ofalternative Accompanied by risk of failure so you care about making the right choice Framing The way in which alternatives in a decisionmaking situation are structured Decision are not always made through a rational or objective process We are prone to inconsistency ofjudgment gt Our minds weigh info differently in different situations In situations ofpotentia gain we tend avoid risks to take the sure thing In situations ofpotentia loss we take risks to avoid unpleasant circumstances Interpretation ofthe problem also has an impact Personal Biases Con rmation Bias tendency to seek out and use information that supports a beliefor decision Belief Persistence tendency to cling to initial beliefs even when confronted with contradictory evidence Representativeness Heuristic Tendency to make decisions based on an alternative s similarity in relation to an ideal gt Gambler s Fallacy gt Old shoppers vs young shoppers gt Bank presidents vs NBA players Chapter 9 Conjunction Error Believing two events are more likely to occur together than one event alone Availability Heuristic Tendency to make judgments of probability based on ease with which examples come to mind gt Death by stroke vs death by accident gt Words that start w K vs words w K as third letter Anchoring amp Ad39ustment Heuristic Tendency forjudgments to be influenced by starting points or initial estimates 2345678 VS 8765432


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