History Of Horticulture
History Of Horticulture HORT 30600
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Lecture 17 Greek Science Technology and Agriculture TheAegmn Wurlrl and The Rise or Hdlmism develuped m Crete By mun EcE these ks emenee ufmyal tumbs at Mycenae lucated m the nunheast Between trade develuped m the central and 325mm Medxtmanean Between lZEIEI and am 13015 apenud knuer as w k M l l l epke peems me Mycenaean pekea Culum ahze 1771 r uh fuund uutsxde quhe Greek mamland e g m Sicily Agmentu 1er Faestum and Turkey Ephesus and Fergzmunt Ths penea cmnmdes wnh mnuvanuns m all elds quhuught andtenhnulugy The where F w me us mmugms architecture and magu cant an chm y statuary mg 1772 and musams pastry and M u Famw mtula an nmlwzr and een emauen Hallmign 15 assucxated with the uunshmg quhe ms and smmces Greek culture based un the Mnunuviuhkanmax uum my 7 55A wqu WmanM m A undunm nudunwu quotm LttmmunnHIMa e m Mus 39 71 gm 1771 Greek eelema39expeneen seekee thersA eTafweEmksmry 2 Lecture 17 Egyptian Science and Semitic religion The art is typi ed by idyllic realism included depictions of gods animals particularly horses and plants and includes agricultural practices Fig 173 174 One of the cultural developments of Greek thought was the museum originally the Temple of the Muses daughters of Zeus amp Menemosyne memory The muses became the patron goddesses of the humanities Cleio 7 history Euterpe 7 lyric poetry Thaleia 7 comedy Melpomene 7 tragedy Terpsichore 7 dance and music Erato 7 erotic poetry Fig 17 2 Horse head from the Parthenon Polymnia 7 hymns Urania 7astronomy Calliope 7 poetry The museum became part of the palace the palace of culture and later a kind of medieval college and research institute The development of the concept of organized centers of learing the University descend from this period The Academy was the school of the philosopher Plato 4277327 BCE located in a grove of trees The Groves of Academe are a synonym for present day colleges and universities college professors are known as Academics who still refer to the University as The Academy and its curricula as Academic Studies Aristotle 3847322 BCE student of Plato called his school the Lyceum still the French word for school Beginnings of Science The beginnings of science date to the 6th century BCE in Greece Palestine Babylonia India and China Anumber of philosophers stand our from the crowd Note that the word for science derived from the Latin word scientia to know came much later Dem ocritus of Abdera ca 470773 62 BCE Founder of the Atomic Theory Also had theories on the na ture of plants thought plant diversity was due to differences in the atoms of which they were composed Hippocrates 46077359 BCE Disciple of Democritus ws a Greek physician who is now considered the Father of Medicine Born on the Island of Cos he was associated with the cult of Asclepius the Greek god of healing whose staff entwined with a serpent became the symbol of medicine In the 7th century BCE Asclepius aided by his two daughters Hygeia and Panacea superceded Apollo of the greatest of the heal ing gods and temples in his name were built to heal the sick Legend has it that the centaur Chiron taught Asklepius pharmaceutical knowledge about drug palnts at Fig 17 4 Greek plow Lecture 17 3 Hippocrates considered the originator of a Greek school of healing was the rst to clearly expound the concept that diseases had natural causes Various works attributed to him and his school is contained in the Hippocratic Collection which includes The Hippocratic Oath Aphorisms and various medical works He was an expert in diagnosis predicting the course of disease Based on the color and pallor of the ill disease was considered to be an imbalance of the four humours blood phlegm yellow bile and black bile a concept that was to affect medicine for 2000 years This concept persists in the following terms that describe distinctive temperaments sanguine warm and ardent phlegmatic sluggish apathetic and bilious ill humored Healing emphasis was placed on purges attempts to purify the body from the illness produced by excesses or imbalance of humors Hippocrates particularly noted the in uence of food and diet on health recommending moderation In the work OnAncientMedicine differences in individual response to food are noted such that some can eat cheese to satiety while others do not bear it well a diagnosis of lactose intolerance The use of drugs was not ignored and between 200 and 400 herbs were mentioned by the school of Hippocrates Note Rhizotomoi Greek rootdiggers pharmacopuloi drug merchants thus our word pharmacy is derived from the Greek word for remedy or drug Aristotle 3 SL323 BCE of Macedonia Writings are climax of the Golden Age of Greece Student of Plato 42777327 BCE and teacher of Alexander the Great 3567323 BCE Plato a philosopher was interested in the search for the ideal while Aristotle was involved in a search for facts and explanations Important writings in physics unfortunately many incorrect ideas persisted for almost 2000 years eg that the speed of objects being dropped is proportional to mass The descriptive writings in biology were excellent Examples include On Psyche Histories ofAnirnals Generation of Animals Parts of Animals Writing on plants are lost but Aristotle cites ve of his own works It was Aristotle who developed the concept of life force or vitalism the idea that life is due to a force beside the ordinary workings of chemistry and physics Modern biology has been chipping away on this concept but the last vestiges of vitalism will probably be only discarded when life is actually created Science is getting close The religious concept that humans are essentially different from other animals is an extension of vitalism anathema to religious believers who insist on a divine spark or soul Theo phrasus of Eresus city of Lesbos 3717287 BCE The founder of the botanical sciences and thus known as the Father of Botany legatee of the Aristotle s Lyceum and was bequeathed the library Writer of 227 treatises on religion politics ethics education rhetoric mathematics astronomy logic meteorology natural history had over 2000 disciples or students averaging 60 per year Two botanical works survived History of Plants and Causes of Plants may be lecture notes These are the earliest books of this kind in world literature but surely not the rst Deals with 500550 species Other works that survive include On Stones and Character Sketches still good reading See Lecture 19 History of Plants Historia de plantes Largely descriptive Distinguishes parts of plants Nine books parts of plants and their nature classi cation propagation especially trees wild trees geographic botany trees related to districts timber of various trees Undershrubs herbaceous plants cereals pulses summer crops juices of plants OWSF P39 eP N Causes of Plants De causis plantarum More philosophic but still full of facts Six books 1 Generation and propagation of plants 2 Things which help the increase of plants 4 Lecture 17 E Plantation of shrubs and preparation of the soil viticulture Goodness of seeds and their degenera tion Diseases Savors and odors 5 mp Although there is much practical information Theophrastus in interested in plants for their own sake Given d erences between plants or organs how do we account for them What are the intentions of I nature His classi cation of plants endured for 2000 years He studies form and function germination dis tinguished monophyllous monocots and polyphyllous dicocotyledonous plants leaf descriptions still used codi ed names of 500 plants considered ecological groupings propagation Describes such facts as mistle toe germinating in oaks Can still be read with interest by horticulturists For example mentions that shoots Fig 17 5 Reconstruction of the library of Alexan dria Source Fortin 1999 Syria close to the stem root better a correct observation still incompletely understood Alexander the Great 3567323 Alexander king of Macedon son of Philip of Macedon student of Aristotle extended Greek in uence from the Greek isles to India At his death in 323 BCE his kingdom was divided among his generals The Ptolemies were GrecoEgyptian rulers of Egypt form 323 to 30 BCE Center of learning shi ed to Alexandria inEgypt one of the many cities named after Alexander There occurred a fusion of Egyptian Mideastem and Greek culture The Greek school in Alexandria with its famous library Fig 175 was destroyed in 415 perhaps by fanatical Christians a tremendous loss for all humankind References Janick J ed 1989 Theophrastas p 3713 In J Janick ed Classical Papers inHorticulutral Sciences Prentice Hall Englewood cliffs NJ Reed HS 1942 A Short History of the Plant Sciences Chronica Botanica Waltham MA Sarton G 1952 AHistory of Science Harvard Univ Press Cambridge VidalNaquet P ed 1992 The Harper Atlas of World History Harper Collins New York History of Horticulture Lecture 17 Liquot Mire 17 Greek Science Technology and Agri uliure The Aegean World and the R of Hellenism 320072000 BC Bronze Age E 39dence oi d aim in mainland Greece and neighboring islmu 1001171600 rim reekrspeim IEIndtLEllropeiuls Urban ciuimiion in e R tombs MM cenatJlon39 leasI Peloponnese M unmn kingdoms developed an n icniinn including rizilrio and he llaiming oiLnke Comp il 11007800 BC E Greek R ihlle Ages Period know n to us from the stories 09139 le Iliad and the 0535s ic poems attributed no Home that tell the star of t ie TI39 393 t P o u in Paquot 0139 Greek rail trad History of Horticulture Lecture 17 750450 BC E Pesiotl o 39 Hellenism Gsent pu39iod of Greek eoloniz 39on ploh ly instigated bv39 the silorhge or mhle land on the Greek ntninlnntl Colonization extle ns in w est ns I I 39 an EIS Nosthesnliotnnlnt olth As n sesnli tnost oi the rntnons Greek temples occur ontsitle oi Greece Agn39eemo 39 I 39 11951211 Italy Ep mt nntl Paganiniquot math he Gseehhlitnel inno ntion in the eld ohllougln nntl Ieclmoiogv Greek Colonization 7507450 BCE 5 entnty BC E Golden Age of Greece an 39 at to us through ntehiteetnte 1Panlenonlandm tilieen on ehielivstntn nosntes lot the nntsings and thongin39s oi the greil e pliilosophei39siuui divine senlisnn hug dc eoons oi Coils nnti Iimals horses plums nntl agriculhll39al psnetiees Also n period oi hnttles planks lntnines39 to esnneeeml quotJul eonrsont on History of Horticulture Lecture 17 50 BCE Bad from the n nermon History of Horticulture Lecture 17 The Poseidon of A1 temision Poseidon brandishing the trident with his ra39 ed right hand of Kalamis raised from the sea Dated ca 460 BCE Snurre Harp 5 Atlas of World History 199 Discus throw er Venus de Milo Harvesting Olives HistOIy of Horticulture Lecture 17 HEM Arts and mces Gn ee 39s ennnp nzns zeil M11935 4 gather than technology per 5 gt m em i W ghou ne I39d Commasus m Alexande ei tm n mnemn Basin via ne Lt 9 P0 Null immense mm Rome 1quot i w 95339 um Cuhmw 13915 uov a usiom on Greek cu tun eq Ban 011mm and Egyp am science 311ml c moiogy and mimic n el g on Development of ine I v ugemm On39igina Temp e of ne Murals Eaugimea39s of Zeus S Memnws m orquot memo J J Panama 01 cu im e The comem mquot mgm of Eemn m mg he Uia ven 539 39 39 9 from this 1911113111 R me C Hem ailst J Emen39nme yn39 sc wen Thalia comet Maniomens Wagei y ichm e z mnce 3 mu 1 En m c en o ic me n y PM mama Rn 2mm Mania as mommy 7 a lnope uwe 39 Gg ee P li osup ten s Sommes Warm 470 399 BCE 27 er7 BCE History of Horticulture Lecture 17 Academy School of ine philosopher mm 14177317 3 El located in grove oi rrees or Aculeme synonym for presem o and universities Academics College Professors The Academy The Uni rsil v Academic Studies Univers Aristotle scllool Ill Irricular stlulem of Plato called his 1 B l e Lyceum still the French word for school Plato Teaching Geom 9 Roman mosaic 1 ane quotImamI on mom 1 Plato and Ar lolle History of Horticulture Lecture 17 01 39gins oT science date to die 639 cerm Greece Palestine Bai lonia has i A nundm or philosophers stand out Note tha the wordl39or s 39cncc derived fromthe Latin ordsrl39em t to lmov came much later Demou itlls oi Alydera ca i 0393736239 BU Founder of the Atomic Theory Also had iheories on the nature of plants s due to di 39erelaee in die re composed Hippocrates 160quot 59 B 1 Disciple of Demoeritus Father of lVIedieine First to expound die theory that disease had aamral causes not supernatural onsidered that diseasew caused l a balance of 4 uids called hIImors fronn Iieh we get the term humor I and had blood phlegnl quotellovi 39 and black bile based on color or ill people Concept persists in the following terms to describe distinctive temper amen an IiIIH arm and ardent Phlegmat ieishl glsh patheiie Biliollsi humor cholericl Understood the relation of diet to health History of Horticulture Lecture 17 1e I ed in ancient Greece medi 39 Hippocr tic school mention c me 40 medicinal herh Rhizotomo Greek rootdigge Pll macopulo39 lruemerchants pharma rromthe or c c Aristotle 38323 BCE of Macedonia iting are dimem olthe Golden Age or Greece Student orPlato 22 27 BCE Teacher Alex Ider le at Plato t nterested in the search for ideas Ar totle 4 llvolvellin arch or facts and explanation ic nnrortnnatel man nost 200 e the concept that speed of ohject ma 0quot e r dropped i proportional to mallytlisplro edl Galileo Arlstotle 38 t 23 BCE of Macedonia The desc pt e ines in biulns ere llent 0n Psyt hz Hixmrizu39 o animlx Gcncmrion ofAnimlls Farm of AnimI ltings on plants lost but ustotle cited 5 HI his onm Arismtle developed the concept or life force vitamin the idea that lire is due to a fur nd the ordir 39 v a chemistr and p Mode lbinlng iasheenchippinga on this concept ihs Concept persists and m nnlv be discarded ir lire is actua c ated1s science getting rlnse The relig39ous concept that humans are essentialh li 39erem from other animals is an extensiun nfvilzllism Mode 39 nce vim lire s explainzlb l hemistr a II to religious believers s on a n in History of Horticulture Lecture 17 Theopilraslus olEresus 17237 BCE Father of Butan eurn bequeathed the libran Writer nf treatises on religion pulitlfs etluts edllrzltiun rheto na is astronorn lngi metenl ulub lilllu il 1 Had are 2000 distiples students averagingsoper T butanirzll sslln ed o quot ofPlmtx39 and Cm sz squlzmn quotI be lemlre notes These are the earliest bunks urthis lund in rld literauuebut sure otther39 st Dea 39thSOtL 0 spef s Other s that sun 9 indude In Smmu39 and Imml n r Skewth still gnnd reading IlreoplrrnstusolEre quot1723712 E Portrait anan Bust V bel arrl39s Herbal 2nd ed 1515 quot172839 BCE Hin on39 of mm Hinon a o1 plumes latin mime Lnrg escrllpnve Ilis nguislles parts or plants Nine book and their nature classi carion especially trees 2 ild rree 4 Geographic boim trees related to disrricts er of various rrces Herhaceous pl its reals pulses ruruner crops 9 Juices ol39 plants History of Horticulture Lecture 17 quotquotllneophn of Er Causes ofPItmtr De semi plunturum ore philosophic but still full of facts on leneration and p opagation of plants 39 39 help the increa e in plants lng vi Plantation of shrubs and pi eparation of the 1 iculture Goodnes of seeds and their degenerat on Diseases Savor and odor of E esus IT 2 7 BEE Although much practical informat on The lms us 39nter d 39 for 1 ir own a39 G1 en differences between plants DI organs how do We account for them W39hat are the intentions of natur Cla i icati u endured fol 2000 years I gulshed Studied f 39m and function germination d l quot quot l names i 1 monocots and dicots leal escupuons codifie of 500 plants considered ecological gr 39 39 n prop aga neous quotSemen ion Cases ofspoiimneous generation occur u er spells of rain Run 393er bring ubo 1 awe oftlecompositzon um witemtiorts the waterenetrutingj r 15ml wide but feed what isfomieu will i it grow Iurgen wfzile the worms and dries This being how most author s occoimt vr the generm ion ofzmimulr Ls well Note that Theophrastus appears skeptical History of HOrticulture Lecture 17 Fa se i minimum Gcmen a mions Am ifa lze air 1er 39vem too prm 39zles seed which it c I r itmw wirh the min the will spell will be all tire more proli c leeve mm ofgeri emi ion would 7m uppe r to be spmzmm e1 l It kind qurqvnga39 4m sawing see v 4 0r se ing piece in me gmlmd Eu sc Spontamcans Gene atiom From Unno iced Seed One mighi m qr that iiie geztemtiori in thi Ui K H frees is rather I yponitmemis mie sin ce these trees are i either set iii the gramquot iim39prmlucetl om seed and I is u wecem um39 60175512111 en ce a izm ey are produced sparifuiieomb39 1ft 39 are rsoipraduce iii either If The truth being rim wefui m observe all J lve ewes q grawilt am seed Ga a img Definition and descriptions Time of grafting I utumn and f Techniqu and mechanics feat of rain Scion v iucia History of Horticulture Lecture 17 All mdler the Great Alexander King of Macedon son of Philip ol Maredon tudent of Aristotle extended Greek in uence from the Greek Isles to India and to Eg t At death in 323 BCE kingdom was divided among his generals Ptolemies were GrecoEg mtian rulers of Egypt from 323731 BCE leopatl the last Center ol le nmg shilled to Alexandria Egyptian city on the delta of Egypt one of the man named after him Results in a fusion of Egyptian Mideastern and GI culture later to be important in the development onquot hri lit 39 hool in Alexandr39 1th its l amol lil s oyed in S perhaps by fanatical Chris ans atremendous loss for all humankind antler the Great History of Horticulture Lecture 17 Images from the Greek Floral mosaic Antioch Images mu Flowers Bergama Asklepeion Ionic column of mmlms leaves Belgum Asklepeion History of Horticulture Lecture 17