New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Rhetoric In The Western World

by: Elda Bahringer

Rhetoric In The Western World COM 31200

Marketplace > Purdue University > Communication Studies > COM 31200 > Rhetoric In The Western World
Elda Bahringer
GPA 3.72

Samuel McCormick

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Samuel McCormick
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Communication Studies

This 68 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elda Bahringer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 31200 at Purdue University taught by Samuel McCormick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/207916/com-31200-purdue-university in Communication Studies at Purdue University.

Similar to COM 31200 at Purdue

Popular in Communication Studies


Reviews for Rhetoric In The Western World


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/19/15
Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review Unit 1 Figures Heidegger Communication is something strange that people do with each other Communication is constantly bringing us into contact with radical otherness Poetry heavy Dewey Communication is something practical Coordinated action ask to borrow pencil yes get it and write Levity light Socrates Taught Plato Speaker must know truth must know audience and must match both together artfully Love Dialogue Soul to soul communication through speaking written gets in the way Writing is dangerous because destroys powers of memory people can fake knowledge silent not interactive looks alive arti cial intelligence broadcast audiences anyone hears Plato Rhetoric as propaganda and potentially false and devious Lingering in uence themes manipulation or calculation in communication is bad sincerity is good the self is at odds with itself love involves the soul beauty leads to truth interpersonal is best scatter is bad Jesus Broadcast dissemination Peters T ermsConcepts ve types of communication 1 telepathy Finishing someone s sentences inside jokes interpersonal com belief communication is designed to clear up meaning of wordsmessages the truth of communication is that this never happens 2 olip 139 m39 39 quot 39 39 39 we will never understand each other suggests that we are hard wired for solitude believe there is an insurmountable barrier in communication when arguments break down to you just don t understand point where communication and efforts to understand break down 3 Dewey 4 Heidegger 5 propaganda about getting everyone to understand your messagemeaning having everybody think the same thing about something Philosophers vs Sophists Sophists professional arguers theorists and practitioners of persuasion like ghost writers speech coaches rst PR agents itinerant Lysias not citizens of Athens weren t rooted in Greece Philosophy restoration of the soul to its homeland in the heavens Having a philosophical lover is requisite In other words dialogue with another person is the path to philosophical truth and understanding difficulties of communication Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review Socrates vs Jesus Peter s motto of communication Dialogue with the self dissemination with the other Plato s critique of the written word Dissemination vs Dialogue Unit 2 Figures Cicero Eloquence charming thinking before speaking what to say how to say it and when to say it Knowledge total human nature Style direct mental emotion The good man speaking well Tacitus Aper Messala Matemus Messala what s wrong with oratory in empire T ermsConcepts Greeks vs Romans Greeks eternity heaven permanent neverchanging always perfect idealists small pacific citystate abstract Romans immortality living forever in human stories legends narratives deeds done on Earth that would allow your legend to live on practical scale concrete history Decorum Messala what s wrong with rhetoric l Dissipation of young men engaging in frivolous sensual enterprises 2 Inattention of parents 3 Ignorance of those who pretend to give instruction 4 Neglect of ancient discipline Matemus Aper Roman Republic vs Roman Empire Liberty vs Peace Messala vs Aper Cicero s conception of Rhetoric Cicero vs Tacitus Tacitus 0n Dialogue and Indirect Communication Cicero s equation for real eloquence Real Eloquence wide learning competent speaking 7 rules of philosophy Todorov and Democracy Unit 3 Figures Augustine 0f Hippo Transformed rhetoric from dissemination to propaganda Finds true meaning 7 no more different interpretation Shifts from grand eloquence and owery speeches to clarity Eloquence should be clear translucent plain EXpe1ts translation medical field technology foreign lang Prof s Authorized texts bible dictionary prof s textbooks Not knowing spirit of text just the words teleprompters her dad speeding poems Speaking outside of authorized version and Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review getting in trouble for it bible military parents boss Things supposed to be clear rather than entertaining politics nancial situations health Likes written language more than Socrates but sees importance of having written and oral to help explain meaning says dialogue with God is important Marks beginning of the middle ages did something different with rhetoric it was concerned with speakers but SA was concerned with the audience Not about speaking but about hearing how to listen to rhetoric Christine de Pizan Reanalyzes history and nds things others didn t seelooked over Says the activities of women were largely ignored First woman in France to make a living by her pen Concemed with appearances If you don t write women into history today s women won t have role models Handbook of good conduct to imitate and bad conduct to avoid violates this because not for princes but for princesses Machiavelli Got exiled by the Medici s writes The Prince while in exile trying to say please hire me back look what I can doteach you Promises to show you how to get and keep power Addresses The Prince to the people in power First modern technocraft politicians campaign managerhandler Concemed with appearances doesn t matter if you are actually strong have to appear strong is most important to appear religious The Prince is a handbook of good conduct to imitate and bad conduct to avoid If you are going to be bad just don t get caughtappear to be bad no longer moral tradition but highly calculated tradition Secure and maintain power ends always justify means John Locke Representation theory of meaning words are marks for the ideas in a speaker s mind What we know is not a thing in the world but the idea we have of it in our mind 7 ideas based on sensory experience and re ection communication the report of a speaker s inner state the content of a private world when my vocalization of dog conforms to a sign that you have learned to associate with a similar idea in your head rhetoric when I consciously assign my vocalization to some other idea dawg snoop dogg etc Problems 1 Disparities between my experiences and yours 9 solipsism 2 Meanings depend not on natural connections but on conventions 9 changing relations of words to ideas 3 Add up the rst two problems 9 in nite multiplicity of experiences ideas and abstractions T ermsConcepts Augustine vs Cicero Rhetoric as interpretation of bible Clarity Augustine s equation for eloquence Hermeneutics interpretation literal allegorical moral anagogical Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review Rhetoric of Exemplarity Christine de Pizan and Feminism Machiavelli on rhetoric historia magistra Vitae history teaches life practical rhetoric Expert vs Orator Locke on communication interiors and exteriors criticism of Locke s theory of communication Unit 4 Focuses on collectivity of human kind You understand your inner self through outside experiences Communication is a problem of the object as much as of the subject Recognition happens when I am for you what you are for me parentchild masterslave cannot achieve this is about radical equality When two people disagree is when communication starts Communication can only happen in an achieved community We depend on other people to understand ourselves Two students Marx Exteriority comes first and interiority develops along the way we don t know what we are saying is funny until people laugh Marx Against mass communication Hates dissemination Sees money as bringing a regime of incongruity inversion and exploitation Sees money as mass communication and hates it Thinks communication problems can be solved with materialistic things Money is a crime Wastefulness is broadcasting If you want us all to be equal recognition you need to equalize the playing eld poor and rich kids get same education school lunch if you want to change society have to change material Kierkegaard Religious tricksterMaster theoristPractitioner of ironyKeen observer First to make communication a philosophical problem Communication made of revealing concealing but not information exchange Can be read as protestant iconoclast disclosure is a trap Thinks we re moving too quickly and wants to allow for some miscommunication Two re ections before we speak Best word for the idea How would your audience misunderstand this The other is thinking like me But the other isn t thinking like me Master of Faith The meaning of scripture is incommunicable and so is love Faith is quiet inward private thing like love and doesn t go around talking preaching it Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review In communication love and faith should be unspeakable Sacred requires care puzzle Treats everything they see in the world as communication from God Nietzsche Every truth doesn t come from God but was made by humans Seven steps to building a truth Nerve Stimulus image first metaphor word second metaphor schema concepts point at which we start organizing things in the world convention treating people in different placescategories differentlydecorum expectations ethics commandment law truth Only reason we hold these truths to be self evident is because we forgot look for the lie The reason we can believe Moses and commandments is because we forgot 15 that these things have been socially constructed over the years Freud dealing explicitly with speech looking into and behind our words to see what we re thinking it s not what you dreamt it s how you talk about it Freudian slip find not what you say but what you re actually thinking when battle between id and superego gets the best of us always occurs in normal conventiondriven conversations in the realm of habit usually sounds the sameslight shifts idegosuperego slipups are libidinal destructive indecorous T ermsConcepts Hegel s response to Locke Marx s response to Hegel Kierkegaard s response to Hegel Recognition Equality Hegel on Spirit paradox of substance we are identified with someone yet still aware of our differences Hegel on self discovery Repression Parapraxis Id Ego Super Ego Id we are born with it SuperEgo what tells us you shouldn t have cookie before dinner Ego emerges between other two the ref between those two impulses We define ourselves by the id v Superego introj ection voice of authority inside us se Hegel 0n interiors and exteriors Locke 0n interiors and exteriors Marx s structural impediments Masters of Faith Kierkgaard Masters of Suspicion MarX Nietzsche Freud Indirect communication Nietzche s 7 steps to truth Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review Forgetting subjective and objective thinker Subj can be misinterprete Obj there is one interpretationtruth Unit 5 Figures Kenneth Burke focuses on speakers speeches and those spoken to intentional strategic burke adds persuasion there is a continuum between the unconscious and conscious stuff the minivan isn t selling the car it s selling the lifestyle this is the death of the good man speaking well second time Tacitus rst trivial reinforcement is what persuades us need new word for persuasion 9 identi cation you can persuade someone only when you can identify their needs as yours when you feel identi ed with someone you feel as yourself and someone else 9 consubstantiality the realm of common ground share an understanding good identi cation always results in consubstantiality consubstantiality the feeling that you ve always been like that comes after the fact of identifying but then feels like it s always been there the feeling that there was already an underlying connection identi cation brings that to light identi cation produces the feeling of consubstantiality but hides it s product by claiming its origin the soundbites are what s changing our minds the dull daily reinforcement and trivial repetition great speeches are still important but only insofar as they can be chopped into soundbites ambiguities of substance identifying with someone cognitive dissonance the more connecting points you have with someone the stronger the identi cation and chances of agreeingconforming higher we are constantly trying to purge ourselves of the paradox of substance difference Kafka ultimate source of all messages is hidden mass com paranoia idea of unintended listener speaking into the air eavesdropping Kracauer if bored study it biggest enemy is distraction T ermsConcepts boredom eavesdropping broadcast radio dialogic technology Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review telephonic communication anxiety of the eavesdropper paranoia Harras political resistance passive resistance identi cation persuasion rhetoric s modern turn unconscious persuasion Kenneth Burke vs Classical Rhetoric Dustin s Notes My neighbor reading Story about eavesdropping anxieties of telephonic communications Skype allows face to face You folks long term relationships are lasting longer from high school through college skype is primarily responsible for this Cell phone no face misrecognize voice You can t hear your own voice just like you can t see your own face Hearing someone speech is like sharing interiors together Telephone made voices even stranger They subtract speaking from seeing Cell phone conversations end when you see each other Ending conversations is difficult How to end bring up the first topic mentioned remind them of the first thing they mentioned in the convo Telephonic voices are equivalent of a whisper Even when someone whispers to you they are too close to you to focus on their face Vision is out of the picture on the phone same as when you re in someone s intimate space Other senses come alive Not active on the telephone a whisper without a whisper Ka lta telephone is a sight of paranoia Scream movie I can see you makes conversation creepy fundamental aspect subtraction of the body voice without the body we don t have access to their bodies heaving breathing 7 we don t know what that person is doing to be out of breathe The Law reading Gate keeper story This is a parable the story has a bigger meaning Immigration is an example of what this story is about Story about bureaucracy bureaucratic culture red tape going to the bureau of motor vehicle This story is about YOU the gatekeeper is your BOSS About the difficulties of living in a bureaucratic culture Com 312 Rhetoric in the Western World Midterm Review Boredom essay by Krackhour To do lists 7 satisfaction of checking things off the list Instrumental zing our lives Krackhour thinks this is bad b c we never nd ourselves in a state of boredom Boredom is not what we think it means Is when you critically refuse of banality dullness Everything other than boredom is distraction Distracted by the banal list making and list checking off of our everyday lives that s not focus Tv going out for 2 seconds blank screen what s wrong What we re actually asking why won t you continue to distract me give me something else to watch I don t like waiting Waiting is good boredom Reading magazine at dentist Missed opportunity Boredom is a way to make our world s strange EX Note taking Boredom is what happens when we doodle in the margins When little kids take a car or ship and pretend like the table is the ocean Getting high laying around doing acid are all Ecstasy was originally created for therapedic purposes for boring couples We laugh at things that are out of the ordinaryviolation of the norm Getting kicked in the groin Person falling down the stairs Boredom is a break from the norm John Peters completely disagrees with this entire aspect of boredom He sees a strange world He thinks boredom is one of the worst things we ve invented boredom is not good a breakdown of what is already wrong strange with the world pg 257 El 19 de enero Wednesday January 19 2011 231 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O Parable of the Sower O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Comunication media we use to communicate I Email I Cell phone Socrates and Jesus demonstrate two main types of communication Parable of the Sower is like speaking out into the air I Socrates dialogue Jesus dissemination Motto of communication quotdialogue with the self dissemination with the otherquot By yourself treat yourself like Socrates would treat you but treat others like Jesus would Communication reconciling one39s self to others I quotothersquot in this book is like quotempathy with the inorganicquot it includes items that are not humans Notjust an interpersonal problem it is more than that I It is strange not exactly silly Last week models of communication I p11 39 One view dispersion of persuasive symbols to manage mass opinion propaganda I It39s about everyone thinking the same things about a group of people Forcing an entire group to comply I ie Nazi Germany nobody wants to stand up and praise the Nazis I p12 Vision of communication since Socrates Telepathy communication as the means to purge semantic dissonance I It39s the Vulcan mind meld Spock could read minds when he touched a person and share the countenance of his own mind with the person he touched Belief that communication should be designed to clarify meanings I If there were time to talk it over people could come to an agreement on things like abortion or Middle Eastern diplomacy Telepathy is the dream of communication when the stars are in alignment Vulcan mind meld His idea of love is about having a long relationship with a lack of telepathy Truthfully messages are commonly misread author finds that this makes human communication interesting I It39s not the negotiation itself but the act of the language that goes into it Communication as an insurmountable barrier solipsism the belief that we can never come to an agreement it39s about communication breakdown Not about matching minds but about mismatched minds Heideger Nazi communication is something strange that people do with each other I Play is serious for him Dewey something practical that humans do with each other constantly brings us into contact with radical otherness I Felt poetry was a good example of communication I Communication involves coordinated action It is fundamentally practical I Play is about levitas the idea of getting something done I Together they give an interesting view on communication Communication 1 Pillipropaganda 2 Telepathy 3 Solipsism 4 Heidegger 5 Dewey How fundamentally strange is coordinated action Author39s idea is that communication should be about bringing worlds together not about the differences between how we all communicate p19 Phaedrus amp Jesus39 s Parable of the Sower I Socrates is the star but not the author of Plato39s dialogue This work was to be used in The Academy Plato39s school I Aphasia a woman taught Socrates Book by Plato I Athens was an oral culture and people lived by speaking not writing Theater was huge everyone went I Democratic assembly I The courts cases were public Speeches then on the stage even in democratic assembly was then like movies are now entertaining I From Athens to Abe Lincoln morality was key The Rise of the Sophists I The courts in ancient athens were like the Jerry Springer show IThere was no order in the court I It was easy to be indicted I It was also easy to be convicted and sentenced to death I The Sophists were professional arguers ITheorists and practioners of persuasion I First PR agents I Like ghostwriters speech coaches I tnerant Lysias was a Sophist not citizens of Athens Rhetoric is the art of speaking The use of Plato39s dialogues I He hated the Sophists they39d forced Socrates to commit suicide after convicting him after all He helped with philosophy I He felt the Sophists were liars and theives I He was frustrated with Athenian oral culture I Most of his dialogues are open ended Meant to cultivate questions not answer them I Meant to have drama story I Sutain many interpretations I Western thought is quota series of footnotes to Platoquot AN Whitehead Plato39s lingering influence themes 39 Manipulation or calculation in communication is bad sincerity good 39The self is at odds with itself 39Veauty leads to truth 39 Interpersonal is best scatter bad Socrates was crusty Phaedrus homoerotic undercurrent I What is protruding from Phadrus39s toga is an important document I Socrates meant a connection between an erection and the written word I Dissemination is what writing does much like the syllabus I Root of dissemination sem seminole seminary semen word is understood for Socrates like scattered seed They decide to walk outside the walls of Athens Beyond walls of Athens there was madness and barbarian culture I Bar bar bar blah blah blah 39This is how barbarians those who lived outside of Athens spoke 39The barbarians did not speak Greek Beneath a plane tree I Scroll clutched undertoga is an example of interpersonal relations I Lysia39s speech is about the greatness of relationships without love Socrates thought that quotThe sorrows of relationships with lovequot it39s heartbreaking 39 He thought he may have ticked off Eros the god of love 39They felt cicadas where spies for the gods about what39s been happening Id Good communication 277c in dialogue 1 Speaker must know truth hisher subject 2 Speaker must know audience 3 Speech and soul must e fit or matched together artfully Writing was dangerous 275d3 1 Destroys power of knowledge 2 People can fake knowledge 3 Silent not interactive 4 Looks alive artificial intelligence 5 Books are dead people are alive but books pretend to be living Recitation Wednesday January 19 2011 432 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Types of communication 1 Propaganda make a group of people think as you do 2 Telepathy communication without words opening one39s mind and the contents of it to others with no words Vulcan concept like Spock related to propaganda by purging semantic dissonance 3 Solipsism communication is impossible and illogical 4 Heidegger communication is a strange thing people do 5 Dewey communication is a practical thing people do Motto of communication dialogue with the self dissemination with the other Without communication there would be a totalitarian regime with brainwashing Language I Poetic nature The book is like a dialogue Answers to quiz in lecture on Monday I This will be what quizzes will be like Socrates Jesus Only concerned with teaching people who Broadcasting can39t control how people hear things deserve it oneone concerned with teaching everyone parables type of mass communication Selected the people who not only He embodies both talking with the disciples one on deserved to him but who he felt would one and the public en masse understand his teachings Gets reciprocity Is it assumed Taught in both circumstances did not only speak in controlled circumstances It39s not the gift it39s the thought that counts The consideration will the gift bring the person appreciate it Will it bring the person happiness How do you give a gift to a stranger Open doors etc Until the agrarian revolution in the 2039s mass communication was less common El 24 de enero Thursday Januaw 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O Cicero and his place in the transition into the Roman Empire 0 Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Obama contradicted himself when he spoke of planning Cicero State of the Union addresses relate the state of the country through plans and achievements I Jamison idea of Ethos 39State of the Union creates an identity for the nation 39There may be contradiction which relates to credibility and character Nature idea of someone else aspect of Ethos I Ethos is the root word of Ethics 39This is what is to be done I It is an idea of looking forward by looking back I Cicero looks back to the Greeks who had eloquence How do we shape a nation Clip of HBO show Rome Cicero and his relation to the Roman Empire Cicero was assassinated in 43 BC was in middle of politics part of upper middle class family knew Greek and Latin moved up through the Senate to become a consul had a fundamental basis in Greek culture One of those fundamental basics has to do with eloquence Oratory he39s addressing his brother but not really Rather he was speaking to the people related to the division I There were fewer orators than generals I In the final section there39s a dialogue between interlocutors about the question Oratory is important for deciding what is to be done Eloquent I Charming good with words thinks before they speak gentle demeanor I Knowledgeable have TOTAL knowledge of what you are talking about There39s a list of stuff to know in order to be an orator I Law ICustoms I Habits I Know about human nature I It may particularly help to know the group you are speaking to and how to convince them groups differ I Style IVoice inflection I Posture IThere39s no rule book Id I Knowledge Style Eloquence Capacity to use language relates to direct mental emotion again different groups of people will have different mental emotion One argument was that oratory is how you get people to do things Cicero says you can39t have eloquence unless you are very knowledgeable yet have style Eloquent people need to know what to say how to say it and when to say it I It is being able to say the right thing at the right time Dignity of the orator comes from having direct mental emotion Eloquence leads to an vir bonus good man speaking well acceptable and understandable ideas of republicanism come from here I Ideas of deliberation I Platonic deliberation all about the truth I take your side I understand it but I have some problems with it ISection 9 Controversia is seen through the deliberation which leads to arriving at the truth I State of the Union President Obama wants a compromise I Rising above the fray ITranscendence Dialogues from Tacitus lived around 1 AD I Looked to Cicero to figure out how power could be found without having a military mind El 26 de enero Thursday Januan 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy It39s interesting how telepathy works with dialogue State of the Union how are the Democrats framing the speech vs how the Republicans view it I Investment example of telepathy put in money build infrastructure get results Spending Republican view spending is wasting money 39Spending I spend money I can buy something I use I Investment I put money into something create more wealth profit Idea of socialism Marxist view of economics I Dial testers Tacitus Boring Nothing we39ve read yet is as boring as Tacitus Poetry Rhetoric Secundus Mediator Maternus root mater Aper mother Sublime Does the work of the city you basically defend yourself p6 muse Civil Poets leave the city Shining sword Decline because of military Famous l Decline because of military l VquotEloquence is in decline because of a lack of poetryquot Poesis creation of different approaches Force of argument do I think something is probablenot probable Cicero is on top of that and Tacitus wants to return to that p11 quotpoet retires to solitude where peace residesquot I p13 why is there a decline of eloquence there39s no need for it What is the relation of rhetoric to a free society Maternus p11quotThe best defense is innocencequot Ties back into a broader theme of looking back in history 39ie Cicero looks back to Plato I Is the idea of nostalgia looking back fondly on a memory an appreciation of the past Required knowing your subject Being convincing Idea of the good old days Longing for a time that never was were the good old days really that good 39Cicero lost his head trying to be eloquent I Nostalgia is a powerful idea Eloquence levels the playing field Cicero was able to advance because of his eloquence he learned from Socrates I Improvement can happen based on the force of an argument alone El 31 de enero Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Greek CultureRoman republican cultureimperial culture US Republican party looks almost nothing like the Republican party was originally US was originally a republic The republic is all about speech The State of the Union address is a perfect example The republic destroyed the style of the original Roman government Cicero stands for the republic He is the key figure in the Roman republic I Romans were fundamentally different from the Greeks Greeks Cicero 39 Idealists let39s talk about abstract topics 39 Citystate Abstract Eternity heaven and Christianity deals with permanent things Always about departure Cicero talked his way from lower class to practically consulship What constitutes justice Began with people not ideas l Romans Sophists Practical had flushing toilets Scale Complex Learned from history Immortality big deal was getting into other people39s stories It allowed you to live on in a legend Fundamentally concerned with ideal ways of being All about showing people that standard and making them live up to it Real eloquence wide learning competent speaking basis for liberal arts it39s important to have a wellrounded knowledge of things Be good about presenting the little bit you know about everything Ethics Expectations standardsactions in a community depend on that community39s understanding of good and wrong it39s about the expectations of a specific community Know your audience so you can behave ethically There39s no need to combine these ideas Plato thinks there are rules a good communicator needs to know the subject l REAL ELOQUENCE DOES NOT TAKE THE RULES OF PHILOSOPHY INTO ACCOUNT It39s a combination of ethics and persuasion quotIt39s the good man speaking wellquot He means adult male citizens of Rome who could be in public Rhetoric was wholly functional it was possible to write a speech about something and start a movement Start a movement that pertains to more than just yourself The art of speaking well and acting ethically does not lend itself to a set of rules Rhetoric doesn39t lend itself to rules because of changes Nothing is more important than to appear with appropriate decorum appropriateness the audience should judge your actions What does it mean to be appropriate It is not just to flatter the conventions and expectations of your audience but rather to stretch the rules of the game without breaking them Cicero feels this is possible Decorum involves consideration of 1 the occasion 2 the subject and 3 the interest of your audience l Gettysburg speech it was entertainment the man before Lincoln spoke well for two hours while Lincoln spoke for a lot less time I He took what everyone expected of a funeral oration and ripped it up I It was a good speech Only two ways to learn about speech Practice Experience it hurts but it creates I Examples be persuasive convince them you are ethical and powerful El 7 de febrero Thursday Janualy 20 2011 335 PM Tarea T picos de hoy 0 QUIZZTHIS WEEK 0 Decorum ie Star Spangled Banner at Woodstock Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy What made the Woodstock performance decorous Star Spangled Banner Francis Scott Key was in prison actually watching the bombs bursting in air When the song speeds through your mind bc you know it so well it39s a cultural memory yet it is a song about war The purpose of Woodstock was a protest party against the Vietnam War Napalm created huge torrents of flame The song was played as a sign of disrespect it was played improperly at a protest against war 39Sometimes he goes into left field with playing it I He was trying to imitate the bombs bursting in air and the machine guns all sounds of war I He took his audience right to the torrents of war 39 Like Abe Lincoln showed up and did something that stunned people and it was later seen as incredibly appropriate Vietnam War was the first war that was mass televised Nothing was showed in WWl or WWII but this war was on TV and in color Decorous conduct is learned by experience and by trial and error Decorum does not lend itself to rules bei Being decorous means that it was effective reinforces an adamancy that you have or changes your mind it is a form of persuasion You have to ease into the opponent39s world slowly and show them how their beliefs can be changed others To be effective play conventions against each other stretch them out and condense People may go along with that bc you never leave their zone of comfort I Can indecorous acts be persuasive I How is it best to go about breaking rules I Heroism Justice I Refusal of some rules allows for the maintenance of others 39There are rules to be followed by people who want to break the rules t quarantines people and does not allow them to escape the world they want to oppose Roman Empire Cicero Tacitus Freedom of speech Cicero talked his way into what was effectively the presidency had a good lawyer and all that Crossing of the Rubicon the creek outside of Rome it indicated the point at which no military personnel would ever return to Rome the leader broke that rule Rome got so big by military might Europe was dividend into little communities Rome expanded its borders little by little made deals offered citizenship to little towns with the understanding that a certain percentage of their army would serve Rome Had repercussions everyone was a Roman citizen taxing for Rome as a state They had to build roads Proletariat workers who have trouble finding jobs Rise of demigods Sarah Palin and Oprah would have been seen as demigods 0 People love and hate them Rush Limbaugh is another widely respected public figure Government got overwhelmed with all the decisions that had to be made Cesar brought his army into Rome with the promise of order when there39s a political problem the military takes over In the US we like electing senators or lawyers South America likes artists and military personnel Africa likes the military China prefers engineers to lead Rome fell to Julius Cesar a military dictator who ended the Roman Republic 0 Had himself declared a god No longer could you speak up and make a difference communities You had to change the emperor39s mind not the I I I I j Aper PEACE It39s not that rhetoric is dead just different Republic was Maternus Used to be great lawyer and speaker Only look at the expectations of the emperor Clever his writings may have been meant to remind subjects of the Empire of how great the Messala LIBERTY Tacitus39 favorite Thinks no one has time to listen to long speeches ppl are too busy Has realized the republic has fallen He39s old school and likes Cicero Imperial rhetoric isn39t for his time Rhetoric is not designed to change the world but be entertaining and beautiful Knows the power is completely in the hands of the emperor One of the first guys known of who just opts out of a culture Rhetoric in the empire is in a state of decay Distrusts ppl like Aper we don t have as many freedoms as we used to but the emperor keeps it He left for the woods to write poems like Thoreau who hung out in Emerson39s woods Wants to set the record straight speakerwriter when it won39t convince anyone Why not write beautiful literature peaceful Doesn39t like rhetoric and what it Explains what is wrong with does to the empire rhetoric in the Roman Empire k Why waste his skills as a p28 his definition of rhetoric springs from a love of liberty THIS IS THE KEY Prob with empire is that ppl aren39t free rhetoric requires free speech and free citizenship In order to live on in legends and stories one must have access to glory and that39s not possible if the audience is only the emperor No stories No speeches No glory When cesar crossed into Rome his promise of peace allowed him to do it Hitler guaranteed economic peace Mussolini guaranteed the same thing p22 Messala mentions reasons the Empire sucked Not for lack of people who want to speak I Not for lack of people who are able to speak I But I Dissipation of young men useless activity and indulgent behavior of sensual sort sex drugs and rock n39 roll amusing themselves to nowhere heteronormative citizens I nattention of parents ignorance of those who pretend to give instruction in the Empire the teachers are bad they don39t have good educations 39Teachers are not paid enough for the work they do 39There is a total inattention to ancient discipline and practices What Tacitus knew is what is now being learned in the American empire El 9 de febrero Thursday January 70 2011 PM Tarea T picos de hoy Pulp Fiction clip St Augustine Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy It is nigh impossible to close one39s ears they help you to position yourself St Augustine writes just after Christ39s time I There was defense of Christianity I Christianity was monotheistic and that ticked off the Romans I They were seen as cannibalistic because they quotate the blood and body of Christquot in communion I By this time rhetoric had been created in defense of Christianity Cicero gave us wisdom and eloquence I St Augustine trumped him by giving truth and eloquence St Augustine knew the truth Jesus Christ I Parable of the Sower moved from dissemination Jesus to propaganda St Augustine 4 levels on which the NT could be understood Literally I Allegorical always worked through the life of Jesus always about Jesus and His biography 39Sense in which Jesus is the ox and the grain Moral 39 Not about life of Jesus but about your life IWWJD 39About what you should do 39There39s a sense of your being the ox I Anagogical I Eternity I Every person who has or ever will live is an ox Pulp Fiction El 14 de febrero Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Prueba Rhetoric became academic when the Roman Empire brought peace I Just because rhetoric migrated into the schools it didn39t mean people didn39t want to speak rhetoric I Only philosophers ought to practice rhetoric I This time marks the death of the good person speaking well The end of democracy Only for books and not the courtroom Tacitus was nostalgic about how rhetoric was done by Sophists in the Roman republicamp St Augustine marks the beginning of the Middle Ages I He did something different Up until his time rhetoric was all about speakers and training people to be excellent speakers I St Augustine is concerned with audiences he was more about how to hear rhetoric in the Western World I Hermeneutics theory of interpretation how to understand great speeches by Jesus ISt Augustine got it rolling I It39s all about interpretation IHermeneutics refers to Hermes the messengerinterpretertranslator between the gods and humans I It39s about how to hear the word of God ISt Augustine transforms Christian rhetoric from dissemination to propaganda ie the rise of the Catholic church and their control with telling people how to understand the Bible I quotYou can read the Bible any which way you want but that ain39t the truthquot St Augustine Hermeneutic interpretation 1 Least importance 2 More importance 3 A lot of importance 4 Most importance St Augustine is shifting from grand eloquence to clarity teaching and instruction Eloquence still exists but only so far as it can help people understand Scripture I It39s all orientated towards hearing I It should be clear translucent instructive plain because it helps people understand texts like the Bible I His eloquence is for the already converted I Rhetoric is more about taking people who are already converted and helping them understand the New Testament Medieval people saw all parts of their world as being wildly symbolic quotGreat achievement isn39t wonder but boredomquot How did we get bored with the world It39s a modern invention Christine de Pizan is at the beginning of renaissance I She39s seeing things in history that either haven39t been seen before or that have been ignored I History is famous for excluding the activities of women they39ve been systematically ignored by men in various ways I Pizan is gathering lost female voices heroines that have been forgotten she39s building a book to contain all the stories about women I Based on quotCity of Godquot by St Augustine IAt the time many were convinced that no woman could be that good of a writer that fluent etc She continued to publish her work 39She was the first woman in France to make a living by her pen IShe is France39s first woman of letters certainly one of Europe39s as well This was also how people thought about time I Had it broken loose from continuous forms of history History at that time had not been fixed into a period I Monks fixed the year of Christ39s birth as year one to form something concrete I History wasn39t about fact but about the past IThe medievals would say reading Plato is like having a conversation I What did Plato teach you I Historia magistrae vitae They looked to the past in order to navigate the future Christine marks the beginning of the renaissance I Her father was a court mathematician and an astronomer I At this time there was a very keen interest in antiquity Cicero would provide clues on how to live life in the present l Book of city of ladies 1405 l Machiavelli 149039s Machiavelli is a key part of how we understand politics in the present For much of the medieval time Italy was divided into citystates that were competing with each other I There are towers etc Much like Athens Shifted from funal patterns of government to ag crops livestock etc I Medicis were one of the wealthiest families in the area IThey paid highflown artists to come paint for them IThey travelled all the time 39Their source of pride was their financial investment in art I Patronage treating someone like a servant I Pizan Michelangelo etc Were paid for their art IWhat Machiavellie wanted people to buy was his expertise in politics 1494 Florentine ousted the Medicis I Tried to reinstate the Roman Republic Machiavelli was at the head I Medicis ruled with an oligarchy rarely did they have to run for public office they paid for campaigns and thus had their desires filled Private interest is now guiding public matters in the US government Medicis overturned the republic 15 years later Machiavelli was caught and tortured and then thrown into exile Wrote the prince from exile about please bringing him back as an advisor I Machiavelli promises to show him how to gain and maintain power as well as how to keep the enemy weaker than him forever He was a mercenary addressing the text to people in power something kind of new I 1st modern technocrat first modern chief advisor El 16 de febrero Thursday Januaw 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Christine de Pizan and quotquot 39 39 quot39 are 1 Iwith W and 2 both disrupting the quotMirror for Princesquot If women are not written into history women of today will not have anything to base their character or actions of off and will not have anything on which to base their own character actions or appearances They will not think it39s appropriate for them to appear in public as leaders nor will they know how to act when they do so Conquerors destroy people39s histories and their ability to see themselves on a path Germany on the other hand refuses to allow it39s citizens to remove the memory of Nazism I It will be repeated if it39s forgotten We learn by studying examples Machiavelli I Concerned with appearances 1 of 2 messages in The Prince 39Appearance matters most you appear strong or appear weak though it may not be true 39Appear religious whether you are or not it is essential to obtaining power 39Appear in a way that jives the people Book of the City of Ladies and The Prince offer advice to people in positions of power Though the Book of the City of Ladies was for all women it was especially geared towards queens princesses duchesses etc I It was designed to hold a mirror to the people in power and show them what they want to avoid Seneca the Younger first person to persecute Christians lit Nero39s parties with Christians murdered some people in his family and go in the street dressed as a commoner and stab fools he was brutal and ruthless You didn39t dare speak up in the Roman Empire unless the emperor agreed with it I Seneca wrote De Clemencia on mercy to Nero about being nice and having mercy Izabu of Bavaria had a husband who took to stabbing people King killed 4 of his guards who were riding with him in the forest I Charles V was insane I She took control of France when that happened I Book of a City of Ladies was also written for ladies I People thought the author39s name was a pseudonym I KNOW THIS BOOK IT39S IMPORTANT I Everything about this book is worth knowing I Parables how are they arranged where do they come from are the from the Bible or not I Note literally and figuratively how she constructs this text Mirrors for Princes was written in such a way that it advised women as well Machiavelli didn39t acutally care what the rulers did just that they appeared better I ie you can go kill people just don39t get caught You can drink cat39s blood just don39t let the Christians see you n The ends always justify the means I Whatever it took to secure and maintain your power as a prince it is justified I He was a tricksy guy dishonest liar John Locke 1632 1704 I Representational Theory of Meaning words are quotmarks for ideasquot in a speakers mind telepathy I What we quotknowquot is not a thing in the world but the quotideaquot we have of it in our mind I Ideas based on sensory experience and reflection I Communication is the report of the speaker39s inner state the disclosing of a private world the content of a private world I Fantasy of telepathy and Socratic dialogue is to constantly share our thoughts and interiors with another person Noun dog pronounced dog They sense things faster and better and more intuitively than any other human can I Communication happens when the vocalization of dog conforms to a sign that you have learned to associate with a similar idea in your head Rhetoric is what happens when a person consciously assigns the vocalization to some other idea I quotWhat up dawgquot I No tropes or figures allowed John Locke has no room for misrepresentation that39s the area of rhetoric Problems with Locke 1 Disparities between my experiences and yours my reflections and yours my ideas and yours Solipsism 2 Meanings depend not on quotnaturalquot 39 but on 39 Changing Relations of Words to Ideas 3 Add up the first two problems Infinite a This makes communication difficult Lemuel Gulliver of Gulliver39s Travels of r 39 Ideas and quot39 Recitation Wednesday February 16 2011 Tarea T picos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy FIGURE OUT THE PRESUPPOSITIONSII Pruebas If communication for Locke is x what does that mean for rhetoric It means it39s distortion it39s bad Though we just took a quiz over it it will be on the midterm Context is one of Hagle39s arguments you can39t understand context unless you understand their point of view Men have not respected women in a historical context Appearance I What did Plato think about appearance I He was suspicious of it I It39s not the truth it39s not the table it39s a picture of a table Chistine de Pizan talked about learning from history I Machiavelli has a more instrumental logic to his use of rhetoric I Machiavelli wants to maintain power the most I He liked manipulation I He also agreed with using whatever means to get to the end Tropos turn another example loss of control It39s important to care for the seed in a particular way to germinate it in such a manner that the person will agree with the speaker George Vilhelm Fredrick Hegel lived around Beethoven39s time Carl Marx John Locke Kierkegaard crazy person Self vs Other ISelf mediated by a signs words communication ISelf is mediated by a subject while other is mediated by an object I we at the heart of what Hegel39s trying to argue I First full paragraph on p 115 I Knowledge of self mediates publicly I One of the culminations of this argument I p 113 I Geist it is embedded in the material I Precisely the issue at hand A PLACE TO LOOK P 112113 What does it mean to talk about people collectively Are all the individuals the same 39 J I Project of reconciling self and other ISolipsism ITelepathy I Propaganda I Heideger and Dewey What is Locke39s idea of communication What is Locke39s model of communication I He wishes it were like science or math but it can39t be I We wishes there were a perfect fidelity between ideas in my mind and yours First full paragraph p 112 I we is a product of Hegelian logic according to TA Marx critiques Hegelian logic Marx feels quot Religion is the opium of the massesquot Marx feels the need for a material base sell your time to people who own factories Felt Money comes between people El 21 de febrero Thursday Januaw 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy 0 180039s 0 Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Pleasures should be doled out little by little but punishment should be given promptly and all at once Some of the questions on the quizzes will show up again SECURING AND MAINTAINING POWER PUNISHMENT ALL AT ONCE 6 180039s Heigal Kierkegorg Freud Nitza Karl Marx Haegal was a German philosopher with Karl Marx and Kierkegorg 2 philosophical sons who hated and loved them John Locke opens the door to some radical new ways of thinking about communication I Heigal was the first to walk through the door I Rhetoric is anything that gets in the way of a clear communication of meaning like telepathy Hegal Cap 3 p 109 I p112 39Communication is not psychological but a political and historical problem 39 It39s about sharing the contents of your head I Hegal is all about the outside and what we do together I Recognition conditions under which mutual Happens when I am for you what you are for me We have recognized each other Parent and child cannot have this type of relationship Masters and slaves cannot have this either because the master never is for the slave what the slave is for the master Radical equality I The book is about the evolution of selfconsciousness The Phenomenology of Spirit Hegel believes you can get stalled out Skeptics come after stoics and people who find holes in skepticism go to Christianity It is possible to work it out so that the slaves and masters may switch when masters realize they don39t need the slaves and slaves realize they don39t need the master I There39s only one difference masters are willing to die in order to stay in charge and slaves are not They may fight to the death for the enslavement of one of the masters I It39s lonely you39re always someone39s slave or someone39s master I Recognition can come of this process Recognition happens on the outside between people who may not see themselves as equals I p 113 quotHagel attacksquot I This is a key theme especially when we get to Freud I We don39t know who we are without other people we learn it from other people Hagel says the conversation begins when two people disagree Hagel believes that disagreement only inclines us to press onward to agreement with others I Human nature only really exists in an achieved community p114 recognition 3 lines down I Hagel in contrast to Locke suggests that the self39s outside is just as hidden from itself as my inside is hidden from others quotI don39t know myself until you tell me what I look likequot I I rely on other people to tell me what it is I39m saying I Hands and faces are always on display faces more than hands I Hands tell a story about who we are but people pay attention to the face 39We rarely cover our faces 39 Our faces can be seen by everyone else but we cannot see our own faces 39Communicates 34 times as much as any word we choose 39are our basic and most sophisticated communication devices 39 Mirrors don39t give a picture of what I look like to other people 39They are not accurate reflections often are bent in strange ways Empathy is rooted in the face I Our face is always on display for others and never on display for us quotthe self39s outside is just as hidden from itself as my inside is hidden from othersquot I may not know precisely what someone else is thinking but I cannot be sure of how I look to others Like is a body quotative you ask the audience to pay attention to your body and actions I Women use this more than men There39s a gender politic there MENTION TO SARAH Skype does a good job except for clipping delays but phones email etc Do not allow for communication My private self is obscure to you but my public self is obscure to me We depend on other people in order to understand ourselves What happens on the outside affects who we are on the inside parents and old people know this you are who you hang out with Locke p118 QUIZ ON THIS STUFF bottom of the page 78 lines up I d Hagel had Carl Marx who felt that if recognition was to occur the playing field needs to be equalized I He wanted to change the material organization of the world I Want us all to be happy let39s change laws abt private property and redistribute it I Change the laws make it cost ineffective to pollute I ie Boulder CO there is a cost for every bag of trash put out but recycling is free 39 p125 Marxist thinking is a robust answer prevalent Locke39s riffing on Kierkegorg last part of chapter 3 I he also does something to John Locke John Locke thinks that once an idea in your head you could spit it out and the audience could decode it Kierkegorg wants to shift this theory to allow for miscommunication two reflections I What is the best word for our idea I How might the audience hear that word I Think before you speak The other is thinking like me But the other isn39t thinking like me Yes they39re thinking but their thoughts aren39t the same IMPORTANT El 23 de febrero Thursday Januaw 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas im portantes cubiertos hoy l Master of Faith Master of Suspicion Krd Marx Nietzsche Freud l Sacred care Lie profane l Puzzle KRD thought two reflections were needed before speecht What word will I choose I How is my audience likely to misunderstand that word I There39s an audience out there but they may not be thinking like me What John Locke sees as a possibility for miscommunication KRD sees as a constant occurrence of miscommunication encouraging use of proverbs KRD was a hard core Protestant Christian I The best way to get in touch with God was by yourself I Felt that quotthe meaning of scripture is incommunicable But so is love Faith is quiet and inward much like love Anyone who can define faith is not being an example of it I First dates allow for easy compartmentalization I Once you39ve fallen in love with someone it39s not that easy Communication must always be indirect often through poetry He39s a master of faith because he treats the objects of communication as sacred and mysterious needing to be interpreted with care It39s a puzzle Masters of suspicion act violently with bad cynicism I You are actually interested in being mistreated Nietsche saw truth being selfevident as containing a lie 7 steps to truth 1 Nerve stimulus 2 Image aka first metaphor a carrying over of meaning Richard the Lionheart 3 Word 2nd metaphor man woman etc All are pa rt of different concepts 4 Shema concepts 5 Convention treating people in different places differently Decorum expectations ethic s ie racism one man gets to serve one man gets to rule Ageism Sexism men vs women 6 Commandment thou shalt notfill in the blank TRUTH Forgetfulness is what allows truth to be self evident Marx thinks economic ideas are behind the truth Freud I What39s he about How does he work I Parapraxis Freudian slip I How dreams are reported is how they are analyzed not what is in them Freudian slips 39Go behind what someone has said to their actual interests I It39s a part of us that betrays our best intentions I Mind 39 3 parts I d what child has when it39s born it wants things and cries when it doesn39t get them unconscious I Super ego introjection voice of authority thrown inside us conscience I Ego sense of self emerges as a referee between id and superego what kind of person am I going to be I Despite our best efforts to control our speech this structure rises up within us Slip ups are libidinal notjust sexual impulses but indecorous impulses interruptivedisruptive of social order and ethics Often violate ethics Freudian slips are slight changes in speech that often mean opposite things I Say that three times fast is a game with Freudian slips They usually happen when expectations aren39t met l freud Every day mundane utterances unconscious Nietsche Not with everyday but big truths we see as self evident believes in forgetfulness sociohistoric lies behind them l Marx Feels there is profanity behind it ideology In the 7 steps between steps 5 and 6 ideas enter into writing all else is the realm of forgetfulness Recitation Wednesday February 23 2011 431 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Commandment NO Leconte if we don39t learn to socialize we lose the relation between superego and ego Ego acts as a referee between id and superego I d needs desires fundamental drive often unconscious Superego as we mature keeps id and ego in check consciousness and form of socialization that prevents always giving into desire I Ego latin for self based on desire and what society wants you to be mediator Hermeneutic of suspicion Marx Concerned about equality and the fact that it doesn39t exist He always searches for the economic truths Suspicious of stuff you receive Nietzschev Forgetfulness Why do things become selfevident truths Why do we forget how truths become self evident We forget steps 16 Suspicious of stuff you receive Moving from the individual to the social Freud v Suspicious Your telling of your dreams will reveal to someone else Repress the problems Freud says quotit39s by looking at the little things that we solve the big problemquot Locke decides to stop when people get confused about what he39s saying like telepathy master of telepathy Hegel you only know what the other person means through mediation master of recognition Locke is to telepathy as Hegel is to recognition Our thoughts can never be perfectly matched Stereotype ie students are studious I They should have a lot of reading I It decides how we react Convention may also be doing certain things with stereotypes ie don39t take candy from strangerst I Stereotypes are just a way to organize things in the world Freudian slips I Happen in normal situations Are libidinal destroy the order of things I Building state was Cicero39s argument it produces eloquence and through eloquence various reactions occur Pscychoanalysis is interested in the world of dregs the unimportant stuff the mundane Tip of the tongue syndrome it39s in the unconscious but can39t be symbolized KGD39s input on communication was that love and faith should be private and if it can be communicated it39s not true at the end of the day It39s indirect and that39s why it goes along with poetry El 28 de febrero Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea T picos de hoy O Burke about Freud O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Prueba Freudian slips occur in the realm of normalcy Our faces are the one part of our bodies that are always on display to everyone else but we can39t Loving someone or being faithful cannot be defined they resist easy articulation for Kierkkgord Kenneth Burke marks serious turning point in history of rhetoric I His book doesn39t look important but it39s a very important book Speakers speeches people who are spoken to classic model of communication I It39s logic is intentional Even KGD is talking about intentional strategic forms of speaking I Even in Augustine and Jesus where there is a shift towards audience interpretation I Freud upset this system talking about how things can creeps into our minds Burke adds persuasion to the hit list I It39s how the good man speaking well works highly strategic actor Like Freud Burke thinks there39s a darker and scarier side to public address p 37 6 lines up from bottom Moralistic sensor superego it39s the id pulling one over on the superego You can39t control your dreams Burke learned it from Freud p35 at the bottom 7 lines up Classical rhetoric ie PlatoCicero up to Augustine emphasizes intention and strategy explicit design I dreams In our dreams we having varying degrees of 39 quot39 and 39 stuff more in line with Freud as he discusses unaware methods of persuasion I This is the death of the good man speaking well Radio and TV killed him Tacitus was the first person to say that Burke is the 20th century version of Tacitus Bottom of p25 to the top of page 26 PAY ATTENTION TO THIS MOST It39s not exceptional rhetorical skill that persuades us It39s repetition and dull trivial reinforcement I Burke doesn39t like the word persuasion because persuasion is the realm of the good person speaking well the old school I He likes the word identification You can only persuade somebody so far as you can persuade somebody the other person is just like them make the commercial actors look just like the audience Identification is at work all the time p20 what would it mean to identify with someone what does it mean to feel that identification A does not feel like B yet is identified with B Top of p 21 this identification is ambiguous Hegel says quotYou need the otherquot I The other comes first and in a sense we have to be identified with them I That39s an ambiguity of substance it39s constantly trying to work itselfout I If this persists you will never convince anyone of anything Consubstantiality result of the previous bullet I Feeling that you39ve always been identified with this person I Feeling that there was something already connecting you and the realization of familiarity identification primary to rhetoric in the contemporary era Persuasion works by producing a feeling of consubstanciality In the classroom we are united with a bunch of strangers fellow students El 2 de marzo Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea T picos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy There will be a study guide What is likely to be the main topic of the exam Crossing of the Rubicon Julius Cesar end of the Roman Senate 1st time a Roman army had crossed the Rubicon into a foreign nation Cesar came to cease power crossing the Rubicon was crossing a point of no return It was never the same after the Rubicon was crossed also Hegel I Freud his construction of the ego is a temporal model you39re born with id and as you grow up you gain a superego nteriority comes after exteriorization still confused about this We don39t know that what we39re saying is a joke until people start to laugh I We don39t know precisely what we39re saying until we hear others talk about it I Meaning of our speech is negotiated on the outside in response to our audiences Babies don39t know they39re happy until after they start imitating the people they look at Humans are hardwired to pick up people39s facial cues Various worlds are all hatched together Maybe dogs don39t become more like their humans but the humans become more like the dogs they own Hegel Masala Why does he say rhetoric and the empire are screwed up I Dissipation of young men and women engaging in sensual enterprises useless to the moneymaking world I nattention of parents because they don39t have time I Ignorance of those who pretend to give instruction teachers in the Empire are idiots I Marx would say the teachers aren39t paid enough claim is that teachers have cushy jobs with the benefits packages yet they make not enough money US no longer attracts the best professors because other countries pay better Kenneth Burke I Identification and consubstantiality IGood identification has the effect of consubstantiality but the audience doesn39t realize this the audience is convinced that it was always there and that they are calling it out into daylight I It hides its production by claiming it as an origin IConsubstantiality is the feeling that you are on common ground with somebody I This likeness is so powerful because it existed before you met and before it became apparent It39s mundane but disrupts persuasion I Good identification overcomes the paradox of being asked to be yourself AND someone else WE WILL BE HAMMERED ON KENNETH BOOK ON OUR EXAM I This relies on hiding things like our dreams hide certain truths about ourselves from us I Repetition of a sound or speech is what changes people39s minds it is no longer one speech quotHis rhetoric doesn39t match his recordquot George W Bush Convincingness needs to be short a quip and memorable It is repetition hit people with the same phraseimage and associate it with the companyidea Dull daily reinforcement I Trivial repetition Great speeches that lend themselves to sound bytes persuade people I Speeches are designed today to be chopped up and distributed I 24 hr News is critical to the media today it goes on and on and on and they repeat the same stories I Old school Cicero is still important but only so much as it can be divided into sound bytes Ambiguities of substance p2021 I Weird logic bit I When I am identifying with someone similar to me we are psychologically becoming 1 Your ways are very much like mine IAka Cognitive dissonance suggests that when you identify with somethingsomeone the stronger the relationship gets and the more the person will go along with it39s like peer pressure ICognitive dissonance pushes us to agree with the other person I Heroes we39re often willing to forget about certain transgressions of theirs in abusive relationships this is why the abused individual may want to stay in it they drag on because we couldn39t stand cognitive dissonance we have a fear of that We39re constantly trying to purge ourselves of difference Benjamin Franklin understood cognitive dissonance ask for something reasonable from the person ie borrow a book by convincing them to do something nice for you it may be possible to convince them they like you Recitation Wednesday March 02 2011 236 PM Tarea T picos de hoy 0 Radio Peters 0 Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy When do we form a sense of self And when you form the idea of a difference between you and we When is that difference recognized 50 multiple choice on midterm Will it be specific It will be like the quizzes We may see the same question I We cannot get our quizzes back I He will meet with us though They do not drop the lowest quiz we do have Extra Credit opportunities What is the best way to study for this exam I Get a sense of the core arguments I Have a general sense of Freud try to get at the unconscious I Nietzsche all about forgetting the truth and how we create it I Marx how he and Freud operate to get at the heart of the matter vs Kierkegaard I Have a sense of a development of our ideas Jesus and Socrates parable of the sower and making people agree with you I Dissemination Jesus anyone may hear and believe vs Dialogue Socrates truth IWork out the model of communication dialogue with the self and dissemination with the other working through this is a sense of the Peters book Classical rhetoric decorum order vs Liberty rhetoric to flourish requires democracy Tacitus breaks down the argument Jesus let your message fall on anyone39s ears and whosoever hears may believe St Augustine use propaganda to spread the truth to spread the Word of God he has the idea you had to have knoewledge eloquence Jimmy Hendricks stretched the bounds of what was normal by understanding the audience eloquence decorum occasion and subject I Show the violence of war through a song about war Hegel I His 2 students were Marx and Kierkegaard Carl Marx Kierkegaard All about material equality We come to recognize the self and the other ie recognition of self and other slave vs master Suspicion Theologian who was all about faith Always looking for the truth behind the Double reflection words are mysterious and mirage the lies of propaganda sacred you have to think about them have the best word in mind and know how the audience will respond The other is thinking like me Yet the other is not thinking like me Argument is against Locke All about correspondence Hegel responded to Locke but Kierkegaard did not respond because he was all about God Locke says rhetoric is bad and Kierkegaard responds with quotThat39s the pointquot People use poetry often to describe things that are indescribably Locke does not like the poetry but Kierkegaard does miscommunication makes communication which is Peters39 argument on p1 where he says the dream of communication is telepathy I Freud Burke Tacitus Todorav Machiavelli stay in power at all costs it39s all about appearance and branding Niechtze Tacitus is all about classical rhetoric vs Imperial rhetoric I Classical rhetoric is different than imperial rhetoric because classical rhetoric is for a mass audience and imperial rhetoric involves the idea that whatever the ruler believes is right I At the time of Cesar it shifted from getting people to agree with you to building a civilization I Democracy vs Empire I Democracy rhetoric flourishes while it gets your head chopped off in the empire I Change vs Hierarchy 39Change vs Staying the same All this is Massala vs Aper Todorov is Bulgarian still alive I Gives a great review of Tacitus Rhetoric goes from the instrumental imperial ornamental beauty for beauty39s problem solving means to an end all sake Cicero Cesar crossed the Rubicon all about the city and building civilization has to do with eloquence loses it39s Maternus rhetorician who leaves the city instrumentality and becomes ornamental for the woods to go write poetry Todorov39s argument he explicates Tacitus flourishes in a democracy rhetoric isn39t dead itjust keeps changing according to the environment in which it39s practiced There are issues that happened back then that crop up now p109 relationship between radio and telephone erros erros of Eros a longing for desire for contact wanting something you don39t have p210 Public vs Private Last paragraph on 217 which summarizes how communication compromises for lost presences like an asthetic device 223224 s radio a form of mass deception or building solidarity 221 radio created shock absorption we are hit with so much repetitionimages of violence that we will even accept violence Adorno was doing radio research We don39t all think the same but we do all get the same punishment El 7 de marzo Thursday January 20 2011 Tarea T picos de hoy Look up languages with inhaled sounds Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy El cuento fue sobre quoteavesdroppingquot sobre las problemas que telecomunicacion Why do telephones make us worry about eavesdropping Telephones used to make people feel strange I Over the phone you can39t see who you are talking to yet it is an extension because you can talk to someone who is not next to you Eyes are removed I Skype allows for the face to appear it39s a crucial aspect of Skype I It has allowed relationships to persist after high school ISkype may be one of the devices responsible for this IThe phone allows for misrecognition of your own voice you can39t hear your own voice the voice may be the one thing that presents the identity 39They are different from things you see like your face I Vocal vibration is a material expression of the voice Voice is completely material It39s forced through a pipe organ into the mouth and manipulated with the glottis tongue etc I Words come from the depths of the body The words themselves enter the bodies of the listeners and be processed and made sense of IWhat you hear is someone39s words like sharing interiors with them IWhat you see is not for example someone39s hand It is a visual representation of that person39s hand The phone makes ending conversations difficult I One way is to bring up the first topic that was mentioned To get off the phone bring up that first topic I The voice you hear on the phone is the equivalent of a whisper in real life I When someone is close enough to be heard whispering they may be so close you can39t really see them ie right next to you ISomeone close enough to whisper is close enough to reach out and touch IClose enough to smell I Other senses are activated as the eyes are shut down 39There is a whisper without a whisperer on the phone no one to see no one to touch I quotWhere are you Come here I want youquot a request for Watson to come closer to Edison I Some of our behaviors are different because it involves a voice without a body Kafka wants to define voices as a sign of paranoia I Someone listening in is that person gaining access to another39s personal affairs without having access to theirs Horror movies mess with lack of telephonic interaction I Or if someone has access to your body but you don39t have access to theirs IYou can39t see them to see what39s making them breathe that hard IYou hear the body doing one thing breathe IAll voices are exhalations aside from a few foreign languages where words are produced by inhaling I In the old days there was worry of eavesdroppers When you make a three way call today the phone rings a special way I The government cannot currently tap Skype for example Before the law It39s an important story notjust mentioned in book I IT WILL BE THE BACKBONE OF THE READING ON BUREAUCRATIC STYLE I It will be important for the exam What the story is about is totally different I It is a parable like the Parable of the Sower IThis guy wrote parables designed to be like riddles about modern existence I It is a story about bureaucratic culture and red tape I It39s a story about the BMV and immigration I It draws attention to the bureaucratic style IThe gatekeeper is your boss when you get a boss I It is a story about the difficulties of living in a bureaucratic culture 39The man who wants to get in tries everything except for one thing ITHIS WILL COME UP AGAIN IN A MONTH OR 0 This essay is about boredom and is written by Krackhour I He doesn39t approach boredom as we would think of it He feels it is what happens when we stray from our todo list I When we constantly have stuff to do it does not allow time for boredom and Krackhour does not like this It39s not something ordinary not what we think it means I Not a tedious circumstance I It39s a critical refusal of banality I Everything other than boredom is distraction I Distraction by the banal things of our lives homework studying etc He does not define it as focus I It39s a refusal of being distracted Waiting is good boredom I It39s an opportunity to make our worlds strange ICritical refusal of the normal way of thinking about things LSD was originally designed to pull us out of ordinary circumstances it was originally created for college students I Ecstasy was designed to help couples having trouble with intimacy to help opening up to one another We laugh at things that make us feel weird boredom is a break with normality John Peters completely disagrees with Krackhour I To him all of nature is alive Boredom is one of the worst things we39ve invented I p257 I quotThe question should be then not how we break through the strangeness of habit but how we managed to convince ourselves that quot I Boredom is the disaster of humanity They fundamentally agree that some sort of strangeness needs to be a part of our daily lives April let Tuesday April 26 2011 805 PM Kathleen likes the days of Cicero today is bad Without great speeches we lose sight of being American and what to live for Book is abt the late 1800s1960s along wvaluable insights on how speeches work in contemporary times ie sound bites radioTV for speechmaking Kathleen Jamison thinks we forgot about the art of public speaking and in turn we are being deceived Writing displaced speaking for a LONG time orality Climax the Newspaper climax of writing point where orality was almost in pieces especially in the USA Telephone put orality back into the picture Radio changed it all because you don39t need to read speechor news you just tuned in I TV reversed the trend along with the telephoneradio Kink in the system when speeches reach audiences across the world people want to make sure the facts are true I Politicians now rely on speechwriters I RadioTV bring speechwriters Sophist like back in full force Is Obama really that eloquent No his speechwriters are Basic divorce between speech and thinkers The thinkers write the speeches that the speakers read aloud RadioTV displaces written word wspoken I Written word is always hidden teleprompter El 23 de marzo Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Today writing is on the decline and morality is on the rise a reverse of what it used to be Politicians today do not speak their own ideas but rather a memorized script I Cops the TV show took off because it39s not scripted I Reality TV also Other TV shows are all scripted Speech is divorced from thought 39Cicero the tongue was always connected to the brain I Real eloquence equals a good person speaking well wide learning and confident speaking I Wisdom and eloquence and thought and speech made the good speaker Jamison has complaints about eloquence in the electronic age speech is divorced from thought p13 5 paragraphs up from the bottom I She gives thorough descriptions of what bothers her Libya US and other countries are involved The terms of the agreement are not negotiable for Libya in that agreement with the US and other nations I The main thing that was heard was quotThese terms are non negotiablequot Hyperbole politicians make exaggerations because they don39t have time to go through it in detail they never actually have to support anything Exaggerate because the opponent39s going to do it so why shouldn39t you I p14 2nd to last full paragraph Folks rely on associative grammar like in TV ads showing the minivan that39s being marketed with an ideal family ie Sadam Hussein is an animal I Jamison feels that associative grammar is making us stupid I Propaganda works on an associative grammar also wants everyone to have the exact same understanding and feelings about what39s going on here People around the world do not think highly of America I They think we have no idea what our country is doing around the world US ignores conflicts that don39t directly impact the behavior of its citizens 39 Prof feels the American people are systematically disempowered I Has to do with ownership of media I It39s no excuse we have access to channels that do talk about this sort of thing 39What is on TV and on the radio is about sales it39s about what people will want to hear about I A major concern is that our analytic acuity is being dulled I It is not just that we are lazy only looking at our town news but that we are also being deprived of the news our local channels don39t tell us about 39p18 an alternative 2nd full paragraph Enthymeme and examples are what can be used to convince people I Syllogism form ofargument 1 Major premise ie all humans are mortal 2 Minor premise Hillary Clinton is a human 3 Conclusion necessarily follows from the first two premises Hillary Clinton is mortal I Enthymemes leave out a premise and get the audience involved Recitation Wednesday March 23 2011 428 PM Tarea T picos de hoy Midterm Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Wide learning I Wide learning is no longer important Getting back to wide learning Starting next week we39ll be doing something more with our groups I Find a key passage I Have a question about that passage From lecture quotSaddam Hussein is an animalquot 39 He is a savage 39This equalizes and defines Saddam with inhumanity Relationship of speech to the speech writer to how the speaker presents it Quiz 1 Why did Plato write dialogues championing Socrates He didn39t write anything down himself Plato was angry at the Athenians for killing Socrates d D AphasiaSocratesPlatoAristotleAlexander the Great D all of the above are dangers according to Socrates A B burden of interpretation of the audience Decorum NP P PP E J 0 Mesalla is to Aper as liberty is to peace 1 The other not the self should be the center of dialogue U39IUJH 0 El 28 de marzo Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy A main speaker was heedless of his opponent failed to adapt basic slippage of decorum in a trial setting on Bryant39s part Something changes when oratory hit the airways Cicero39s fiery orations were no longer useful I Radio and TV are cool media meaning that fiery personalities don39t work well more of a conversational attitude is needed I Fireside chats rather than fiery speeches 39 Persuading someone was no longer about confronting them but about having a casual conversation I Not conflict but conversation thrived in radio and TV They way you speak and the words you use I Persuasion identification classical method where persuasion conflict 39Sophists showed up because of legal conflict it39s about the courtroom 39When the opponent became the emperor smooth quiet conversation was better resembled more of a royal court than a courtroom more like a courtier Identification 39Works by a logic of conversation 39When radio and TV showed up persuasion had to be more casual they weren39t out in the public the speakers came right into your living room 39Fireside Chats worked because of his communication ability I He was loved because Americans got to know them in their own homes by hearing him over the radio These helped people feel like they knew him and like he knew them Old eloquence New eloquence About fire Conventionally masculine Cogent Self disclosure you want to know who these people are Compelling Conversation radio not so much but especially TV it brought in visualizations like the radio announcer on Seabiscuit at the track Verbal Visual HOT Like a fire like the orator inflamed Cool someone so committed to their cause you can39t help but pay attention Entertaining Casual Beebop Cool jazz About electricity Conventionally feminine Presidents 1 Lincoln 2 FDR got into people39s homes on fireside chats 3 Kennedy looked good on TV first presidential debates Kennedy vs Nixon Radio listeners said Nixon won TV viewers said Kennedy won he presented himself well on TV New way of speaking had emerged more based on identification The effeminate style flourishes in an electronic age What were things like regarding political action before the electronic age Men were associated with speech and public life Women were associated with reproduction which was private and associated with the household Eloquence in an electronic age disrupted this situation Women who took Christine de Pizan39s advice tended to be told they were compromising their reproductive ability Women who entered the public sphere jeapordized the home and the reproductive sphere I Women kids and slaves were in the home all were about reproduction I They39ve been charactarized as 39Whore sells herself threat to traditional nuclear families they also aren39t in the business of getting pregnant I We39re talking about porn later I Their reproductive capacity should be eliminated somehow I Hysterics public discourse of women was considered hysterical and irrational I Did not line up with masculine standards I Hister was an old word for womb it was thought the womb had lodged itself in the throat ofany woman who would speak in public it had wandered into an improper place how the vagina would sound if it could speak 39All that women in public had been indicted for was suddenly highly prized Examples I Christine de Pizan was hot on the rhetoric of exemplerity I It made a comeback in the time of TV they are fast efficient and tell about people It was an effinate kind of speech 39 Examples were at the bottom of hierarchy before but not when examples came into style again as women entered the public Heresiarch thought to be a challenge to the religious order of thing I In the old days the church was everything Witches understanding women in public They cannot be dealt with by rationality I Women were seen as susceptible to the devil I A witch is traditionally a feminine position I It was seen as a reason for women to stay in the home so men could protect them Women39s positions in the home were not improved though they had gained more rights I We always want personal information I On American Idol they want the public to vote and decide so that they can do data gathering and determine which contestant is most likely to sell the most CDs I The cuts on American Idol and So You Think You Can Dance all rely on voters 39We like to buy personalities TV allowed viewers to notice new details than before more than they had seen of their politicians I They felt close on the screen in your living room El 30 de marzo Thursday Januaw 20 2011 335 PM Tarea T picos de hoy O 6 questions on quizi O Eloquence in an Electronic age Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Questions on the quiz about whether questions should be thrown out Democracy takes forever to hear everyone39s opinion i Femininity Masculine l Women were often relegated to the private sphere l excessive l Conflicts were more personal Discourse is considered factual Good arguments are factual analytic Analytic l Hysterical Organized in a specific way i disorganized Data driven l Not factual Direct l Ornamental Impersonal If women left the private sphere the world would fall Classist apart i It would compromise the family They would make the state look weak by being in public Racist not everybody has the abilities This model comes out of old public culture l TV reverses this privilege l Nonlinear argumentation VExpressing feelings is an asset through televised speech or one on radio Self disclosure was a good thing and it was OK to make an emotional appeal There39s a catch a double bind only people who have proven their mastery of the masculine style can risk trying out this style I ie Ronald Reagan westerns actor before he got into politics he39d already proven mastery of the masculine style of communication I He worked TV better than Kennedy I Hillary Clinton got caught in the masculine style whether she would be tough enough she chose not to be shown with her family tore herself from them in fact to appear in the masculine style it made her appear cold and cruel any time women try to take up the masculine style it fails I It39s an everyday dilemma it39s the double bind of TV Recitation Wednesday March 30 2011 225 PM Tarea T picos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Old eloquence masculine New eloquence feminine Christine de Pizan got out of the private sphere of reproduction in her writing but still fell into it at the same time i Old New l Fire Coolness l l Masculine Feminine l Public Private l In order to risk the feminine style it39s necessary to have mastered the masculine style The public sphere is a world of rational argument where you must have the ability to separate yourself from it in order to argue it I Being able to argue rationally for an idealaw that would restrict you you would have to argue in favor of inhibiting yourself p98 double bind 3rd paragraph down quotrhetoric that creates masterful phrasesquot are still bound by them ie presidents have to adapt things to changing circumstances I p97 first full paragraph Speakers in the past were remembered for their rhetoric but more recently politicians are remembered for moments when they mispoke ie President Bush quotstrategeryquot Rap singers from some perspectives have a new version of presenting their ideas music industry also makes it by appearing to the listeners Virtuosity the capacity to be really good at what you do How do these ideas play out in other genres ie music I How do these ideas work I What39s the relationship to a songTV show to issues like relationships with loved ones or governmental issues Logic of synecdoche is the logic of representation a whole view of a whole rooted in issues of power The memorable phrasesound bite brings memories of something ie yellow ribbons bring support for the troops purple ribbons Relay for life pink ribbons breast cancer etc I This is how associative grammar works the color of the ribbon may bring to mind a specific campaign Synecdoche gives us the synopsis that in our minds allows us to create the entirety of it Presidents make history p101 We39ve gotta deal with these issues of faith quotThe best government is the least governmentquot may not work when nuclear weapons are available or when natural disasters occur it may be necessary to consider how it will be handled Contravention by extension I Entangling alliances idea whenever there39s the need for democracy I p106 US was an associated not allied power in the world I It may have been more like enabling rather than entangling p103 origin myths matter How she closed out the chapter picture metaphor El 6 de abril Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Cap 8 I Eloquent presidents who make use of memorable phrases I p97 2nd full paragraph They are custodians of the nation39s past I 4 functions I nvigorate moribund phrases bring them back to life I It39s about cleaning up the past I Redefine grounding premises I Return to past Revitalize institution of presidency 8th chapter in the state of American public discourse the American presidency It39s overrun with speechwriters IThis challenges a basic idea of rhetoric Wisdom eloquence rules of philosophy rhetoric for Cicero Readiness Speech Technocrat Sophists help you Wisdom writers sound smart Eloquence Ability Speech Politicos Skill givers Rules of Opinionpolling d Philosophy statistical averages The has become an unequal sign I There39s a lot of reliance on polling I Puts the Ciceronian model on its head Why is this a problem 39Why is it that the president has a speech writing staffand this makes us uncomfortable FDR was one of the first presidents to use speechwriters I Wanted it to look like he39d written it himself He was also the first radio president I Radio forward there are speechwriters 39We are what we speak do your deeds follow your words I Nietchze speech and lying TV is a kind of lie 39There39s anxiety about what we hear 39They are also factcheckers 39Speeches are now recorded anxiety for the president There are real needs we have ghostwriters I p211 The Need for Ghosts I 3 reasons why presidents hire speechwriters Need to place a speech in the hands of reporters to increase the likelihood of coverage text can be distributed To ensure accurate reporting Necessity of putting text on teleprompter to ensure the speaker maintains eye contact with the audience Careful phrasing ensures that a speech will not be misinterpreted for those who are trying to check the details 39Yell quotfreezequot everyone stops it39s an example of interpellation 39Teleprompter can screw things up I Speechwriters facilitate teleprompter technology 39Careful phrasing is often required to assure that the meaning of what is said is understandable I The world is always watching the American president For instance Obama went into Libya Iran was his audience Obama entered Libya to back up the idea that he will assure nuclear reactors are taken care of I Problem is not that presidents are reading allowed but that the words they are reading are not their own words I Why can39t they write their own speeches I We ask them today to give more speeches than they ever had to in the past If they had to just write the speeches themselves they would have nothing else to do I p213 last full paragraph quotMore bothersomequot Presidents should be I Reading history I Studying writings of the world39s great thinkers Reflecting nature of the office I Writing big speeches themselves I Ponder war photos I 1 moreamp 39The dilemma is not that we feel deceived by these presidents but these people are split subjects when we really like whole things Americans American Citizens Presidential Material I We39re becoming a bunch of little specialists Will this be on the exam Will this get me a job I This class is very political I Younger Kennedy could get off the plane in Indy after R Kennedy39s assassination and quote well known poets etc Extemporaneously Split btwn wisdom and eloquence I These are split subjects and we like to think of ourselves as whole I This is the problem of reconciling selves and others We are defined by the voices we allow to guide us in our lives parents society etc I Speechwriters remind us that we39re not actually ourselves Recitation Tuesday April 05 2011 1028 AM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Associative grammars I Don39t really contemplate the relationship between ie happiness and the minivan Enthymeme is when you leave out a step logical argument major premise minor premise and conclusion 39Thought processes are unrolling and there is a logical relationship and the audience persuades themselves 39That process may happen in a different way 39Jamison believes that while enthymeme requires active thought sound bytes don39t I Do you need prior knowledge to understand enthymemes while sound bytes require previous knowledge What kinds of knowledge Consuming products Consuming speeches It39s like a value judgment I When people write their own speeches you can see how they create their own judgments I Presidents no longer have to worry about having a wide area of knowledge 39There39s a split between thinking and speaking I Speaker no long has to think because they have the speechwriter to compose the speech for them p217 Roman expression quotour style betrays usquot I p204 the act of delivering a message has been separated from the act of composing it Presidents don39t have time to become experts on political topics nor do they have time to conduct their own speeches Wide learning turning into specialized knowledge I Accuracy I Teleprompters I Misinterpretations Masculine feminine Political Style new book I 2nd page 4 different styles I Hariman wants to take it a step further p3 political style st Styles I Realist Machiavelli appear religious to be trusted as a ruler 39Wily like fox mean like lion 39This appearance helps to maintain power I Courtly style king holding court embodiment of single person I Republican style what we engage in throughout semester based on eloquence and tolerance Cicero I Bureaucratic style since 1st day of class 1st page of Peters39 book Different effects we get from various circumstances p10 attention to appearance doesn39t disregard value so much as engage in a person39s performancestyle I Bases it on feelingemotion t catches your attention and can39t put your finger on it There are techniques that draw people along Whenever feeling takes over from rationality goes to fascism Nazis used this Issues of style and decorum Hariman wants to understand how this operates relating to politics It39s a slippery slope argument El 11 de abril Thursday January 70 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Literacy is the basis for eloquence in the electronic age So is identification because of the notes on March 28th I Associative argument Orthodoxy public opinion Witch more animalistic etc 39What could the new witch be u A woman who uses her feminine mystique to be persuasive the seductress These categories are old but they aren39t dead You39ve been jipped suggests something about gypsy it39s labelling suggesting something about gypsies Witch may represent a specific idea towards women Political experience is style I It is fundamentally an aesthetic enterprise I People judge from appearances p4 coherent repertoire of political reactions Sarah Palin was beauty in contrast to McCain39s age and in contrast to the looks of Hilary Clinton Studying these 4 political styles involves learning how to interpret and make sense of these styles in the world as well as learning how to perform some of these styles they are quite persuasive in American culture I They are styles of interpretation this is practicing the style find how it works and how to make sense of it I There is a hermaneutic at work here this book is about performance and interpretation I Basic fear we are defenseless to those who have mastered these styles The basic fear of this book is that we are defenseless against those who have mastered these political styles GW Bush mastered the realist style Aesthetic reaction effects of these are political we vote for someone because they look better Rhetoric is a catalogue of the means of persuasion Hermeneutics interpretation El 13 de abril Thursday January 20 2011 Tarea Topicos de hoy O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Realist style is deceptively simple I Pretends to be no style at all I Pretends to look natural and unstylized I What happens when 85 is spent to make it look like you just rolled out of bed jeans with holes people pay big money for this stuff I Let me tell it like it is Bush beat Kerry in the debates using a realist style he insisted his rhetoric doesn39t match his record Rhetoric Deceit Reality Record I Excellent move Reagan and Bush won with that technique Reality is extrinsic to rhetoric language is extrinsic to reality Soft power language is extrinsic to hard power reality Talking the talk and walking the walk Soft power is for ordinary people Hard power is the realm of the ruler the realm of real politics it39s the realm of power Obama is in the realm of soft power Machiavelli39s ideal is to have someone who can work both Castro 3 types of ppl I Those who can handle the truth and know sometimes you have to lie kill etc ie Henry Kissenger Those who can39t handle the truth the people are uninformed Politicians people skilled at handling those who can39t handle the truth Cave story Daylight know all dark us Have someone in between because one can39t go back to the dark once they leave Military in Egypt sided with the people the military in Libya sided with the dictator I Egyptians could just join the rebels and turn against the dictator The public needs to be deceived and to be controlled it must be lied to Machiavelli thinks this is essential that it would set the world on fire 4 elements of realist style 1 Human affairs contingency Something that is contingent is but it didn39t have to be that way Such is the affairs of humanity Murdock owns more media in the world than anyone else it didn39t have to be that way but that39s the fact The realities are changeable but they are still there 2 Means ends calculus realist style is all about means and ends Machiavelli promised to help the prince gain and regain power it reaches fruition in the gaining of power According to Machiavelli the ends justify the means you do whatever it takes whatever you have to The only ethic is stay powerful You gotta do what you gotta do realist style realist slogan 3 Accepting the necessity of deception people can39t handle the truth so they must be lied to The fact that human affairs require deception does not change 4 An ethic of selfcontrol Selfcontrol means don39t let yourself be flattered appear strong never lose your cool the realist style is about keeping it cool good realists are not susceptible to flattery nor anger Always stay on the high ground by never losing your cool Recitation Wednesday April 13 2011 431 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos m s importantes cubiertos hoy p16 bottom p20 p2732 p3237 p3744 p44end of p20 rbottom chapter p27 Bottom of p16 p25 It is better to p34 Politics p37 Machiavelli quot Realist The question Machiavelli be feared than is similar to master of comes from remains how the gives less loved the selecting and construing Prince provides usual Machiavelli workplace arranging words the wide decisive emphasis to quotThe virtues p35 stylish array of reformulations of l the literary have been strategyself motivation and public political power education of subordinated control rhetorical power discoursequot Top of p19 the prince to the p36 rational Literary p44 their texts are economy of control simplicity is an Unconscious made of the stuff virtue and the element of the persuasion of words alone ideal ruler has realist style p45 and are extrinsic to their subject been replaced by the meansquot p38 The political style operates his text is p32 on 2 levels independent to Machiavelli 1 Activate reality itself asserts that a master hopes for calculation defining the can be most speaker writing effective only wsimple if it is accompanied dictionlogical character that by deception exemplify Machiavelli related aesthetic was of the norms cruelty variety El 18 de abril Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy 0 Final quiz at the end of the week 0 Hariman Cap 2 today Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Hermeneutics it39s about interpretation Hermes was the god of interpretation between the human and divine worlds it39s about how to read and advertisement Language is extrinsic to reality it39s about reducing opponents to talk I quotLet39s get everything out on the tablequot realist suggests movement to concrete things I Realists are always ready to go to war it39s how they believe you get things done Rolling out of bed is also realist style also blown out jeans with holes etc I Realist stylizing at it39s finest stylizing that pretends to be far removed from reality 4 elements from last time political elements I How do these elements work together to build the realist politico If you add up these forms you get political intelligence according to Hariman I Machiavelli marks the split between the classical and modernity I Everything hinges on perceptions of political actors ISomething is ethical if it jives with your audience ie female genital mutilation whether it39s ethical or not depends on the how the audience feels and how accepting their culture is of it I For Machiavelli decorum doesn39t matter rules are meant to be broken appear to look good though I What is needed is someone who is strategically calculating I It39s about calculation not prudence like when you39re counting mobs how many men do l have versus them Can lafford it I It39s about appealing to a refined section of society I Machiavelli was the first person to start talking about calculating scheming deception and statistics I Calculating deceit I Politics and advertisements are deceptive Tabloid talk used to be about politics I Then came Heraldo harsh political crashing and Oprah interpersonal feelings I This shows the realist style I They are highly calculating Categorical ethics modern invention that39s old though shalt not lie thou shalt not steal they are categorical ethical principles I Machiavelli sees it as one more method of manipulation one more method of deception I Deception in the realists IThis isn39t just deceiving the people I Never let the opponents know what your play is going to be I Politics is now a very concealed enterprise Jamison feels this means realists politicos are always a persona and never a person I Tear shedding is part of the act Realist is like a master of suspicion realists are seeing everyone else as putting on a show Who can tell the best lie Snoop Dog is a realist quotyou don39t love me you love the money I can bringquot I Realist style knows it39s all deception I Always keep up your persona and appearance never allow yourself to be deceived but always deceive others Selfcontrol always look behind the others39 facade and never let them see behind yours I Do not let impulses get the best of you I p36 quick summary of this stuff IGilbert39s factual description Realist style produces a scene and act Whether ruled by will or fortuna the political environment is an abstract world of forces one survives in this world through perceiving others39 capacities to act Worst case scenario plans involve determining the opponents39 abilities Power is not about forcing people to do things but about structuring and controlling the options from which they can select I It39s a rigged game I Power is about the ability to structure and control the range of possibilities ICalculate the opponent39s capacity for action Realist style gets things done Bureaucratic style is the one that threatens to consume all the others and enslave them to its purpose Courtly style Logic back to the kings and queens but it39s very relevant to contemporary times it39s relevant to the body of the monarch of the president etc it works by focusing attention on people39s bodies Material Mystic Mortal it dies Transcendental lives on Barack Obama Institution of the Presidency King that dies Long live the king Fetiscized IThere are always to bodies to consider the mortal king and immortal kingship I By treating the king39s body really well it suggests that the kingship is doing really well Obama39s body gets better treatment than any other in the nation because it represents the institution of the presidency I Him being weak makes the nation appear weak Elaborate care suggests strength El 20 de abril Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea T picos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy bo Political Style about politics today and how aesthetic maneuvers manipulate us I It also equips us to utilize these 4 mostfrequently used styles ourselves There is an emphasis on the body and an elevation of certain bodies over other bodies as well as their caring and treatment I What is else is a celebrity but a body I King39s 2 bodies the body that dies and the political institution that lives on 39This is implicit in the courtly style 39This body is shown everywhere ie hair I They39re always shaven and freshly grooved they know they are watched all the time I lt39s noticeable if there39s a hair out of place 39Something fastens us to these people 39Care of the mortal bdoy reflects on the strength of hisher position 39Appearance is crucial the president is only as powerful as his body appears FDR needed to be standing on his feet during WWII and the Great Depression He had to appear strong so they propped him up Power depends on this type of bodily display The parade public appearances the body needs to be on display to everyone Spectacles legitimate authority as soon as you step out of the light your style begins to fade the ability to be seen by others is what gives these bodies power I power depends on performance I Power is empowering in a strange way ie FB allows you to put your body on display I Sexting people video themselves having sex and when they break up the video gets sent out to everyone 39We love feeling like someone might be watching us I Courtly culture is a visual culture from the thought that their body might be important enough to garner attention from others Hagel everyone else can see our face but we can39t Freud we have to learn from our parents what to do and what not to do for the formation of our selfidentity and selfworth They39re always oriented towards other people Courtly style is all about appearance I Not much has been said about speech and we39ll get back to that Do these folks have low selfesteem IA feeling that somebody39s out to get you I Courtly style is all about seeing Courtly style is not about speech it is about gesture The principle goes all the way back to the time of kings and queens IThe stately positions of the royal monarchs is a sign of peace and strength in the kingdom it39s a sign oforder IThere is an interest in tuning in on all of these gestures I If the stillness and silence of the body are signs of order speech is a sign of disorder I Queen shouldn39t have to say much Courtly style is in order starting day one of classes for a good professor the class will still be talking when the prof comes in the 2nd day IGesture alone evokes a response when one has command of the courtly style I Order in the court Order means silence Silence is a sign of order ISpeech gets people brought up on contempt of court I It39s about elevating certain bodies over others I The courtroom is BASED ON the courtly style it has to do with position Courtly style is the weirdest of the styles and the one that is most difficult for us to become conscious of p78 I Courtly style does four things I Helps us focus on certain bodies instead of others ICourtly tropes IThey both defineenhance personal authority I Distributes social power in display of a specific individual39s distinction 4 lines from the bottom of p78 I There is heightened attentiveness to specific body parts 39The body part ultimately guides this fascination with social figures I p79 I People become unconsciously receptive to being manipulated when we start to focus on body parts I Metonymy adornment outfits jewelry gesture ie JLo is known for her butt I Tina Turner is known for great legs I Celebrities have to have a part of their bodies that sets them apart from other bodies When people start showing off their parts this is quite true I Three important factors IAdvertising p8691 p87 when body parts are put on display they sway us I Bra adds some focus on the bras some on the breasts but none will focus on the whole woman The woman39s body is constantly under scrutiny I When women feature body parts breasts in the example it can be empowering but it39s also disempowering it reduces the body to just the parts this is the double bind the drama The courtly style is about fragmenting the body through metonymy Synechdoche works by a logic of presentation I The part always points us to the whole it represents the whole I Metonymy works in a similar way but its weirder it39s a fetish it39s not seeing the part and that meaning you see the whole but rather seeing the part and mistaking it for the whole I you don39t love the whole body all you want is the foot this is the exclusion of whole bodies This is a sexist approach part as whole it works as misrecognition we misrecognize the part as the whole the butt for example is recognized as the whole woman s This is the exact opposite of synechdoche I The Oprah Winfrey show is all about watching Oprah39s body get smaller or bigger 39Celebrity culture 8085 39 Presidency 91 forward f women39s bodies are so pervasive and consistent ie seeing part but not the whole Recitation Wednesday April 20 2011 431 PM Tarea T picos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy We39re talking about the realist style the style that cuts through appearances of mere rhetoric and gets at the truth 1 P Necessity of deception people can39t handle the truth according to Machiavelli people are stupid and would freak out I Deception is a large part of calculation you39re trying to calculate and disrupt the other people39s calculations IThis is an example of propaganda the US put missiles in the USSR because the USSR had put missiles in Cuba Human affairs are contingent they change constantly IYou have to know their behaviors adjusting to the conditions how well or badly you may be hiding your scent do the deer smell your scent or not It is necessary to know about all these things Means in calculation Selfcontrol always have your game face on 2 Peter 157 New International Version 2011 5 For this very reason make every effort to add to your faith goodness and to goodness knowledge 6 and to knowledge selfcontrol and to selfcontrol perseverance and to perseverance godliness 7 and to godliness mutual affection and to mutual affection love It39s also like pieces on a chessboard Speech I ie The Office Darrell is a worker who dresses according to the preferences of the boss Gestures starts on p62 Works through a hierarchy speech is disorder yet is a way to stabilize order IThe king speaks you don39t speak the king is the verb the person is the lower subject I It39s about doing whatever it takes to catch the king39s eye The courtly eye makes speech subservial you don39t look at the king if you have to explain yourself you are out of line I King doesn39t have to talk you shouldn39t have to explain your loyalty to the king The higher up you are the less you have to talk p 7 I Writing I Speech Gesture I The king is the act he shouldn39t have to explain himself Courtly tropes facilitate communication they focus us towards the body it is important when the speech features some body It39s all about bodies and how they appear the more we talk about celebrities and personalities the more courtly style that is used I It39s about being sure you don39t want the audience to know what39s up it39s about bodies on display I They39re not mutually exclusive Realist style you know where to find the deer you39re hunting you know what39s real Focus on a particular body part looking sharp Kings are thought of as having a courtly style but also the boss in The Office They39re not mutually exclusive but there are elements of the realist style Example of metonymy the part as the whole logic as just body parts Breast Cancer Awareness I LOVE BOOBS shirts We reduce the entire person to a part and treat them as that part I We treat the part as the whole I Cancer affects an entire person not just their breasts Once you see the seductive ads you can39t unsee them Title Thursday January 70 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Pillow worker slides a pillow under the emperors feet when he sits on the throne so his feet do not dangle down to the ground the courtiers were wearing sandals I The dog could not be kicked because it was an extension or the king the courtiers could not kick the dog when it peed on their shoes Advertising has a tendency to chop up bodies Metonomy is not see the part and think the whole it is seeing the part and mistaking it for the whole if the pee lackey doesn39t clean up the pee efficiently enough or doesn39t clean it up this reflects on how the king is viewed Realist rhetoric is extrinsic to power soft power is extrinsic to the real work of politics Courtly Both differ a lot from the republican style just opposite not about force but rhetoric speech giving is the centerpiece of culture Realist doesn39t think speech giving is unimportant just not as important as say bomb counting The styles are different this is all about plain speaking The courtly style is all about florid eloquence colloquial familiar plain speaking Republican speeches are anything but plain ie Cicero speeches define everything by florid eloquence is soaring and highflown ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country Realists you talk the talk do you walk the walk vs republican you walk the walk but can you talk the talk Do you have the speech abilities to rationalize your actions J Repub style diff from courtly style courtly style sees speech as disorder silence is the name of the game people speak by gestures Repub style is all talk thinks speech is sign of order and silence is a sign of disorder Not plain Not 2ndary Inverts the courtly model of speech and silence Feels that if there is not big speeches any more the republic will crumble If we ever run out of speakers or stop longing for those speeches our country will head downhill The king39s speech is always short and there is always lots of gesturing Republican style Not mutually exclusive with the realist style I The president is still a practitioner of the courtly style celebrity advertising and presidential discourse Obama is a republican stylist in speechgiving 39Gets real big real fast I Hybrid styles can be built between the four of them Master tropes I Republican style is all about composing and delivering highflown persuasive speeches I Reason persuasive public speaking is crucial is because it believes that consensus is the means and the end of governance I Realist doesn39t care if it has consensus or not 39 Republican consensus was the means and the ends 39The republican style has something interesting in common with the courtly style the personal embodiment of civic virtues They are constantly trying to perform and identify with certain civic values such as freedom and equality Americans value hybridity jacks of all trade people who can do many things at once We are all mutts we39re from all over that39s the republican style 2 things I Republican style feels that republican discourse is constitutive to the world world would fall to pieces in silence I Um and uh refuse a moment of silence to enter into public discourse they are meant to show that one is not done talking US was founded as a republic talking is constituent of order within the republic I Republican style is everywhere relies on florid fluid eloquence with all the right words and the right timing Not everyone is a smooth talker the republican style is elitist privileges the good speakers I Not everyone has the education and physiology to deliver these great speeches sometimes really smart people just can39t talk these people are screwed by the republican style I k Republican style relies on a heroic mythos someone has to be able to play the part of the hero I At the height of great events when we39re surrounded by tribulation someone steps through I The hero is always male The heroist mythos is sexist privileges only certain types of men I Has no sense of equality or justice or inequality and injustice p130 4 or 5 things the republican style does really well Republican style is elitist republican style never built a wheelchair ramp coming back Monday Quiz I Wednesday Final review coming up Obama is not only an African American but he is also rich and welleducated I Super super privileged I Republican style won39t take this into consideration Not everyone can be the hero TItle Thursday January 20 2011 335 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Cicero was a good man speaking well Jamison likes him I She39s upset that speechmaking is so bad nowadays It is wide learning competent speaking Obama has eloquent speechmakers Jamison says without great speeches we lose sight of what to live for Eloquence book is about the 1960s about radio and TV for speechmaking Jamison feels we39re being deceived I Writing displaces speaking because of the newspaper I Jamison feels the effiminate style is helped by TV Writing displaced by speaking starts with newspaper then telephone brought back speech radio then TV Kink in the system people want to make sure facts they hear are true Radio and TV bring speechwriters back into full force opposite of Cicero Thinkers write the speeches that the speakers read aloud Contemporary age is what Jamison doesn39t like because there is a divorce between speaking and thinking Jamison39s complaints I Speeches today are quick and we never hear the development of an idea When you live in a sound byte society there is a tendency towards hyperbole I Associative grammar we don39t have to explain things it makes us stupider because there is nothing to contemplate I n Enthymeme vs syllogism I Syllogism form conclusion all humans are mortal H Clinton is mortal Enthymemes are long with too much info and syllogisms ie Aristotle bore people Government is ineffective if citizens can39t communicate with each other ie 911 might not have happened if the govt agencies communicated better Rhetoric is the ability to adapt Cap 2 Women argue in a nonlinear manner men are linear 4th Hillary Clinton stuck in the realm of masculinity Cap 5 I you have to have to be adept at creating brief phrases sound bytes 39Synechdoche way of thinking parts that stand for a whole I Logic is representation Tracks on the street may be signs of an accident I Synoptic gospels Memorable phrases 1 Build community 2 Give us a sense of who we are 1 It shapes history 2 We remember different points in history by phrases it builds headliners 3 Assume a line of their own 4 Can be used to contort their opponent Whether ruled by luck or will the world is still an unknown force Power is not about telling someone what to do but about limiting their capacity to do something Material mystical I Mortal and transcendental Now a celebrity is a celebrated body body depends on body39s appearance Power depends on performance performance is fragile Societal perception proceeds individual Performancevisuality It39s not about speech it39s about movement and gesture Order in the court is silence p78 Political Style Title Tuesday April 26 2011 1110 PM Tarea Topicos de hoy O Hechos mas importantes cubiertos hoy Quiz 4 Eloquent presidents all of the above custodian clich s William James Bryant could not adapt Basis for eloquence in electronic age is literacy To Jamison which isn39t a characteristic of effeminate style linear argument Double bind traps woman politicians only someone has mastered the masculine style can try the effeminate style Memorable phrase the electronic age is distinguished by the fact that this role is now central


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.