Introduction To Scientific Inquiry
Introduction To Scientific Inquiry EDUC Q2000
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THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION SECOND EDITION EDITED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO LAW REVIEW 200 PUBLISHING HOUSE NAME AND LOCATION Copyright 1989 2000 b y The University of Chicago All rights reserved Acknowledgements for the Second Edition The editors of The University of Chicago Law Review gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following people for their help in producing the second edition of this manual TO BE INSERTED Acknowledgements for the First Edition The editors of The University of Chicago Law Review and The University of Chicago Legal Forum gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the Advisory Committee in developing this manual Jerome M Marcus Chairman Member Pennsylvania Bar Ann T Fessenden Circuit Librarian United States Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit Henry C Lind Retired Reporter of Decisions United States Supreme Court Frederick A Muller Deputy State Reporter New York Court of Appeals Jean Maclean Snyder Member Illinois Bar We also thank Douglas G Baird Gerhard Casper Richard A Epstein Larry Kramer J0 Desha Lucas Geoffrey P Miller Richard A Posner AWB Simpson and Nelson Lund for helpful comments on earlier drafts Table of Contents RULE 1 TYPEFACFS RULE 2 ABBREVIATIONS Rule 21 General Rule Rule 22 Reporters Statutes and Other Sources Rule 23 Periodicals Rule 24 Geographical Terms Rule 25 Ordinal Numbers RULE 3 CITATION SENTENCES Rule 31 Introducing Authorities Rule 32 Punctuation of Citation Sentences Rule 33 Order of Authority Rule 34 Explanatory Information RULE 4 INITIAL REFERENCE TO AUTHORITIES Rule 41 General Matters Rule 42 Cases Rule 43 Periodical Articles Rule 44 Books and Treatises Rule 45 Constitutions Rule 46 Statutes Rule 47 Legislative Materials Rule 48 Executive and Administrative Materials Rule 49 Rules of Practice Rule 410 Treaties and Other International Agreements Rule 411 Foreign Materials Rule 412 International Materials Rule 413 Internet Sources Rule 414 Other Sources RULE 5 SUBSEQUENT REFERENCE TO AUTHORITIES Rule 51 General Rule Rule 52 Cross References Rule 53 Short Forms Appendix 1 General Rules of Style Appendix 2 Recommended Abbreviations of Reporters and Other Sources Appendix 3 Recommended Abbreviations of Statutory Sources Appendix 4 Recommended Abbreviations of Periodicals Appendix 5 Other Abbreviations To Be Used In Citations Preface to the Second Edition Recent years have seen everlouder cries for a new universal system of legal citation These cries driven by many factors including the dramatic increase in the use of electronic research tools and dissatisfaction with the dominant citation format have resulted in a number of laudable but as yet unsuccessful efforts to devise such a system In part we believe these efforts have failed because they attempt to dictate a comprehensive set of citation rules This manual whose publication eleven years ago preceded most of these efforts takes a dramatically different approach Rather than try to provide a rule for every possible situationian endeavour which by definition is doomed to failithe Maroonbook as this manual is commonly called offers a simple malleable framework for citation one which authors and editors can tailor to suit their purposes Users should be guided by the following four principles listed in order of importance 1 Sufficiency The citation should give the reader enough information to locate the cited material without further assistance 2 Clarity The citation should be comprehensible to the reader using plain English and following a wellrecognized form whenever possible and avoiding the use of confusing words 3 Consistency Citations should be consistent within a piece though they need not be uniform across all legal materials 4 Simplicity Citations should contain only as much information as is necessary to meet the goals of suffrciency clarity and consistency Because we believe that this system remains effective to this day we have kept most of it intact in the second edition Three new sections one for intemet sources another for foreign materials and a third for international materials have been added and the appendices have been updated Other less noteworthy changes are sprinkled throughout Introduction The following set of guidelines provides a simple workable system of citation for legal writing The guidelines are intended to cover all varieties of legal writing including but not limited to briefs legal memoranda judicial opinions and academic writing These rules provide a basic framework they suggest the essential elements of any citation and how they most clearly can be presented However because it is neither possible nor desirable to write a particular rule for every sort of citation problem that might arise the rules leave a fair amount of discretion to practitioners authors and editors Users of this manual are encouraged where no specific rule covers a situation to cite authority in a clear sensible manner See Rule 414 We believe that consistency within a brief opinion or law journal is important but that uniformity across all legal materials is not We hope and expect that writers and editors will adapt the rules to the particular needs of their formats The rules leaves them this responsibility without imposing on them the burden of conforming exactly to the rest of the legal world RULE 1 TYPEFACES All material should appear in roman type except the following which should be italicized or underlined if only roman typeface is available a case names b titles of periodical articles and articles in edited books c book and treatise titles d uncommon foreign words and e words to be emphasized in text or notes Common legal phrases such as eX parte or de facto need not be italicized RULE 2 ABBREVIATIONS Rule 21 General Rule In general abbreviations should only be used if they are easily recognized without reference to this manual Their use within the text is particularly disfavored For abbreviations not familiar or recognizable from context for example those in specialized elds spell out the word or phrase on first reference and note the chosen abbreviation in parentheses For example The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 PSLRA was in part written to curb strike suits Periods may be omitted from abbreviations in citations except when they are part of a party s proper name The period following the v in case names may be omitted For example SEC v Texas GulfSulphur Co 401 F2d 833 2d Cir 1968 Periods are generally inserted in abbreviations in text Thus refer in the text to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia as the DC Circuit not the DC Circuit or D C Circuit In the court of decision parenthetical following a case name however DC Cir is the proper abbreviation Rule 22 Reporters Statutes and Other Sources Appendix 2 is a list of recommended abbreviations of reporters and other legal sources Appendix 3 is a list of recommended abbreviations of statutory sources These lists are not exhaustive writers and editors should use their own unambiguous abbreviations consistent with the style of this manual for sources not listed Appendix 5 a more general list of recommended abbreviations should facilitate this process Rule 23 Periodicals Appendix 4 is a list of recommended abbreviations of periodicals Again authors and editors should use their own unambiguous abbreviations where necessary Rule 24 Geographical Terms a Directions Use N S E and W for all forms of these directions for example N for Northern as well as North b Foreign Countries Generally us the rst three or four letters of each word but use more letters if a shorter form would be ambiguous for example do not use Aust because it might stand for Austria or Australia Where the country s name includes a direction abbreviate as above for example E Ger or S Kor Use ofa common name for example E Ger instead of Ger Dem Repub is encouraged thus omit such terms as The Republic of c States and Similar Subdivisions For US states abbreviate in citations as follows Ala DC Ky Mont Ohio Utah Alaska Fla La Neb Okla Vt Ariz Ga Me Nev Or Va Ark Hawaii Md NH Pa Wash Cal Idaho Mass NJ RI W Va Colo 111 Mich NM SC Wis Conn Ind Minn NY SD Wyo Del Iowa Miss NC Tenn Kan Mo ND Tex Abbreviations in the text should include periods For US territories spell out the name except for common abbreviations such as N or Am For Canadian provinces Australian states and other nonAmerican subdivisions some limited abbreviation may be possible for example the rst three or four letters as in Ont for Ontario or Vict for Victoria Depending on the intended audience however it may be advisable to include the name of the country parenthetically Names of counties cities and smaller subdivisions should generally be spelled out Rule 25 Ordinal Numbers For ordinal numbers in citations use lst 2d 3d 4th 5th etc Spell out ordinal numbers appearing in text Rule 3 University of Chicago RULE 3 CITATION SENTENCES Rule 31 Introducing Authorities An authority may be introduced either a without any words of introduction only when the authority directly supports the statement in the text identi es the source of a quotation or identi es a source discussed in the text or b by an ordinary English phrase explaining its force or purpose Thus for example citations might be introduced by i See if the cited authority is described or paraphrased by the citing text or if the cited authority provides indirect but obvious support for the citing text ii See for example if the cited authority provides an example of the proposition stated by the citing text iii See also if the cited authority provides additional support for the citing text beyond that provided by previous cited authorities iv For a general discussion see when the idea or concept being discussed is too broad to allow for citation to a speci c page in the cited authority v Consider if the cited authority provides quali ed or ambiguous support for the citing text While See generally may also be used Consider is strongly preferred as those unfamiliar with the term See generally may attribute to it the de nition in iv above rather than the de nition given here vi But see if the cited authority directly or indirectly contradicts the citing text vii Compare with or Contrast with ifthe cited authorities provide support for the citing text as a result of their relationship to one another or other descriptive language For example See for example Board of Osage County Commrs v Burns 242 Kan 544 747 P2d 1338 1988 Contrast KMC Co Inc v Irving Trust Co 757 F2d 652 6th Cir 1985 with Centerre Bank of Kansas City v Distributors Inc 705 SW2d 42 Mo App 1985 MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 34 15 For the evolution and present state of legal doctrine see Douglas Laycock A Survey of Religious Liberty in the United States 47 Ohio St L J 409 1986 Rule 32 Punctuation of Citation Sentences Multiple authorities following a single introductory phrase or sentence should be separated by semicolons When a new phrase introduces another group of citations a new citation sentence should begin Rule 33 Order of Authority Authorities may be organized in any manner that seems desirable The most important authorities or those most supportive of the argument being made in the text should usually appear first Authority that supports the text only by analogy or indirectly should appear next in a separate citation sentence introduced by language explaining how the authority supports the proposition made in text Sources that provide only tangential support for the proposition in the text should be omitted Rule 34 Explanatory Information Additional information should be provided if it is helpful in explaining the force or meaning of the authority cited or if the authority makes a point different from that in the text This information may be presented in parentheses or in a separate phrase as seems appropriate For example United States v Benjamin 328 F2d 854 2d Cir 1964 affirming the conviction of an attorney for conspiracy General Trade Policy Hearings on HR 794 HR 1571 and HR 2203 before the Subcommittee on Commerce Transportation and Tourism of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce 98th Cong 1st Sess 234 1983 statement of US Trade Representative William E Brock When citing to a dissenting or concurring opinion so indicate using the last name of the justice or judge For example Owen Equipment amp Erection Co v Kroger 437 US 365 379 1978 White dissenting citing Aldinger v Howard 427 US 1 1976 For quoted material with alterations not otherwise indicated in the quotation itself use a descriptive parenthetical For example Lochner v New York 198 US 45 56 1905 emphasis added Rule 4 University of Chicago RULE 4 INITIAL REFERENCE TO AUTHORITIES Rule 41 General Matters a Internal Citation Citation to a specific part of a work should correspond to the internal ordering system the work uses Indicate the precise location of the supporting statements within the authority using the page number no symbol but preceded by at if necessary to distinguish other subdivisions section number paragraph number 11 chapter number ch or note number n or any combination of these For example E Allan Famsworth Contracts 71 at 445 Little Brown 1982 Internal identi ers standard for many or all editions of a work should be used For example a few wellknown works indicate the pagination of a speci c earlier edition with an asterisk at the appropriate place in the margin or text Thus William M Blackstone 1 Commentaries 12 The particular edition used may be cited if desired b Authors and Editors Names Cite to the author s or editor s full name as given on the first page or the title page of the source cited Where there are two or three authors list them all in the same fashion if there are more than three it is adequate to list the first author and then et a1 For example Paul M Bator et al Hart and Wechsler s The Federal Courts and the Federal System Foundation 3d ed 1988 When referring to an edited colleciton of works by different authors place the editor s name in the author s position followed by ed For example David Kairys ed The Politics of Law Pantheon 1982 A translator should be indicated as additional information in a parenthetical Thus Friedrich W Nietzsche On Truth and Lie in an Extramoral Sense 365 Oxford 1957 Edith P Honeywell trans Where an editor s function is not to compile several works but rather to present an authoritative edition of a work the editor should be noted in a parenthetical For example Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 1096 Oxford 1894 I Bywater ed When citing to The Federalist Papers it is customary to indicate the MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 42 17 author of the particular paper cited For example Federalist 42 Madison in Clinton Rossiter ed The Federalist Papers 264 270 Mentor 1961 For studentwritten works in law journals the author s name should be followed by the designation used in the journal such as Note Comment or Case Note For example R Chris Heck Comment Con ict and Aggregation Appointing Institutional Investors as Sole Lead Plaintiffs Under the PSLRA 66 U Chi L Rev 1199 1999 c Authority Included in Another Source When an authority is collected reprinted or otherwise included in whole or in part in another souce cite by joining the citation clauses for the two works with an appropriate descriptive phrase Indicate the page of the larger source at which the included work begins as well as the page being cited For example Mark Tushnet Corporations and Free Speech in David Kairys ed The Politics of Law 253 256 Pantheon 1982 The Civil Rights Attorney s Fees Awards Act of 1976 S Rep No 94 1011 94th Cong 2d Sess 6 1976 reprinted in 1976 USCCAN 5908 5913 Goldberg v Kelly 397 US 254 1970 excerpted in Stephen G Breyer and Richard B Stewart Administrative Law and Regulatory Policy 719 Little Brown 2d ed 1985 Rule 42 Cases a Reported Cases Use the following form with the indicated punctuation case name volume number reporter 1st page cited page court year For example Iowa Elec Light amp Power v Local Union 204 834 F2d 1424 1427 8th Cir 1987 Profit Sharing Plan v Mbank Dallas NA F Supp 592 N D Tex 1988 i Case Name Use the case name as reported in the Table of Cases Reported in the first reporter cited dropping or abbreviating words at the end of each party s name if necessary to keep the case name reasonably short The running head may be used if it is sufficiently Rule 4 University of Chicago descriptive of the case name that the reader will be able to locate the case through the Table of Cases Reported a case name citator or a law digest in the event of miscitation MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 42 19 If the party named in the running head is commonly known by a name other than that in the running head use the more familiar name For example Am Civ Lib U should instead appear as ACLU ii Reporter Recommended abbreviations are listed in Appendix 2 When citing to a state case indicate the volume and rst page of the case for both the of cial and commercial reporters For example Henningsen V Bloom eld Motors Inc 32 NJ 358 161 A2d 69 1960 Where the of cial reporter reprints an earlier editor s collection of cases and renumbers the volumes it is not necessary to indicate the name of the earlier reporter s editor For example use either Marbury v Madison 5 US 137 1803 or Marbury v Madison 5 US 1 Cranch 137 1803 Some earlier state reports are named after their reporters and have no parallel statenamed volumes Such reports must be cited to the reporternamed volumes For example Case v Hotchkiss 3 Keyes 334 NY 1867 A looseleaf service or other source containing opinions is treated the same as any other reporter but the publisher should be indicated parenthetically at the end of the looseleaf s name to facilitate location of the volume For example In re Saberman 3 Bankr L Rptr CCH 11 67416 Bankr N D Ill 1980 United States v Belgard 1 Fed Sent Rptr Vera 55 D Or 1988 iii Cited Page Indicate the particular pages that support the proposition in text When citing to state cases however it is permissible to give the particular pages supporting the text for one reporter only For example Yanow v Seven Oaks Park 11 NJ 341 348 94 A2d 482 1953 Dunwoody Country Club v Fortson 243 Ga 236 253 SE2d 700 703 1979 iv Court Indicate the name of the court that decided the case unless the court s identity is clearly indicated by the name of the reporter For example Burney v Children s Hospital 169 Mass 57 47 NE 401 1897 Aetna Life Ins Co v Lavoie 470 S2d 1060 Ala 1985 Bohmfalk v Linwood 742 SW2d 518 Tex App 1987 Rule 42 University of Chicago 20 b Pending and Unreported Cases Use the slip opinion the citation employed by an electronic research serVice or both For slip opinions use the following forms i Federal Cases case name docket or action number slip op at cited page court date year For example Gioda V Saipan SteVedoring Co Inc No 862435 slip op at 10026 9th Cir Aug 18 1988 Rogers V Consolidated Rail Corp No 88CV1061 slip op at 2 N D NY July 29 1988 ii State Cases case name docket appeal indictment claim or index number if available slip op at cited page state court date and year For example People V Moody No 458284 slip op at 3 NY Supreme Ct NY County June 27 1986 For computer research serVice citations follow the form used by the serVice Indicate the name of the court that decided the case unless the court s identity is clearly indicated Include the date and year of decision as this may not be obVious from the citation itself form used by the serVice court unless obVious date year For example CocaCola Bottling Co V Grol 1993 US Dist LEXIS 3734 E D Pa Mar 8 1993 CocaCola Bottling Co V Grol 1995 WL 421900 E D Pa Mar 8 1993 Use any reasonable abbreViation of the case name Usually the names of the first named plaintiff and first named defendantiseparated by V iwill suffice c Prior and Subsequent History Indicate a case s prior or subsequent history only when it clarifies the strength of the case s authority or shows whether the case is continuing Any affirmance Vacatur or reVersal should be indicated Use the following form citation to main authority type of priorsubsequent action citation to subsequentprior authority MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 42 21 Use reasonable abbreviations aff revd affg type of prior or subsequent action For example Delaware Valley Citizens Council V Com of Pa 762 F2d 272 2d Cir 1985 affd in part rev d in part and restored to docket for reargument 478 US 546 1986 Indicate a grant of review cert granted appeal filed but do not indicate a denial of review cert denied appeal denied that has no precedential authority for example a denial of certiorari by the United States Supreme Court unless it is particularly recent and thus indicates nality A substantially different case name in prior or subsequent history should be indicated For example Great Western United Corp v Kidwell 577 F2d 1256 5th Cir 1978 revd as Leroy v Great Western United Corp 443 US 173 1979 Leroy v Great Western United Corp 443 US 173 1979 revg Great Western United Corp v Kidwell 577 F2d 1256 5th Cir 1978 Rule 43 Periodical Articles Articles in journals newspapers and services should be cited as follows author title volume number periodical 1st page cited page date For example Herbert Wechsler Toward Neutral Principles of Constitutional Law 73 Harv L Rev 1 9 1959 a Author See Rule 41b b Title A very long title may be shortened as seems appropriate Article titles should be italicized or underlined if only roman typeface is available c Volume Number Some periodicals are frequently identified by date rather than by volume as are newspapers If so the volume number may be omitted Thus Albert Gore Jr Stability for Two New Republic 19 Nov 17 1986 d Periodical Recommended abbreviations are listed in Appendix gt7 4 gt7 4 revg to indicate Rule 42 University of Chicago 22 4 e Date Where the issues of a periodical are paginated consecutively throughout a volume only the year is needed Where issues are not consecutively paginated give the date of the issue being cited for example Summer 1983 or JuneiJuly 1983 or June 13 1983 If the volume number or title clearly indicates the year of publication the date should be omitted For example E Donald Elliott Constitutional Conventions and the De cit 1985 Duke L J 1077 Rule 44 Books and Treatises Books and treatises should be cited in the following form author volume number title cited subdivision andor page publisher edition year For example Roger J Magnuson 2 Shareholder Litigation 1502 at 4 Callaghan 1984 James J White and Robert S Summers Handbook of the Law Under the Unifrom Commercial Code 146 at 563 West 2d ed 1980 a Author See Rule 41b b Volume Number Replace roman numerals with arabic numerals c Title Generally use the title of the book as it appears on the title page If the title is very long it may be shortened by omitting subtitles or otherwise as appropriate Book and treatise titles should be italicized or underlined if only roman typeface is available d Subdivision See Rule 41a e Publisher Edition and Date The name of the publisher may be abbreviated in any unambiguous manner periods are not needed Give the number of the edition cited unless citing to a rst or single edition Thus one would cite to Publisher 2d ed 1978 but only indicate Publisher 1978 for a rst edition If an edition is commonly identi ed by the editor s name rather than by the number of the edition the editor s name may be substituted or added if there are multiple editions by that editor MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 44 23 If a supplement is being cited the year of its publication should be indicated For example Steven M Brent and Sharon P Stiller Handling Drunk Driving Cases 122 Law Coop Supp 1988 Rule 45 Constitutions Cite to constitutions in the following form state or country Const subdivisions For example US Const Art I 9 cl 2 NM Const Art IV 7 US Const Amend XIV 2 If the constitution cited has been superseded indicate the year of its adoption and parenthetically the year it was superseded For example Ark Const of 1868 Art III 2 superseded 1874 Rule 46 Statutes a Which Source to Cite There are two citation sources for most statutes the codi cation which collects statutory language after enactment and the act which is the original source of the statutory language For federal statutes the codi cation appears in the of cial United States Code USC as well as the United States Code Annotated USCA and the United States Code Service USCS original acts appear in the United States Statutes at Large Stat For state statutes see Appendix 3 Always cite to the codi cation if available Wherever possible cite to the of cial codi caition for example USC not USCA or USCS The act may be cited in addition and it should be cited if the material relied upon is not contained in the codi cation for example statements of legislative ndings or purposes often are not codi ed If the Article simply mentions the existence of some statutory provision only the codi cation cite is needed When in doubt provide complete information Contrast It is illegal to possess drugs Reference may simply be to 18 USC 207 1994 amp Supp 1996 In 1975 Congress nally supplied an express prohibition on drug Rule 44 University of Chicago 24 r f to 39 39 action requires full cite Thus AntiDrug Possession Act Pub L No 82447 61 Stat 902 1975 codi ed at 18 USC 201744 1994 amp Supp 1996 If neither the codi cation nor the act is available cite to a legislative looseleaf service or to another secondary source such as the United States Code Congressional and Administrative News USCCAN b Citation to a Codi cation Use the following form name of act title or volume number codi cation subdivision publisher if unof cial codi cation year For example National Labor Relations Act 29 USC 1517169 1982 Subdivided Lands Act Cal Bus amp Prof Code 11000 West 1964 i Name of Act Give either the of cial or popular name of the act or title as desired with or without abbreviating This part of the citation may be omitted if the name is not helpful ii Codi cation Give the title or volume number the name of the codi cation and all necessary subdivisions of the statute cited articles sections etc Recommended abbreviations for federal and state codi cations are listed in Appendix 3 iii Year Indicate the year of the most recent version that contains the language cited If the codi cation is unof cial give the publisher s name in the parenthetical before the date For example Cal Civil Code 1511 West 1982 If amendments are contained only in a supplement to a codi cation cite to the supplement For example Employee Retirement Income Security Act 29 USCS 1001 et seq 1982 amp Supp 1988 c Citation to an Original Act Use the following form name of act source year ofpassage codi ed at citation to codi cation i Name of Act As with citation to a codi cation give the of cial title of the act or a popular or common name If there is no of cial or popular name it is customary to identify the act by Act of date of passage For US statutes since 1957 and some state statutes it is customary to indicate Pub L No xxx after the name ii Source Recommended abbreviations for collections of federal and state acts are listed in Appendix 3 MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 46 25 iii Year of Passage The year may be omitted when clearly indicated in the name of the act iv Codi cation If the act is or will be codi ed cite the codi ed version after the date For example National Environmental Policy Act Pub L No 91190 83 Stat 853 1970 codi ed at 42 USC 4332 1982 Act of May 28 1981 1981 Minn Laws 1307 to be codi ed at Minn Laws 260 d Other Information Indicate if a law is no longer in force as cited For example Antidumping Act of 1921 19 USC 160 1947 repealed by the Trade Agreements Act of 1979 106a Pub L No 9639 93 Stat 144 193 When citing to sections of widely known acts it is often helpful to indicate the section number in the original act as well as the section number in the codi cation For example TaftHartley Act 301a 29 USC 185a 1982 e Model Codes and Uniform Acts When citing to a state law that is an adaptation of a uniform act cite to the state statute although it may be helpful to indicate parenthetically the corresponding uniform act section When citing the uniform act directly it is helpful to give the name of the author parenthetically with the date For example See Fla Stat 672615 1967 UCC 2615 ALI 1962 Rule 47 Legislative Materials a General Rule For legislative materials other than those speci ed below cite as follows title legislature session subdivision date The session may be omitted ifthe legislature only has one session and the publication may be omitted where there is no published volume containing the material for example for unenacted bills b Federal Sources Federal bills and resolutions o en can be cited to the Congressional Record Cong Rec Federal reports and documents often can be cited to the United States Code Congressional and Administrative News USCCAN Forms for such citations are i Bills and Resolutions Rule 46 University of Chicago 26 title andor bill number XXth Cong X Sess month day and year introduced in citation to source if any For example S 2404 97th Cong 2d Sess April 13 1982 in 128 Cong Rec 7091 April 20 1982 ii Committee or Subcommittee Reports title ofthe report S or HR Rep No XX XXth Cong X Sess page year For example Martin Luther King Jr Federal Holiday Commission HR Rep No 98 893 98th Cong 2d Sess 4 1984 iii Committee or Subcommittee Hearings title including bill number and committee name XXth Cong X Sess page year For eXample Service Industries Commerce Development Act of 1982 Hearings on HR 5519 before the Subcommittee on Commerce Transportation and Tourism of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce 97th Cong 2d Sess 69 1982 statement of Gordon J Cloney 11 Chamber of Commerce of the United States iv USCCAN Legislative materials are much easier to nd in USCCAN than in the 39 39 39 39 39 39 or quot publications Thus when citing to a report or hearing indicate the number Congress and session as well as the reprinting in USSCAN if available For eXample Fraternity Act Amendments S Rep No 98225 98th Cong 1st Sess 25659 1983 reprinted in 1983 USCCAN 249293 Rule 48 EXecutive and Administrative Materials a General Rule Cite by issuing agency title of cial source page and date for both federal and state materials b Federal Regulations and Rulemakings Federal agency regulations appear in two sources the Code of Federal Regulations CFR which collects nal rules and the Federal Register Fed Reg which publishes both proposed and nal rules Notices of proposed rulemakings appear only in the Federal Register MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 48 27 Cite to the Code of Federal Regulations if available and otherwise to the Federal Register For example 10 CFR 1012 1986 National Bureau of Standards Amendment to Procedures for the Development of Voluntary Product Standards 51 Fed Reg 22496 22502 1986 amending 10 CFR 1013 Some specialized regulations are often cited according to the convention of the agency promulgating them For example the Treasury s regulations under the Internal Revenue Code are cited simply as Treas Reg xx c Federal Adjudications Cite to the of cial source used by the agency if available Where applicable follow the rules for citing court cases see Rule 42 for example use the name in the Table of Cases Reported if there is one Thus Hollywood Ceramics Company Inc 140 NLRB 221 1962 Some of cial sources are speci c to particular agencies For example Treasury rulings and procedures for the Internal Revenue Code are cited to the Cumulative Bulletin Cum Bull or its advance sheet the Internal Revenue Bulletin Int Rev Bull d Presidential D Fvecnti e orders 1 39J quot 39 proclamations and reorganization plans should ordinarily be cited only to Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations If a particular document is not yet published in CFR cite to the Federal Register For example Exec Order No 11609 3 CFR 586 197175 Exec Order No 12531 50 Fed Reg 36033 1985 Other presidential documents may be cited either to Public Papers of the President Pub Papers Pres or to Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents Weekly Comp Pres Doc e Administrative Materials Not Contained in Of cial Reporters Examples of such materials include IRS private letter rulings and SEC noaction letters If the agency maintains a numbering scheme use it Alternatively or as a parallel citation the form used by Lexisor Westlaw is permissible For example Priv Ltr Rul 8601012 Sept 30 1985 Union Carbide Corp SEC NoAction Ltr 1994495 Transfer Binder Fed Sec L Rep CCH1l 85434 at 85748 Sept 29 1994 Rule 48 University of Chicago 28 Rule 49 Rules of Practice A special form is used for court rules and rules of evidence or procedure which are cited simply by name and number of the rule For example FRCP 12 FRCrP 12 FRE 403 Tex Rule Evid 803a1 US S Ct Rule 7 Rule 410 Treaties and Other International Agreements Treaties and agreements to which the United States is a party should be cited with both the official and unofficial citation a Official Citation For treaties signed prior to 1949 the official citation is to the Statutes at Large Treaties signed since 1949 are officially published in United States Treaties and Other International Agreements UST Treaties in UST are cited as follows name oftreaty year ofUST volume volume number UST subdivision year signed b Unofficial Citation For treaties signed prior to 1945 the unofficial citation is to the Treaty Series Treaty Ser or Executive Agreement Series Exec Agr Ser each of which assigns a number to treaties covered Treaties signed since 1945 should be cited to the Treaties and Other International Acts Series TIAS which also assigns a number to treaties covered For example Treaty with Iraq on Commerce and Navigation 53 Stat 1790 Treaty Ser No 960 1939 Postal Agreement with the Gold Coast Colony 1952 2 UST 1859 TIAS No 2322 1951 Rule 411 Foreign Materials In general foreign materials should be cited according to customary practice in the source country The citation rules for a particular type of material s American equivalent may serve as a proxy Extra attention must be paid to the use of abbreviations See Rule 21 Also include a parenthetical indicating the jurisdiction issuing the source unless it is obvious from the citation Where necessary for clarity a translation into English for example of a MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 411 29 title or reporter may be included in parentheses but the first reference should include the original language a Cases Unless the foreign jurisdiction s practice says otherwise both common law cand civil law cases may be cited according to Rule 42 The source especially in the case of civil law decisions not appearing in official reporters should be clearly indicated The name of the court and the jurisdiction should also be included unless obvious from the citation or context For example The King V Lockwood 99 English Rep 379 King s Bench 1782 b Constitutions Constitutions should be cited according to Rule 45 The actual name of the constitution may be used in place of the country name followed by Const a parenthetical may be necessary to indicate that the document is in fact a constitution c Statutes Codified or compiled statutes such as those in many common law countries may be cited according to Rule 46 unless the practice in the country of origin dictates otherwise Rule 412 International Materials In general cite to an international law case as to a domestic case see Rule 42 to materials of intergovernmental organizations such as the United Nations as to United States Government materials see Rule 48 and to a treaty to which the United States is not a party as to a treaty to which the United States is a party see Rule 410 Where possible the citation rules or customs of the relevant international body should be followed if they differ substantially from the rules in this manual Rule 413 Internet Sources Internet sources are transient in nature and often unreliable so they should be cited with caution and only if a paper source is not available For online resources provide the traditional citation for that type of document followed by the Uniform Resource Locator URL which is the exact electronic address of the source and the date the source was last modified preceded by last modified If the date of last modification is not available provide the date when the source was accessed preceded by visited the site Use the following form author title ltURLgt last modified date of the last modification or visited date accessed For example Rule 411 University of Chicago 30 See Raymond J Kopp and Paul R Portney Mock Referenda for Intergenerational Decisionmaking 5 Discussion Paper 9748 Resources for the Future 1997 available online at lthttpwwwrfforgdiscjapersPDFi les9748pdfgt visited April 15 1998 In some cases it may be appropriate to omit parts of the tradition citation such as the author and title or they may be unavailable For example See also lthttpwwwuchicagoedugt visited March 26 1998 When citing to a document pinpoint cite to the divisions given by the source If the source gives page numbers or section numbers use those For example the Journal of Online Law numbers the paragraphs of its articles If there is no logical way to cite to a subdivision cite to the page number on which the information appears when you print out the source Rule 414 Other Sources Sources not included in one of the previous categories may be cited in any unambiguous form consistent with the general practice of this manual For example Annotation Intoxicating Liquors Employer s Liability for Furnishing or Permitting Liquor on Social Occasion 51 ALR 4th 1048 1987 16 Am Jur 2d Con ict of Law 75 1979 Black s Law Dictionary 543 West 7th ed 1999 Restatement Second of Contracts 205 1979 MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 414 RULE 5 SUBSEQUENT REFERENCE TO AUTHORITIES Rule 51 General Rule When citing an authority for the first time give the full citation according to Rule 4 above Thereafter references to the same authority should be made as follows a by another full citation if the full citation has not appeared for several pages b by id only if the authority is the only one cited in the immediately preceding sentence or footnote c by a short form if one exists see Rule 53 or d to avoid ambiguity by a name specifically designated in parentheses in the initial reference For example the initial reference might read Gerald Gunther Constitutional Law 14 Foundation 11th ed 1985 Gunther Casebook and the later references Gunther Casebook at 292 cited in note 16 Rule 52 Cross References Reference to authorities and materials cited elsewhere in the document in which the reference occurs may be made by a short phrase such as cited in note X cited at X or see p X Supra and infra are redundant in such phrases and need not be used Cross references are not necessary for cases or statutes Rule 53 Short Forms a Cases For a case cited previously use the following form shortened case name volume number reporter at page For eXample Iowa Elec 834 F2d at 1429 i Shortened Case Name The shortened form of the case name is Rule 5 University of Chicago usually the name of the first non governmental party for example Watson for United States V Watson and Hardwick for Bowers V Hardwick Popular names for cases for example The Lottery Cases may be used when desired Ifthe case is cited several times in close proximity even the shortened case name may be omitted ii Reporter and Page For state cases cite to either the official or commercial reporter or both but be consistent For example if the first internal citation was to the official reporter use only the official reporter in subsequent references b Periodical Articles Use the following form author s last name volume periodical at page reference to previous full citiation For example Ackerman 98 Harv L Rev at 725 cited in note 10 If citations to an article appear several times in close proximity the reference to a previous full citation may be omitted c Books and Treatises Use the following form author s last name volume number shortened title subdivision at page reference to previous full citation For example Davis 3 Administrative Law at 357 cited in note 41 Again if the book is cited several times in close proximity the reference to a previous full citation may be omitted d Statutes Use either of the following forms according to the source used in the initial reference i Citation to a Codification title or volume number codification subdivision For example 42 USC 4332 ii Citation to an Original Act MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION 2D EDITION Rule 53 33 shortened name of act subdivision source For example National Environmental Policy Act 201 83 Stat at 854 e Legislative Materials Use the following form shortened title or billreport number subdivision at page reference to previous full citation For example HR Rep No 96304 at 9 cited in note 94 f Executive and Administrative Materials Cite to a codi ed regulation as to a statute to a regulation appearing in the Federal Register as to a periodical and to an adjudication as to a case Thus 49 CFR 73607 50 Fed Reg at 2530 cited in note 23 Hollywood Ceramics 140 NLRB at 221 Rule 53 University of Chicago 34 Appendix 1 General Rules of Style In matters not peculiar to legal writing general rules of style are observed We recommend use of The Chicago Manual of Style Chicago 14th ed 1993 to resolve those questions of style not addressed in this manual For convenience however this appendix offers a few rules of style frequently needed in editing legal writing Quotations Quoted materials may be indicated by a block quotation indented left without quotation marks and generally singlespaced or by quotation marks surrounding material in text The choice is left to the discretion of the writer or editor Generally quotations running more than six lines in text should be in block form If the source for a block quotation is given in text as in briefs memoranda or footnote text it should begin on a separate line after the quotation ush with the original left margin Alterations of Quoted Texts All alterations of quoted text should be noted When a letter must be changed from lower to upper case or vice versa enclose it in brackets Substituted words or letters also should be bracketed Significant mistakes in the original should be followed by sic but otherwise left as in the original Omissions in Quoted Materials Omissions must be noted Omissions should be indicated by three ellipsis points There should be a full space between each point and between the points and the text on either side Punctuation may be used on either side of the ellipsis points For example Moreover the language of the various declarations of rights indicates that the authors of those documents believed that they were merely declaring existing inalienable rights The Declaration of Independence declared selfevident truths For more detailed rules see The Chicago Manual of Style Omissions may also be noted by including a brief statement in brackets in place of the omitted material For example citations omitted or Madison in place of or to explain a pronoun of ambiguous reference Capitalization Capitalize nouns referring to people or groups for example the Administrator or the Board etc only when they identify specific persons officials groups or government offices Similarly capitalize such phrases as the Act the Code the Circuit and so forth only when the referent is unambiguously 35 identi ed Names of parts of a constitution or statute may be capitalized when used in an English sentence as proper nouns as in First Amendment Article III or Section 8e This practice should be consistent within a journal article brief or memorandum The phrases the Court and the Constitution should be capitalized only when referring to the United States Supreme Court and Constitution Appendix 1 University of Chicago 36 Appendix 2 Recommended Abbreviations of Reporters and Other Sources Agriculture Decisions Ag Dec Alabama Appellate Court Reports 191071976 Ala App Alabama Reports 184071976 Ala Alaska Reports 188471959 Alaska American Maritime Cases Am Marit Cases Appellate Division Reports NY AD AD2d Arizona Court of Appeals Reports 196571976 Ariz App Arizona Reports Ariz Arkansas Reports Ark Atlantic Reporter A A2d Bankruptcy Law Reporter Bankr L Rptr CCH Bankruptcy Reporter Bankr California Appellate Reports Cal App Cal App 2d Cal App 3d Cal App 4th California Reporter Cal Rptr Cal Rptr 2d California Reports Cal Cal 2d Cal 3d Cal 4th Claims Court Reporter Cl Ct Code of Federal Regulations CFR Colorado Reports 186471980 Colo Commodity Futures Law Reporter Comm Fut L Rptr CCH Congressional Record Cong Rec Connecticut Appellate Reports Conn App C quot Reports Conn Connecticut Supplement Conn Supp Court of Claims Reports 186371982 Ct Cl Criminal Law Reporter Crim L Rptr BNA Cumulative Bulletin Cum Bull Customs Bulletin and Decisions Cust Bull Customs Penalty Decisions Cust Pen Dec Customs Rules Decisions Cust Rules Dec Customs Service Decisions Cust Serv Dec Delaware Reports 183271966 Del Delaware Chancery Reports 181471968 Del Chanc District of Columbia Appeals DC App 37 Employee Retirement Income Security Act Opinion Letters ERISA Op Let Appendix 2 University of Chicago 38 Employment Practices Decisions Empl Prac Dec CCH Environment Reporter Envir Rptr BNA Environmental Law Reporter Envir L Rptr Equal Employment Opportunity Commis sion Decisions EEOC Dec CCH European Treaty Series Eur Treaty Ser Executive Agreement Series Exec Agr Ser Fair Employment Practice Cases FEP Cases BNA Federal Cases 178971880 F Cases Federal Communications Commission Reports FCC FCC2d Federal Register Fed Reg Federal Reporter F F2d F3d Federal Rules Decisions FRD Federal Rules of Civil Procedure FRCP Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure FRCrP Federal Rules of Evidence FRE Federal Rules Service Fed Rules Serv Fed Rules Serv 2d Federal Securities Law Reporter Fed Secur L Rptr CCH Federal 39 Reporter Fed Sent Rptr Vera Federal Supplement F Supp F Supp 2d Florida Reports 184671948 Fla Florida Supplement Fla Supp Fla Supp 2d Georgia Appeals Reports pp Georgia Reports Ga Hawaii Appellate Reports 198071994 Hawaii App Hawaii Reports Hawaii Idaho Reports Idaho Illinois Appellate Court Reports Ill App Ill App 2d Ill App 3d Illinois Court of Claims Reports Ill Ct Cl Illinois Reports Ill Ill 2d Immigration and Naturalization Service Decisions INS Dec Indiana Appellate Court Reports 189171971 Ind App Indiana Court of Appeals Reports 197171979 Ind App Indiana Reports 184871981 Ind Internal Revenue Bulletin Int Rev Bull International Legal Materials Intl Legal Mat 39 Interstate Commerce Commission Reports ICC Appendix 2 University of Chicago 40 Iowa Reports 185571968 Iowa Kansas Court of Appeals Reports Kan App Kan App 2d Kansas Reports Kan Kentucky Reports 187971951 Ky Labor Cases Labor Cases CCH Labor Relations Reference Manual Labor Rel Ref Man BNA Lawyer s Edition US Supreme Court Reports L Ed L Ed 2d Louisiana Annual Reports 184671900 La Ann Louisiana Courts of Appeal Reports 192471932 La App Louisiana Reports 190171972 La Maine Reports 182071965 Me Maryland Appellate Reports Md App Maryland Reports Md Massachusetts Appeals Court Reports Mass App Massachusetts Reports ass Michigan Court of Appeals Reports Mich App Michigan Reports Mich Minnesota Reports 185171977 Minn Miscellaneous Reports NY Misc Misc 2d Mississippi Reports 181871966 Miss Missouri Appeal Reports 187671954 Mo App Missouri Reports 182171956 Mo Montana Reports Mont National Labor Relations Board NLRB National Labor Relations Board Decisions NLRB Dec CCH Nebraska Reports Neb Nevada Reports NeV New Hampshire Reports NH New Jersey Equity Reports 183071948 NJ Eq New Jersey Law Reports 179071948 NJ L New Jersey Miscellaneous Reports 192371949 NJ Misc New Jersey Reports NJ New Jersey Superior Court Reports NJ Super New Mexico Reports NM NY Appellate DiVision Reports AD AD2d NY quot quot Reports Misc Misc 2d New York Reports NY NY2d New York Supplement NYS NYS2d North Carolina Reports NC MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 2 41 North Carolina Court of Appeals Reports NC App North Dakota Reports 189071953 ND Northeastern Reporter NE NE2d Northwestern Reporter NW NW2d Ohio Appellate Reports Ohio App Ohio App 2d Ohio App 3d Ohio Circuit Court Reports 188571901 Ohio Cir Ct Ohio Opinions l934l982 Ohio Op Ohio Op 2d Ohio Op 3d Ohio Reports 182171851 Ohio Ohio State Reports Ohio St Ohio St 2d Ohio St 3d Oklahoma Reports 189071953 Okla Oklahoma Criminal Reports 190871953 Okla Crim Opinions of the Attorney General US Op Atty Gen Oregon Reports Or Oregon Court of Appeals Reports Or App Paci c Reporter P P2d PanAmerican Treaty Series Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court Reports 197071994 Pa Commw Pennsylvania District and County Reports Pa D amp C Pa D amp C 2d Pa D amp C 3d Pa D amp C 4th Pennsylvania District Reports 189271921 Pa Dist Pan Am Treaty Ser Pennsylvania State Reports Pa Pennsylvania Superior Court Reports Pa Super Public Papers of the President Pub Papers Pres Revenue Procedure Rev Proc Revenue Ruling Rev Rul Rhode Island Reports 182871980 RI Securities and Exchange Commission SEC South Carolina Reports SC South Dakota Reports 189071976 Southeastern Reporter SE SE2d Southern Reporter S S2d Southwestern Reporter SW SW2d Supreme Court Reporter S Ct TaX Cases 191371982 TaX Cases TaX Court Memorandum Decisions TaX Ct Mem Dec CCH TaX Court Reports TaX Ct Tennessee Court of Appeals Reports Appendix 2 University of Chicago 42 192571971 Tenn App Tennessee Reports 179171971 Tenn Texas Criminal Reports 187671962 Tex Crim Texas Reports 184671962 Tex Trade Cases Trade Cases CCH Trade Regulation Reports Trade Reg Rep CCH Treasury Decisions Treas Dec Treaties and International Agreements Series TIAS Treaty Series 177871945 Treaty Ser Unemployment Insurance Reporter Unempl Ins Rptr CCH United Nations Treaty Series UN Treaty Ser United States Code Congressional and Administrative News USCCAN United States Law Week USLW United States Reports US United States Treaties and Other Intema tional A UST Utah Reports 185571974 Utah Utah 2d Vermont Reports Vt Virginia Court of Appeals Reports Va App Virginia Reports Va Washington Court of Appeals Reports Wash App v v 39 39 4 Reports Wash Wash 2d Weekly Compilation of Presidential D Weekly Comp Pres Doc West Virginia Reports W Va Wisconsin Reports Wis Wis 2d Wyoming Reports 187071959 Wyo MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 2 43 44 Appendix 3 Recommended Abbreviations of Statutory Sources United States Federal Codi cation United States Code title USC X l9XX United States Code Annotated title USCA X l9XX United States Code Service title USCS X l9XX Original Acts United States Statutes at Large title Stat X l9XX Alabama Codi cation Code of Alabama Annotated Ala Code Ann X l9XX Code of Alabama Ala Code X West l9XX Original Acts Acts of Alabama l9XX Ala Acts X Alaska Codi cation Alaska Statutes Annotated Alaska Stat Ann X l9XX Original Acts Alaska Session Laws l9XX Alaska Sess Laws X Arizona Codi cation Arizona Revised Statutes Annotated Ariz Rev Stat Ann X West l9XX Arizona Revised Statutes Unannotated Ariz Rev Stat Ann X LeXis l9XX Original Acts Arizona Session Laws l9XX Ariz Sess Laws X Arizona Legislative Service l9XX Ariz Legis Serv X West Arkansas Codi cation Arkansas Code Annotated Ark Code Ann X LeXis l9XX 45 Original Acts Appendix 3 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 46 General Acts of Arkansas l9XX Ark Acts X California Codi cation Annotated California Code Cal subject Code X Deering l9XX or West l9XX Original Acts Statutes of California l9XX Cal Stat X California Advance Legislative Service l9XX Cal Adv Legis Serv X Deering California Legislative Service l9XX Cal Legis Serv X West Colorado Codification Colorado Revised Statutes Colo Rev Stat X l9XX Colorado Revised Statutes Annotated Colo Rev Stat Ann X West l9XX Original Acts Session Laws of Colorado l9XX Colo Sess Laws X Colorado Legislative Service l9XX Colo Legis Serv X West Connecticut Codification Connecticut General Statutes State Set Conn Gen Stat X l9XX Connecticut General Statutes Annotated Conn Gen Stat Ann X West l9XX Original Acts Connecticut Public and Special Acts l9XX Conn Acts X Reg or Spec Sess Connecticut Public Acts 165071971 l9XX Conn Pub Acts X Connecticut Special Acts 178971971 l9XX Conn Spec Acts X Connecticut Legislative Service l9XX Conn Legis Serv X West Delaware MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 3 47 Codi cation Delaware Code Annotated title Del Code Ann X l9XX Original Acts Laws of Delaware volume Del Laws X l9XX District of Columbia Codi cation District of Columbia Code Encyclopedia DC Code Encyc X Equity l9XX or West l9XX District of Columbia Code 194071981 DC Code X19XX Original Acts United States Statutes at Large volume Stat X l9XX District of Columbia Statutes at Large l9XX DC Stat X District of Columbia Register DC Reg X l9XX Florida Codi cation Florida Statutes Fla Stat X l9XX Florida Statutes Annotated l9XX or West l9XX Original Acts Laws of Florida l9XX Fla Laws X Compiled General Laws of Florida l9XX Comp Gen Laws Fla X Harrison Florida Session Law Service l9XX Fla Sess Law Serv X West Georgia Codi cation Of cial Code of Georgia Annotated Ga Code Ann X Michie l9XX Original Acts Georgia Laws l9XX Ga Laws X Hawaii Codi cation Hawaii Revised Statutes Hawaii Rev Stat X l9XX Original Acts Session Laws of Hawaii l9XX Hawaii Sess Laws X Fla Stat Ann X Harrison Appendix 3 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 48 Idaho Codi cation Idaho Code Idaho Code X l9XX Original Acts Session Laws Idaho l9XX Idaho Sess Laws X Illinois Codi cation Illinois Revised Statutes Ill Rev Stat ch X X l9XX Illinois Annotated Statutes Ill Ann Stat ch X X Smith Hurd l9XX Original Acts Laws of Illinois l9XX Ill Laws X Illinois Legislative Service l9XX Ill Legis Serv X West Indiana Codi cation Indiana Code Ind Code X l9XX Annotated Indiana Code Ind Code Ann X West l9XX Indiana Statutes Annotated Code Edition Ind Code Ann X Burns l9XX Original Acts Acts Indiana l9XX Ind Acts X Iowa Codi cation Code of Iowa Iowa Code X l9XX Iowa Code Annotated Iowa Code Ann X West l9XX Original Acts Acts and Joint Resolutions of the State of Iowa Iowa Legislative Service Kansas l9XX Iowa Acts X l9XX Iowa Legis Serv X West Codi cation Kansas Statutes Annotated Kan Stat Ann X 9XX Kansas Statutes Annotated Vernon Kan subject Code Ann X Vernon l9XX Original Acts MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 3 49 Session Laws of Kansas l9XX Kan Sess Laws X Kentucky Codi cation Kentucky Revised Annotated Statutes Ky Rev Ann Stat X 19XX Kentucky Revised Statutes Annotated Ky Rev Stat Ann X Baldwin l9XX Original Acts Kentucky Acts l9XX Ky Acts X Kentucky Revised Statutes and Rules Service l9XX Ky Rev Stat amp Rules Serv X Baldwin Louisiana Codi cation Louisiana Revised Statutes Annotated La Rev Stat Ann X West l9XX Louisiana Civil Code Annotated La Civ Code Ann X West l9XX Original Acts State of Louisiana Acts of the Legislature l9XX U Acts X Louisiana Session Law Service l9XX La Sess Law Serv X West Maine Codi cation Maine Revised Statutes Annotated title Me Rev Stat Ann X 19XX Original Acts Laws of the State of Maine l9XX Me Laws X Acts Resolves and Constitutional Resolutions of the State of Maine 182071899 18XX Me Acts X Maine Legislative Service l9XX Me Legis Serv X Maryland Codi cation Annotated Code of Maryland subject matter Md subject Code Ann X Appendix 3 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 50 l9XX Annotated Code of Maryland otherwise Md Ann Code art X X l9XX Original Acts Laws of Maryland l9XX Md Laws X Massachusetts Codi cation Annotated Laws of Massachusetts Mass Ann Laws ch X X MichieLaw Coop l9XX Massachusetts General Laws Annotated Mass Gen Laws Ann ch X X West l9XX Original Acts Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts l9XX Mass Acts X Massachusetts Advanced Legislative Service l9XX Mass Adv Legis Serv X Law Coop Michigan Codi cation Michigan Compiled Laws Mich Comp Laws X l9XX Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated Mich Comp Laws Ann X West l9XX Michigan Statutes Annotated Mich Stat Ann X Callaghan l9XX Original Acts Public and Local Acts of the Legislature of the State of Michigan l9XX Mich Pub Acts X Michigan Leg1slative Service l9XX Mich Legis Serv X West Minnesota Codi cation Minnesota Statutes Minn Stat X l9XX Minnesota Statutes Annotated Minn Stat Ann X West l9XX Original Acts Laws of Minnesota l9XX Minn Laws X Minnesota Session Law Service l9XX Minn Sess Law Serv X West MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 3 Mississippi Codi cation Mi i ippi nde Miss Code X 19XX Original Acts General Laws of Mississippi l9XX Miss Laws X Missouri Codi cation Missouri Revised Statutes Mo Rev Stat X 19XX Annotated Missouri Statutes Mo Ann Stat X Vernon 19XX Original Acts Laws of Missouri Missouri Legislative Service Vernon Montana Codi cation Montana Code Annotated Mont Code Ann X 19XX Original Acts Laws of Montana l9XX Mont Laws X Nebraska Codi cation Revised Statutes of Nebraska Neb Rev Stat X 19XX Original Acts Laws of Nebraska l9XX Neb Laws X Nevada Codi cation Nevada Revised Statutes Nev Rev Stat X 19XX Original Acts Statutes of Nevada l9XX Nev Stat X New Hampshire Codi cation New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated NH Rev Stat Ann X Equity 19XX Original Acts Laws of the State of New l9XX Mo Laws X l9XX Mo Legis Serv X Appendix 3 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 52 Hampshire 19XX NH Laws X New Jersey Codi cation New Jersey Revised Statutes NJ Rev Stat X 19XX New Jersey Statutes Annotated NJ Stat Ann X West 19XX Original Acts Laws ofNew Jersey 19XX NJ Laws X New Jersey Session Law Service 19XX NJ Sess Law Serv X West New MeXico Codi cation New MeXico Statutes Annotated NM Stat Ann X 19XX Original Acts Laws of New MeXico 19XX NM Laws X New York Codi cation McKinney s Consolidated Laws of New York NY subject Law X McKinney 19XX Consolidated Laws Service NY subject Law X Law Co op 19XX Original Acts Laws of New York 19XX NY Laws X New York Session Laws 19XX NY Sess Laws X McKinney or Law Coop North Carolina Codi cation General Statutes of North Carolina NC Gen Stat X 19XX Original Acts Session Laws of North Carolina 19XX NC Sess Laws X Advanced Legislative Service to the General Statutes of North Carolina 19XX NC Adv Legis Serv X North Dakota Codi cation North Dakota Century Code ND Cent Code X 19XX Original Acts MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 3 53 Laws of North Carolina l9XX ND Laws X Ohio Codi cation Ohio Revised Code Annotated Ohio Rev Code Ann X Baldwin l9XX or Page l9XX Original Acts State of Ohio Legislative Acts Passed and Joint Resolutions Adopted l9XX Ohio Laws X Ohio Legislative Bulletin l9XX Ohio Legis Bull X Anderson Ohio Legislative Service l9XX Ohio Legis Serv X Baldwin Oklahoma Codi cation Oklahoma Statutes Okla Stat X l9XX Oklahoma Statutes Annotated title Okla Stat Ann X West l9XX Original Acts Oklahoma Session Laws l9XX Okla Sess Laws X Oklahoma Session Law Service l9XX Okla Sess Law Serv X West Oregon Codi cation Oregon Revised Statutes Or Rev Stat X l9XX Original Acts Oregon Laws and Resolutions l9XX Or Laws X Oregon Laws and Resolutions Special Session l9XX Or Laws Spec Sess X Oregon Laws Advanced Sheets l9XX Or Laws Adv Sh No X Pennsylvania Codi cation Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes Annotated title Pa Cons Stat Ann X Purdon l9XX Pennsylvania Statutes title Pa Stat X Purdon l9XX Original Acts Appendix 3 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 54 Laws of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania l9XX Pa Laws X Pennsylvania Legislative Service l9XX Pa Legis Serv X Purdon Rhode Island Codi cation General Laws of Rhode Island RI Gen Laws X l9XX Original Acts Public Laws of Rhode Island l9XX RI Pub Laws X South Carolina Codi cation Code of Laws of South Carolina Annotated SC Code Ann X l9XX Law Coop l9XX Original Acts Acts and Joint Resolutions South Carolina l9XX SC Acts amp Resol X South Dakota Codi cation South Dakota Codi ed Laws SD Cod Laws X l9XX Original Acts Laws of South Dakota l9XX SD Laws X Tennessee Codi cation Tennessee Code Annotated Tenn Code Ann X l9XX Original Acts Public Acts of the State of Tennessee l9XX Tenn Pub Acts X Private Acts of the State of Tennessee l9XX Tenn Priv Acts X TeXas Codi cation TeXas Codes Annotated TeX subject Code Ann X Vernon l9XX TeXas Revised Civil Statutes Annotated TeX Rev Civ Stat Ann X Vernon l9XX TeXas Business Corporation MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 3 55 Annotated Tex Bus Corp Act Ann art x Vernon l9xx Original Acts General and Special Laws of the State of Texas l9xx Tex Gen Laws x Texas Session Law Service l9xx Tex Sess Law Serv x Codi cation Utah Code Annotated Utah Code Ann x l9xx Original Acts Laws of Utah l9xx Utah Laws x Vermont Codi cation Vermont Statutes Annotated title Vt Stat Ann x Equity l9xx Original Acts Laws of Vermont l9xx Vt Laws x Virginia Codi cation Code of Virginia Va Code x l9xx Virginia Statutes at Large 161971807 Va Stat ch x l7xx Original Acts Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia l9xx Va Acts x Washington Codi cation Revised Code of Washington Wash Rev Code x l9xx Revised Code of Washington Annotated Wash Rev Code Ann x West l9xx Original Acts Laws of Washington l9xx Wash Laws x West Virginia Codi cation West Virginia Code W Va Code x l9xx Appendix 3 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 56 Original Acts Acts of the Legislature of West Virginia l9XX W Va Acts X Wisconsin Codi cation Wisconsin Statutes Wis Stat X 19XX Wisconsin Statutes Annotated Wis Stat Ann X West 19XX Original Acts Laws of Wisconsin l9XX Wis Laws X Wisconsin Legislative Service l9XX Wis Legis SerV X West Wyoming Codi cation Wyoming Statutes Wyo Stat X 19XX Original Acts Session Laws of Wyoming l9XX Wyo Sess Laws X 57 Appendix 4 Recommended Abbreviations of Periodicals Adelaide Law Review Adel L Rev Administrative Law Review Admin L Rev Air Force Law Review AF L Rev Akron Law Review Akron L Rev Alabama Law Review Ala L Rev Albany Law Review Albany L Rev American Bankruptcy Law Journal American Bar Association Journal ABA J American Bar Foundation Research Journal American Journal of Criminal Law American Journal of International Law American Journal of Jurisprudence American Journal of Legal History Am J Legal Hist American Journal of Trial Advocacy Am J Trial Advoc American University Law Review Am U L Rev AngloAmerican Law Review AngloAm L Rev Antioch Law Journal Antioch L J Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law Ariz J Intl amp Comp L Arizona Law Review Ariz L Rev Arizona State Law Journal Ariz St L J Arkansas Law Review Ark L Rev Atomic Energy Law Journal Atom Ener L J Auckland University Law Review Auck U L Rev Australian Law Journal Austl L J Banking Law Journal Bank L J Baylor Law Review Baylor L Rev Black Law Journal Black L J Boston College Industrial and Commercial Law Review BC Indust amp Comm L Rev Boston College Law Review BC L Rev Boston College Third World Law Journal BC Third World L J Boston University International Law Journal BU Intl L J Boston University Law Review BU L Rev Bracton Law Journal Bracton L J Brigham Young Univers1ty Law Review BYU L Rev Brooklyn Law Review Brooklyn L Rev Buffalo Law Review Buff L Rev Business Lawyer Bus Law Appendix 4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 58 California Law Review Cal L Rev California Western Law Review Cal W L Rev Cambridge Law Journal Camb L J Cambpell Law Review Camp L Rev Capital University Law Review Cap U L Rev Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal Cardozo Arts amp Enter L J Cardozo Law Review Cardozo L Rev Case and Comment Case amp Comm Catholic Lawyer Cath Law Catholic University Law Review Cath U L Rev Chicago Kent Law Review Chi Kent L Rev Chicano Law Review Chicano L Rev Cleveland State Law Review Cleve St L Rev Colorado Lawyer Colo Law Columbia Business Law Review Colum Bus L Rev Columbia Human Rights Law Review Colum Hum Rts L Rev Columbia Journal of Environmental Law Colum J Envir L Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts Colum J L amp Arts Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems Colum J L amp SOC Probs Columbia Journal of Transnational Law Colum J Transnatl L Columbia Law Review Colum L Rev Common Market Law Review Common Mkt L Rev Comparative Labor Law Journal Comp Labor L J Connecticut Journal of International Law Conn J Intl L Connecticut Law Review Conn L Rev Constitutional Commentary Const Commen Conveyance and Property Lawyer Conv amp Prop Law Cooley Law Review Cooley L Rev Cornell International Law Journal Cornell Intl L J Cornell Law Review Cornell L Rev Creighton Law Review Creighton L Rev Criminal Justice Journal Crim Just J Criminal Law Journal Crim L J Criminal Law Quarterly Crim L Q Criminal Law Review Crim L Rev Cumberland Law Review Cumb L Rev Dalhousie Law Journal Dalhousie L J DePaul Law Review DePaul L Rev MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 4 59 Delaware Journal of Corporate Law Del J Corp L Deming Law Review Deming L Rev Denver Journal of International Law and Policy Denver J Intl L amp Policy Denver University Law Review Denver U L Rev Detroit College of Law Review Detroit Coll L Rev Dickinson Law Review Dickinson L Rev Drake Law Review Drake L Rev Duke Law Journal Duke L J Duquesne Law Review Duquesne L Rev Ecology Law Quarterly Ecol L Q Emory Law Journal Emory L J Energy Law Journal Energy L J F 39 39 Law Envir L Family Law Quarterly Fam L Q Florida State University Law Review Fla St U L Rev Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal Fordham Law Review Fordham L Rev Fordham Urban Law Journal Fordham Urban L J George Mason University Law Review Geo Mason U L Rev George Washington Law Review Geo Wash L Rev Georgetown Immigration Law Joumal Georgetown Immig L J Georgetown Law Journal Georgetown L J Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law Ga J Intl amp Comp L Georgia Law Review Ga L Rev Glendale Law Review Glendale L Rev Golden Gate University Law Review Golden Gate U L Rev Gonzaga Law Review Gonzaga L Rev Hamline Law Review Hamline L Rev Harvard Civil Rights ivil Liberties Law Review Harv CRiCL L Rev Harvard Environmental Law Review Harv Envir L Rev Harvard International Law Journal Harv Intl L J Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy Harv J L amp Pub Pol Harvard Journal on Legislation Harv J on Leg Harvard Law Review Harv L Rev Harvard Women s Law Journal Harv Women s L J Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly Hastings Const L Q Appendix 4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 60 Hastings International and Comparative Law Review Hastings Intl amp Comp L Rev Hastings Law Journal Hastings L J Hofstra Labor Law Journal Hofstra Labor L J Hofstra Law Review Hofstra L Rev Houston Law Review Houston L Rev Howard Law Journal Howard L J Idaho Law Review Idaho L Rev Illinois Bar Journal Ill Bar J Indiana Law Journal Ind L J Indiana Law Review Ind L Rev Institute on Federal Taxation Inst Fed Tax Institute on Securities Regulation Inst Sec Reg International and Comparative Law Quarterly Intl amp Comp L Q International Journal of Law and Psychiatry Intl J L amp Psych International Review of Law and F 39 Intl Rev L amp Econ International Tax amp Business Lawyer Intl Tax amp Bus Law International Lawyer Intl Law Iowa Law Review Iowa L Rev JAG Journal JAG J John Marshall Law Review John Marshall L Rev Journal of Air Law and Commerce J Air L amp Comm Journal of Business Law J Bus L Journal of College and University Law J Coll amp Univ L Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy J Contemp Health L amp Policy Journal of Contemporary Law J Contemp L Journal of Corporation Law J Corp L Journal of Corporate Taxation J Corp Tax Journal of Criminal Law and Cu39 39 39 J J Crim L amp Criminol Journal of Energy Law and Policy J Energy L amp Pol Journal of Environmental Law and I itiontinn J Envir L amp Litig Journal of Family Law J Family L Journal of Law and Commerce J L amp Commerce Journal of Law and Economics J L amp Econ Journal of Law and Policy J L amp Pol MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 4 61 Journal of Legal Education J Legal Educ Journal of Legal History J Legal Hist Journal of Legal Studies J Legal Stud Journal of Legislation J Legis Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce J Marit L amp Comm Journal of Products Liability J Prod Liab Journal of Taxation Juridical Review Jurid Rev Jurimetrics Journal Jurimet J Justice System Journal Kentucky Law Journal Labor Law Journal Labor Lawyer Labor Law Land and Water Law Review Land amp Water L Rev La Raza Law Journal La Raza L J Law and Contemporary Problems L amp Contemp Probs Law and Human Behavior L amp Human Beh Law and Psychology Review L amp Psych Rev Lincoln L Rev Lincoln Law Review Louisiana Law Review La L Rev Loyola Law Review Loyola L Rev Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review Loyola LA L Rev Loyola University of Chicago Law Journal Loyola U Chi L J Maine Law Review Me L Rev Manitoba Law Journal Manitoba L J Marquette Law Review Marq L Rev Maryland Law Review Md L Rev Massachusetts Law Review Mass L Rev McGill Law Journal McGill L J Melb U L Rev Melbourne University Law Review Memphis State University Law Review Memphis St U L Rev Mercer Law Review Mercer L Rev Michigan Law Review Mich L Rev Military Law Review Milit L Rev Minnesota Law Review Minn L Rev Mississippi Law Journal Missouri Law Review Modern Law Review Monash University Law Review Monash U L Rev Montana Law Review Mont L Rev Appendix 4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 62 National Black Law Journal Natl Black L J Nebraska Law Review Neb L Rev New Law Journal New L J New Mexico Law Review NM L Rev New York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law NY L Sch J Intl amp Comp L New York Law School Law Review NY L Sch L Rev New York University Journal of International Law and Politics NYU J Intl L amp Polit New York University Law Review NYU L Rev New York University Review of Law and Social Change NYU Rev L amp Soc Change North Carolina Central Law Journal NC Cent L J North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation NC J Intl L amp Comm Reg North Carolina Law Review NC L Rev North Dakota Law Review ND L Rev Northern Illinois University Law Review NIU L Rev Northern Kentucky Law Review N Ky L Rev Northwestern University Law Review Nw U L Rev Notre Dame Law Review Notre Dame L Rev Nova Law Review Nova L Rev Ohio Northern University Law Review Ohio N U L Rev Ohio State Law Journal Ohio St L J Oklahoma City University Law Review Oklahoma Law Review Okla L Rev Oregon Law Review Or L Rev Osgoode Hall Law Journal Osgoode Hall L J Otago Law Review Otago L Rev Ottawa Law Review Ottawa L Rev Oxford Journal of Legal Studies Oxford J Legal Stud Pace Law Review Pace L Rev Paci c Law Journal Pac L J Pepperdine Law Review Pepperdine L Rev Potomac Law Review Potomac L Rev Practical Lawyer Prac Law Probate Law Journal Prob L J Real Estate Law Journal Real Est L J MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 4 63 Review of Litigation Rev Litig Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal Rutgers Computer amp Tech L J Rutgers Law Journal Rutgers L J Rutgers Law Review Rutgers L Rev St John s Law Review St John s L Rev Saint Louis University Law Journal SLU L J St Mary s Law Journal St Mary s L J San Diego Law Review San Diego L Rev San Fernando Valley Law Review San Fernando V L Rev Santa Clara Law Review Santa Clara L Rev Securities Regulation Law Journal Sec Reg L J Seton Hall Law Review Seton Hall L Rev Seton Hall Legislative Journal Seton Hall Legis J South Carolina Law Review SC L Rev South Dakota Law Review SD L Rev South Texas Law Journal S Tex L J Southern California Law Rev1ew S Cal L Rev Southern Illinois University Law Review SIU L Rev Southern University Law Review S U L Rev Southwestern Law Journal Sw L J Southwestern University Law Review Sw U L Rev Stanford Law Review Stan L Rev Stetson Law Review Stetson L Rev Suffolk Transnational Law Journal Suffolk Transnatl L J Suffolk University Law Review Suffolk U L Rev Supreme Court Review S Ct Rev Sydney Law Review Sydney L Rev Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce Syracuse J Intl L amp Comm Syracuse Law Review Tax Adviser Syracuse L Rev Tax Adviser Tax Law Review Tax L Rev Temple Environmental Law and T 39 39 J Journal Temple Envir L amp Tech J Temple Law Quarterly Temple L Q Temple Law Review Temple L Rev Tennessee Law Review Tenn L Rev Texas International Law Journal Tex Intl L J Texas Law Review Tex L Rev Appendix 4 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 64 Texas Tech Law Review TeX Tech L Rev Thurgood Marshall Law Journal Thurgood Marshall L J Trial Lawyers Quarterly Trial Law Q Tulane Law Review Tulane L Rev Tulsa Law Journal Tulsa L J UC Davis Law Review UC Davis L Rev UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy UCLA J Envir L amp Pol UCLA Law Review UCLA L Rev UCLA Paci c Basin Law Journal UCLA Pac Basin L J UMKC Law Review UMKC L Rev Uniform Commercial Code Law Journal UCC L J University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Journal U Ark Little Rock L J University of Baltimore Law Review U Balt L Rev University of Bridgeport Law Review U Bridgeport L Rev University of Chicago Law Review U Chi L Rev University of Chicago Legal Forum University of Cincinnati Law Review U Cin L Rev University of Colorado Law Review U Colo L Rev University of Dayton Law Review U Dayton L Rev University of Detroit Journal of Urban Law U Detroit J Urban L University of Detroit Law Review U Detroit L Rev University of Florida Law Review U Fla L Rev University of Hawaii Law Review U Hawaii L Rev University of Illinois Law Review U 111 L Rev University of Kansas Law Review U Kan L Rev University of Miami InterAmerican Law Review U Miami IntAm L Rev University of Miami Law Review U Miami L Rev University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform U Mich J L Ref University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Business Law U Pa J Intl Bus L University of Pennsylvania Law Review University of Pittsburgh Law Review University of Puget Sound Law Review U Puget Sound L Rev University of Richmond Law Review U Richmond L Rev University of San Francisco Law Review USF L Rev University of Toledo Law Review U Toledo L Rev University of Toronto Faculty of Law MANUAL OF LEGAL CITATION Appendix 4 65 Review U Toronto Fac L Rev University of Toronto Law Journal U Toronto L J University of West Los Angeles Law Review U W LA L Rev Urban Lawyer Urban Law Utah Law Review Utah L Rev Valparaiso University Law Review Valp U L Rev Vanderbilt Law Review Vand L Rev Vermont Law Review Vt L Rev Villanova Law Review Vill L Rev Virginia Journal of International Law Va J Intl L Virginia Law Review Va L Rev Wake Forest Law Review Wake Forest L Rev Washburn Law Journal Washburn L J Washington and Lee Law Review Wash amp Lee L Rev Washington Law Review Wash L Rev Washington University Journal of Urban and C r y Law Wash U J Urban amp Contemp L Washington University Law Quarterly Wash U L Q Wayne Law Review Wayne L Rev West Virginia Law Review W Va L Rev Western New England Law Review W New Eng L Rev Western State University Law Review W State U L Rev Whittier Law Review Whittier L Rev Willamette Law Review Willamette L Rev William and Mary Law Review Wm amp Mary L Rev William Mitchell Law Review Wm Mitchell L Rev Wisconsin International Law Journal Wis Intl L J Wisconsin Law Review Wis L Rev Yale Journal of International Law Yale J Intl L Yale Journal of World Public Order Yale J World Pub Ord Yale Journal on Regulation Yale J Reg Yale Law and Policy Review Yale L amp Pol Rev Yale Law Journal Yale L J 67 Appendix 5 Other Abbreviations To Be Used in Citations American Am Amendment Amend Annotation Ann Annotated Appeal App Appellate Article Art Board Bd Business Bus Cases Cases certiorari cert Circuit Cir chapter ch Civil Civ clause cl Congress Cong Constitution Const Contract Cont Corporation Corp Court Ct Decisions Dec District D East E Eastern edition ed editor ed Employment Empl Employee Employer Environmental Envir Evidence Evid Federal F or Fed idem the same id International Intl Journal J Laws L Legal Legal Legislation Legis Legislature Legislative Manual Man Maritime Marit Appendix 5 UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 68 Materials Mat National Natl North N Northern note n Number No Opinions Op Page P Politics Pol Political Public Pub Quarterly Q Record Rec Reference Ref Regulation Reg Reports Rep Reporter Rptr Review Rev Revised Rev School Sch Security Sec Series Ser Service Serv Session Sess slip opinion slip op South S Southern Statutes Stat Supplement Supp University U West W Western 74729517 7M 2 724 III 72w 2 2007 5m 5m 7m Last week I mentioned that we had one preproposal Showalter Trust Award submission that I was aware of Mike Flynn and Wayne Campbell We actually had three submissions altogether I later found out Shirley Rietdyk and Jeff Haddad have also submitted a preproposal They are teaming up to learn more about enhancing the stability of posture and gait using custom foot or thotics Another team including Howie Zelaznik Shirley Rietdyk Jeff Haddad Arvind Raman ME and Birk Nanotechnology and Tom Talavage ECEBME are proposing to determine by way of VlRI analysis of the cerebellar function in the elderly as it pertains to postural control We wish all three teams good luck V lrh f llh39th39lC L iquotIZjI C I am pleased to announce that Jessica Witt has enthusiastically accepted our invitation to join our faculty on a courtesy appointment Jessi is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences As most of you know Jessi s research interests include perception of spa tial layout embodied perception perception and action and motor skill learning Her BA in psy chology and computer science is from Smith College MA and PhD are in cognitive psychology from University of Virginia and her postdoc was at University of Western Ontario She has pub lished in Psychological Science Psyebonomic Bulletin and Review Perception and the oumal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception and Performance We welcome Jessi to the HK community and look forward to many collaborations with her i LL39 3915 5 1339 7 IT1J i 9 Here are some updates on our renovations The Ismail Center renovation is moving right along One wall has been removed and another built The end result will be a significant square foot ex pansion to the exercise space both for members and to accommodate subject training for research projects The Ismail Center has remained open during construction and user inconvenience has been minimal we hope The Wastl lab renovation project has now moved through the university system and is in the hands of the contractor Green lights were given throughout the process with the formal precon struction meeting held yesterday Jon Laswell represented the department in this meeting and he reports everything went smoothly The construction completion deadline remains December 31 2007 in spite of the later than hoped for begin date We expect the construction crews to show up 0011 QMMof moi l 712205172 Calendar Nov 4 Nov 17 Colloquia Dr Larry Leverenz LAMB 108 330pm 14 Happy Grad Faculty Meetjn LAMB 108 Bill Harper 330 POS Presentations I Mamiwi 39 9 99 is quot Va 6 I MS thesis proposal by I David Beiser on 1 1 1207 at 900 am in LAMB 120 Title E ects ofa 12 week whole body Set your clocks back one vibration and resistance training inter I hour Sunday Nov 4th I vention on strength balance and C reactive protein levels I I a Fall O1 I a I x v Graduation Deadlines I I HK Teaching ASSIstants lDecember 1 I Please register for classes as soon as Last day for students to pass the nal exam I possible so that the administrative team M can start working on teaching I Last day to39electrjonically submit a dissertation PhD I ssignments I Students or deposit Thesis Master s Students I I Noti Jill at least 2 weeks before your Erogosal or I I nal exam Ereliminam or nal exam date 7 I I l Philip Troped Title Assistant Professor Birthplace Boston MA Hometown Boston MA Phil Troped is married to Lynn Nuti a nurse and Lawyer who is both a student in the Doctor ate in the Nurse Practice Program at Purdue and a Visiting Assistant Professor They live in a townhouse with Caleb a three year old black lab and Jasmine their sedentary cat Most of theirfamily is from Massachusetts California and London England Phil s current area of study is Environmental and Policy Influences on physical activity in both adults and youth measurement of activity with accelerometers and GPS devices His most recent research position was at the Harvard School of Public Health for five years Before working on his doctorate he held other positions as an exercise physiologist in a pulmonary rehabilitation program and in worksite fitness facilities Education Phil Troped received his BA in Psychology from UMass Amherst MS in Clinical Exercise Physiology from Northwestern University SM in Health and Social Behavior from Harvard School of Public Health and his PhD in Health and Education Promotion and Behaviorfrom Arnold School of Public Health ActivitiesHobbies Phil enjoys cycling and hiking with his family friends and Caleb He doesn39t have one favorite restaurant but his favorite pizza joints are in Massachusetts One is the Lynnwood Caf and the other is Santarpio s in East Boston Travel Phil s favorite places to travel are Acadia National Park in Maine and San FranciscoBay area of California Other Interesting Facts Many years ago Phil cycled crosscountry over 4000 miles While pulling his golden retriever in a flatbed trailer WMof 7mm M We i 1 3 I You don39t want to mess with this Administrative Assistant 3 3 S Tim Wright the Pretty Pink Bunny Marianne Eagan WMo M 57 73a 4 of 3 1 Felicia Cassidy and Aaron Trembath George and Stacy Avery HK Pumpkin Stacy Avery carved this very creative pumpkin Thank you George and Stacy Avery for sharing it with us w EE ummz Oly pi his in m H mm 1 Announcement Wednesday Noycmher 7512007 Dr Larry I Leverenz 011111031 Professor Department of Health and Kiinesiology Purdue University The Use ofO bl 39qiue Acupuncture m the T 39 et atmentu of Muscle I nj ur 39eSi The China Experiene e Lambert Room 108 330 pm WMo M 57 73a 6 of 3 Craig Voll was named the Collegiate Athletic Trainer of the year by The Indiana Athletic Trainers Association Craig has been with the Boiler makers for eight years serving primarily with the football and swim ming and diving programs and now is with the Purdue wrestling pro gram Eligibility for trainer of the year honors includes a minimum of ve years at an institution in Indiana and active participation in the ad vancing of the profession of athletic training and sports medicine Voll is currently pursuing his PhD in pedagogy Article from College Sports Television CSTV affiliated with the CBS company 5 Steve McKenzie wrote four webbased publications that were recently postedl on the web by Purdue CFS Extension The publications are related to body im age The first one is intended for adults who are trying to help their childrenI grandchildrenstudents with body image The second and third documents are lesson plans on body image to be used with middle and high school studentsl The fourth document is a review of healthrelated exercise principles that may be used by children or adults These documents are free from the Purdue CFSI Extension website and are intended for use with children at home in 4H girll scout or boy scout groups or at school in conjunction with health physical edu cation classes or sports teams Bonnie Blankenship was one of the reviewersl and is listed at the conclusion of each document The URLs for the pubs are ICFS 735 W Healthy Body Image Being an Advocate for Your Child or Grandchild httpwwwcespurdueeduextmediaCFSCFS735Wpdf ICFS 736 W Healthy Body Image A Lesson Plan for Middle School Students httpwwwcespurdueeduextmediaCFSCFS736 Wpdf I httpwwwcespurdueeduextmediaCFSCFS737 Wpdf ICFS 738 W Healthy Exercises for Every Body ICFS 737W Healthy Body Image A Lesson Plan for High School Students httpwwwcespurdueeduextmediaCFSCFS738 Wpdf I Pictured on the front cover of the 2008 ACSM Guide is HK Alumni Lisa Lauer Chrysler a ti There39s alwa 5 next ear I had the great fortune over the weekend of attending the final game of the World Series between the Boston Red Sox Boo and the Colorado Rockies Wooo Hooo While the Rockies did not win the series was a once in a lifetime experience for this long time baseball fan I sat back absorbing the atmosphere back and forth from thinking that game four felt just like any regular season baseball game to thinking 1 quotwow this is the World Seriesquot The wow moments included a presen tation honoring Hank Aaron see picture before the opening pitch chants for the Rockies at a deafening volume especially after Atkins39 homer in the bottom of the 8th got the Rockies to within one run and the sheer size and camaraderie of the crowed all wielding CR rally rags and visceral hopes for a game 5 I39m sure 999 of Rockies fans could come up with myriad reasons why the Rockies de served to beat the Red Sox Despite valid reasons for Rockies success and overflowing amounts of hope and support from fans the Rockies did not come out ahead Conclusion sport is not fair Well more importantly life is not fair Something we39re all aware of even in our grief and despair over each loss Perhaps it39s our attachment to the feeling we get when our team wins that causes suffering when they don39t I admit it would have been great to see the Rockies live up to all my hopes an egtlt V pectations and I was disappointed more than I thought I would be after their quotmiraclequot run at the World Series title was finally over It seems however that sports fans always find a way to keep believing in their team no matter what the outcome of any given season Maybe the single greatest thing about sport is that there will al ways be next year Bree Studenka Order form Health and Kinesiology Department Clothing Line Order Form 2007 2008 Tee Shirt and Sweatshirt Back Tee Shirt and Sweatshirt Front Hoodie Front All shirts are a deep asphalt gray not heathered with white ink Pricing All items can be ordered in a size XXL for an additional 1 Tee Shirts size S XL 10 Sweatshirts size SXL 18 Hooded Sweatshirts size S XL 20 gt To order more items please use back afform Grand Total Your Name Phone Email Please remit all order forms and payments to Colleen Thompson in by Friday M For more information contact Colleen at cmtpurdueedu or in the Ex Phys of ces 1 f Wam amtwhatwam 39 I There is a proverbial African story regarding the nature of wisdom worth retelling The story comes from the Akan people of Ghana It goes like this A very long time ago there was a man by the name of Kwaku Ananse who was the wis est man in the entire world But he was so sel sh about keeping this wisdom to him self that he put it all in a big kettle This took some time When he nished stashing his wisdom in the kettle he decided to nd a taller than tall tree in the deepest part of the forest and hide the kettle up top of it so nobody would ever nd wisdom One night Kwaku secretly snuck out of his house tied a rope around the kettle put the rope around his neck and carried the kettle on his belly into the forest He found the tallest tree looked up and prepared to climb But with the kettle resting on his stomach as it was he couldn t get his arms around the tree s trunk rmly enough to begin his ascent He made several attempts to climb the tree without success Unknown to Kwaku his young son whose name was Ntikuma had awakened when Kwaku le the house Ntikuma followed his father to see what was going on When Ntikuma saw his father try to climb the tree with the kettle hanging on his belly Ntikuma laughed outloud Kwaku was startled and quickly turned to nd his son hiding in the bushes witnessing his hapless tree climbing efforts Ntikuma then suggested to his father that he hang the kettle on his back not his stomach and with the kettle out of the way he could easily climb the tree Kwaku was so em barrassed that the solution was that simple and so frustrated that it was his little son who pointed it out that he ung the kettle down and the wisdom the pot contained spread all over the world Mary Catherine Bateson 1939 has said much the same thing about wisdom that the Akan proverb illustrates Bateson you may recall is the daughter of anthropologists Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson Mary Bateson has dent of the Institute for Intercultural Studies in New York City Her PhD was in linguistics and lVIiddle Eastern studies from Harvard University She taught at Amherst Northeastern Harvard and Spelman College Her most recent academic appointment was the Clarence J Rob W inson Professor in Anthropology and English at George Mason University she is now Professor Emerita there Over the years Bateson has written a number of books including IVitII aDangIIter s EyeA Memoir ofMargaretMead and Gregory Bateson 1984 Peripheral Visions LearningAIong the Way1995 Composing a 1m 2001 Full Cir cles Overlapping Lives 2001 and VViIIing to Learn Passages of QMMO and ayo lo 3 At some point in time long ago it was taken for granted the longer you lived the wiser you became Aging into wisdom was more natural then be cause little changed over time life experiences within an everfarniliar pat tern of living generation after generation Promoted wise often revered elders Bateson argues that growing wiser as one grows older is far less likely in modern times at least in technologically driven cultures Yet she claims the belief that age and wisdom go hand in hand is still current She asks her students How many of you think you will be wise when you re old Most raise their hands But today given the kinds and speed of change Bateson argues if somebody says I m not going to learn anythin new after the age of 40 you don t really want to be taking their advice when they re 70 mm 4 W 1 LI NC 39 J m I4 39 a TO LEARN And herein is the Paradox The very institution that ostensibly is a keeper of so many keys to wisdom may have become an obstacle to helping people real ize it Bateson s claim is that it is lifelong learning not just growing old that opens the locks to wisdom in this age Here s the crux o argument First she says mostreal lifelong learning seems to be increasingly incidenml to what is learned in our schools life s lessons come before after and outside of our classrooms this if for no other reason that we spend more time out of school than in it And even in those years when children and young people are spending most of their days within the walls of educational institutions the most signi cant learning going on is nowhere listed in the curriculum curiosity lifelong Children rapidly get the message that you learn 39 school not forjoy but because you are required to and that you are being asked questions to which the answers are already known and xed and must simply be reproduced Bateson s remedy is for educational institutions to reframe themselves This is not yet another appeal for curricular reform so much as it is an appeal to move ourselves and our students be ond mere knowing Each passing decade demands new kinds of awareness Bateson writes Not only do we meet new technologies and new forms of art and expression but new dangers new ethical challenges and a need for new undersmndings of the self and others Con t WM m vauwt 7310 29 3 Thus we should be far less concerned with what students know when they graduate and far more concerned with cultivating in them willing ness and enthusiasm to learn for years into the future This re 39anun what she calls a Pursuit of revolutionary active wisdom stimulates aspi rations experimenmtion Personal and social responsibility and the age to learn Wisdom is not a function or entitlement of age it is a bene t of lifelong learning and the joy of learning should be fostered not killed offin our schools and colleges One can t help but wonder if our modern educational institutions have unintentionally become functional equivalents of Kwaku Ananse s sel sh attempS to hoard knowledge at the expense of wisdom This isn t easy to gure out But we have a vague sense that if true it won t be long be fore our studenS the NtikuInas of the world will startle and provoke us into inging our ket tles down in order to help spread the joy of learning throughout the generations Wearamtwhatwaknow Mwhatwamwmtalearw
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