Science Writing And Presentation
Science Writing And Presentation COM 21700
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This 54 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elda Bahringer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 21700 at Purdue University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see /class/207923/com-21700-purdue-university in Communication Studies at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Audience Analysis and Topic Selection Objectives 0 Explain Why audience analysis is important in the communication process 0 Explain the three types of audience analysis demographic psychological 8 environmental 0 Understand methods for collecting audience analysis data 0 Select and develop audience centered speech topics Questions for Discussion 39 Why is it important to know your audience when you choose a speechpaper tOPiC 39Why do you need to consider your audience when you communicate The Importance of Audience Analysis 39 It ensures the topic is relevant to your listeners 39It helps the speaker address audience expectations and motivations 0 It helps you achieve your desired affect 39 It enhances your credibility as a speaker K Demographic Audience Analysis Age 0 Sex and Gender 39 Geographical Location 39 Group Affiliation 39 Socioeconomic Factors What are some other demographics that may be imortant in analzin our audience What demographic information would you consider when presenting information to a specific audience G How would you present your info to this particular audience and why A group of high school students who were interested in going into your major in college A potential employer who wants to interview you Q Your girlfriendboyfriend s parents on what it is you want to do 9 A local newspaper asking your opinion as an expert on a technical topic 9 The board of trustees who may possibly fund your research j K Psychological Audience Analysis 0 Audience Attitudes 0 Supportive 0 Neutral 0 Hostile 0 Audience Motivation 0 Motivated 0 Passive 0 Audience Knowledge 0 High 0 Low Environmental Audience Analysis 0 Physical Setting 0 Seating arrangement 0 Indoor Outdoor 0 Physical Characteristics of the room 0 Occasion 0 Time of year 0 Purpose of the presentation 0 Time of Day 39 Early morning 39 After lunch 9 Close to Closing time 0 Late in the evening Environmental Audience Analysis 0 Order of Speakers 0 First 0 Middle 0 Last 0 Time Length of Presentation 0 Technology 0 PowerPoint Presentation Qualities of a Good Topic 0 Your topic interest you 0 Your topic interests your audience 0 Your topic is significant 39 Your topic fresh 0 Your topic can be covered in the allotted time 0 Your topic is audience appropriate 0 Your topic can be easily researched 0 Your topic is timely Class Activity 0 Groups of 4 0 Each group will be provided with a scenario and a specific target audience 0 Groups will answer the following provided questions and discuss with the class why they selected those answers 0 Then groups will provide the first minute or so of the presentation to that audience in front of the class Questions 0 Why is my audience here 39 What are the demographics of my audience 0 What are the interests of my audience 0 What is the 1Dosition of the audience on my topic 0 How knowledgeable is the audience about my topic 0 Are there any other factors to consider Scenario 1 0 You are An accountant for a small business in Lafayette IN 0 Your technical area Actuary science budget finance and getting out of the red 0 Event Meeting with the owners of the business to discuss future finances and discuss company downsizing Scenario 2 G You are A nuclear power plant employee in Ohio 6 Your technical area Nuclear Reactors and you have data to support the benefits of nuclear energy Event Springfield Power PlantYear end safety review for all employees and staff Scenario 3 G You are A member of MADD and a behavioral scientist from University of Michigan Q Your technical area The social interactions of young adults under the in uence you have grant funded research to support that the drinking age should be kept at 21 Event A symposium of college presidents and board of Trustees for the Big Ten Conference Scenario 4 G You are A chemist who works for Eli Lilly Q Your technical area Pharmaceutical development and research with a concentration in allergy medication 9 Event Meeting with the marketing department to begin plans for introducing a new drug that has just made it through all clinical trials Scenario 5 G You are A marine biologist and have your own TV show on the Discovery Channel Q Your technical area Sea mammals in danger of global warming you have research to support that their natural habits are becoming more rare 9 Event The third show in your series to be aired at 800 on Wednesday night Remember 0 Please read 39BB reading 3 Reading Research Reports Stem Cell Research Ever wonder if at any time that you have a matter of days weeks or months to live Every human being has a chance of getting a life altering disease such as Alzheimer s Huntington s or Parkinson s disease but with stem cell research and the potential it has being told that you that you have one of those diseases could be as simple as telling someone they have a sinus infection or the u A person must know what stem cell research is exactly before going in depth with this topic due to the simple fact that without a thorough background of what stem cell research is a person may not fully understand what cloning is or how the stem cells could potentially be used as a cure for a particular diseasd Once a person understands what stem cell W research is they will be able to understand how bene cial stem cell research will be to future generations Controversy is a very big issue that arises when discussing stem cell research due to the fact of where stem cells come from and how they are used Stem cell research is a very interesting but controversial topic in which a lot of background information must be known before jumping directly into a discussion about cloning or harvesting embryonic stem cells When discussing stem cell research people don t understand what stem cell research is your WSW6W Most people think they have an idea from what is shown on the news or in online articles but to fully understand what stem cell research is you must know what happens from beginning to end Stem cell research isn t a complicated topic once you know exactly what it is but until you do the idea is completely foreign We ask two main questions at this point what are stem cells and why are they importantNational Institute of HealthNIH 2008 Those two questions will be discussed in the following paragraphs Comment J4 l think there is a better way to Stem cells have two fundamental properties that set them apart from other cells Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to restore themselves of long periods of time through cell division This means that stem cells can divided over and over until enough cells have been reproduced to repair damage that has done such as a burn or damage done to the heart In addition stem cells can be manipulated under physiological andor experimental conditions to be made into cells with speci c functions such as the beating cell of the heart or the insulin producing cells of the pancreasNIH 2003 phrase this preview perhaps using one concise sentence Most researchers use two different types of stem cells from both humans and animals The idea of is olating stem cells from a human embryo and growing them in a lab was discovered in 1998 based from the idea using mouse embryos more than 20 years ago The cells that were created are now called human embryonic stem cells Embryonic stem cells have certain properties that allow them to divide multiple times for almost a year in a laboratory Embryonic stem cells are unspecialized which gives the option of becoming specialized for a speci c function this process is called lquot l fNIH 2008 In addition to embryonic stem cells adult stem cells are also used for research Adult stem cells can come from anyone which also causes less of an ethical debateRobinson 2007 Adult stem cells also known as somatic stem cells are typically used to generate cells in which the tissues they reside Adult stem cells are undifferentiated and can only differentiate to create speci c cells of a certain type of tissue or organ depending on where those stem cells are located Adult stem cells are used to maintain and Comment J5 Generally l would recommend breaking this down into sections with subheadings Comment J6 i recommend explaining this more repair tissue in the body The origin of adult stem cells in tissues is unlqiownLattthispeintin time Stem cells have the potential not only to cure diseases such as Parkinson s or Alzheimer s but also to reverse heart disease burns spinal cord injuries even organ transplants and much more but researchers must understand how embryonic stem cells function rst A primary goal of stem cell research is to determine why embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated and how they become differentiated If researchers understand more of how genetic and molecular processes work to make certain diseases arise this could give more insight into how stem cells mction Researchers need to understand more about the signals that turn speci c genes on and off to in uence the differentiation of the stem cell NIH 2008 Stem cell research can also be used to test new drugs which could lead to a cure The stem cells used would have to already be differentiated cells from human pluripotent cell lines Antitumor drugs are already being tested on cancer cells Pluripotent stem cells would allow for a wider range of cell types to be used for drug testing but the conditions must be kept the same while comparing multiple drugs This brings us back to the point of not knowing enough about the signals of genes and differentiation of stem cells because more knowledge is needed before drug testing can being As of right now the most important potential use of stem cells would be for cellbased therapies which would lead to direct cures for diseases such as Parkinson s and Alzheimer sNlH 2008 A er having the background of what stem cells are we can now discuss how stem cell research will be bene cial to future generations Stem cell research is still a fairly new concept and is always changing BecauseDue te the faet t hat researchers still need more information about how stem cell function generations today won t be directly affected by the research but the next couple generations will soon see how great stem cell research really is and how bene cial it will become as research continues to discover new information dealing with stem cell research Cloning the duplication of biological material has become very popular within the last decade or so Before genes or cells could be duplicated to create an identical match to the original but in 1997 along comes Dolly Dolly a sheep was the rst animal to be cloned Cloning that involves the creation of an identical genetic twin uses embryonic stem cells which in turn could potentially be used for the curing of a wide variety of diseases Currently M animal species have been used in studies testing the theoryidea of cloning they include sheep cattle pigs goats and mice Although cloning appears to be a potential breakthrough there are many uncertainties about the idea of cloning including early death rate increased risk of contracting ailments or illnesses and much more Cloning has also been discussed as a possibility for human use but that hasn t been put into action yet due to the many risks and ethical concerns involved Hanna 2006 Stem cell research has much great potential if research continues as expected This are of research affects mainly the medical eld due to the potentials for regenerative medicine and therapeutic cloningPhillips 2008 Embryonic stem cells provide researchers with the in nite potential of studying human growth and development Adult stem cells from blood skin and other tissues have shown to have promising effects in the use of animal studies Using umeilical cord cells are also being used for experimental treatments The only down side to the use of these cells is that they have a shorter cell line than embryonic stem cells which means they have a shorter life span These other options create less of an ethical debate due to the fact that these cells aren t viewed as a living individual With other options stem cell research advances even irther which gives future generations more of an opportunity tohave experience the potentials of stem cells faster and easier With the knowledge one now knows about stem cell research we can discuss controversy and how the debate arises over embryonic stem cell research The reason why there is such a great debate over whether embryonic stem cell research should be done or not is due to where embryonic stem cells come from If you ask any researcher they will tell you that the embryos used weren t going to become a human life but only for scienti c purposes but ifyou ask a pro life advocate they will tell you that the embryo is a living individual and that research on that embryo is wrong and unjust Stem cell research has been one of the greatest debate issues within the last decade or so Embryonic stem cell debates have been going on for over a decade now but in 2001 when President Bush stopped mding for the destruction of embryos the nation became more morally against stem cell research which is a key reason why the debate still continues today Even though adult stem cells could be used embryonic stem cells are much better to use because they are pluripotent they can directed to virtually become any type of the 220 cells in the human body and they can be grown in tissue cultures to provide an abundant source of stem cells Comparing two methods of collecting embryonic stem cells one at the Advanced Cell Technology Laboratory in Massachusetts and another called preimplantation genetic diagnosis the rst method involved frozen embryos but was never really tested because it involved the placement of a frozen embryo into a woman s womb which is completely unethical and the second method deals with the testing of the embryo before it is inserted in the mother s uterus for genetic diseases this is mainly done through invitro fertilizationMarietta 2008 Stem cells are all of a sudden a common thing in everyday life but not always in a good way Studies show that stem cells hold the potential to create a cure for diseases like Parkinson s Alzheimer s and many more thought to be incurable but the acceptance of using stem cells to nd these cures is thought ofas a great debate The use of stem cells creates two debates the political debate and the scienti c debate both causing havoc is completely different ways For prolife supporters the moral issues outweigh the scienti c issues and for the scienti c supporters they see the vast potential that stem cells hold and just want to investigate how great they really are but they also don t deny the moral issues at hand The political debate is deciding where to draw the line on what is legal and what isn t Many states have set up their own regulations because the federal government can t decide on a universal law Laws prohibiting stem cell research comes from different viewpoints dealing with the legal protection of embryo and fetal research from each state which makes it dif cult for researchers to determine which areas they can and can t work on The scienti c debate is deciding upon which method will be the most effective embryonic or adult stem cells Until researchers fully understand how stem cells function they won t know which method to focus their efforts on Stem cell research is one of the most interesting topics in science today not only for the fact ofthe continuous but also 39 pl f H t if the research continues on the path it s on many people know they will be greatly affected by the outcomes Embryonic stem cell research so far proves to be the best chance of nding a cure for incurable diseases but there are other methods that are proving to be almost as effective As mentioned in the paper there are two questions asked when discussing stem cell research what are stem cells and why are they important once those questions are answered one can have an idea of the vast potential stem cell research has Until researchers can gure out how exactly stem cells mction experiments and tests must continue until that question is answered Comment J8 1 recommend a betterwrap up paragraph in terms of a conclusion References Hanna K E 2006 April Cloningembryonic stem cells Retrieved September 29m 2008 from httpwww genome govl 0004765 Marietta C S JD LLM Candidate 2008 June Embryonic stem cell research debate indirectly focuses spotlight on safety of preimplantation genetic diagnosis Retrieved September 30 2008 from httpwwwlaw 11h N 39 700 CMWUOnod ndf National Institutes of Health US Department of Health and Human Services 2008 April Stem cell basics Retrieved September 29 2008 from httn39 temcell nih 39 39 39 quotellRa ir ndf Phillips T 2008 Pros and cons ofstem cell research About com a part ofThe New York Times Company Retrieved September 28 2008 from httn39 binter h about 39 39 39 39 quot htm Robinson B A 19982008 Stem cell research All viewpoints Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance Retrieved September 30 2008 from httpWWW nro re stern htm COM 217 Sm all Group Persuasive Presentation Point Value 200 Imagine that a committee has access to 5000 of funding For your small group project you must decide which sciencerelated topic is most deserving of funding and convince your audience of your argument As a group you are to make an argument as to why you are deserving of the funding and provide a detailed description of how you would spend the funds e g create a public service announcement host a fundraiser Remember you only have 5000 so be modest Each presentation should follow a problem solutionformat or Monroe s Motivated Sequence Ifyou are selecting the problemsolution format you will spend your rst 12 points establishing that a problem exists ie why is this really an issue Then you would provide us with your solution and how the solution actually addresses the problem ie show us how it addresses the problem prove it Included in your solution part will be your breakdown of how you will spend the funds If you are selecting the Monroe s Motivated Sequence you will be expected to grab our attention fully develop and explain the current problem need present your solution with budget satisfaction paint a picture of the consequences of action or inaction visualization and nally call us to action all five steps of the sequence SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS 0 Your presentation should be between 2030 minutes 0 You should also prepare a PowerPoint show to compliment your presentation 0 You are not required to write a paper for this assignment However please create a detailed executive summary of the presentation to turn in on the day of your presentation and email to the committee for their review at least 2 days prior to your presentation 0 Please consult eight recent sources please use year 2006 or newer at least 4 print and make sure your Web sources are credible and unbiased 0 Every person in the group should take a speaking part in the presentation 0 The last part of the presentation will consist of a question and answer session between 1015minutes with the selection committee The committee will critically review your presentation so the presenting group should try to cover every possible angle 0 Every class member will serve on a selection committee As a member of this committee you will be required to ask thoughtful and knowledgeable questions about the other group s presentation Additionally you will evaluate the 1 quot using the quot quot form posted on BB RECEIVING CREDIT The entire project is worth 200 points 0 Individual Evaluation 40 points 0 Delivery Skills 15 0 Completion of Group Evaluation Form 5 0 Feedback from Group 10 0 Committee member responsibilities 10 0 Group Grade 160 points 0 Presentation and Group Effectiveness 125 o PowerPoint slideshow effectiveness professionalism group contract outline 25 0 Feedback from committee members 10 If there is a slacker in your group you NOT your instructor will need to deal with himher With that said if there are problems with speci c group members please let me know and I will try to help you out A group contract assignment will require the group to set up rules and consequences that all can agree upon Documenting Sources Using APA Format A workshop brought to you by the Purdue University Writing Lab Purdue University Writing Lab39 Why Use AP A Format E Allows readers to crossreference your sources easily E Provides consistent format within a discipline E Gives you credibility as a writer E Protects yourself from plagiarism Purdue University Writing Lab39 CrossReferencing Your Sources Crossreferencing allows readers t0 locate the publication infermation 0f source material This is of great value for researchers who may want to lccate your sources for their own research projects Purdue University Writing Lab Using a Consistent Format k Using a consistent format helps yuur reader understand your arguments and the sources they re built on It alsa helps you keep track of yeur saurces as yeu build Purdue University Writing Lab Establishing Credibility The preper use of APA style shews the credibility of writers such writers show acccuntability to their source material Purdue University Writing Lab Avoiding Plagiarism Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you avoid plagiarism which is a seriaus offense It may result in anything frem failure of the assignment te expulsien from school Purdue University Writing Lab I Where Do Find APA Format E Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 5th ed E wwwapastyeorg E Composition textbooks E OWL website owlenqlishpurdueedu E Writing Lab Grammar Hotline 4943723 Purdue University Writing Lab I Title Page I E Papers in APA style 1 require a title page mm E The running head will be used as the header for the whole mam m Mam paper m a E Include the paper s title and the author s name and affiliation Purdue universi t3 Purdue University Writing Lab APA Style Two Main Concerns Hi EReference Page mParenthetical Citations Purdue University Writing Lab I Reference Page E A list of every source that you make reference to in youressay E Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your essay E Each retrievable source cited in the essay must appear on the reference page and vice versa Purdue University Writing Lab39 A Sample Reference Page Shell Shock 12 References Fussell P 1975 The Great War and modem memory New York Oxford UP Marcus J 1989 The asylums of Antaeus Women war and madness is there a feminist fetishism In H A Veeser Ed The New Historicism pp 132151 New York Routledge Mott F W 1916 The effects of high explosives upon the central nervous system The Lancet 552 33138 Showalter E 1997 Hystories Hysterical epidemics and Modern media New York Columbia UP Purdue University Writing Lab Reference Page Most citations sheuld contain the following basic inf onnation E Author s name E Title of work E Publicaticin infermation Purdue University Writing Lab References Some Examples IEI Book Shay J 1994 Achilles in Vietnam Combat trauma and the undoing of Character New York Touchstone EArticle in a Magazine Klein J 1998 October 5 Dizzy days The New Yorker 4045 Purdue University Writing Lab 5 References Some Examples E Web page Poland D 1998 October 26 The hot button Roughcut Retrieved October 28 1998 from httpwwwroughcutcom Purdue University Writing Lab References Some Examples IEI A newspaper article Tommasini A 1998 October 27 Master teachers whose artistry glows in private New York Times p 82 El A source with no known author Cigarette sales fall 30 as California tax rises 1999 September 14 New York Times p A17 Purdue University Writing Lab Reference Page What other types of sources might you need to listen your reference page Study the basics sf APA citation format When something odd comes up don t guess Luck it up Purdue University Writing Lab When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations EWhen quoting any wards that are not your own Quoting means to repeat another saurce word for word using quotatian marks Purdue University Wri ng Lab When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations IEI When summarizing facts and ideas from a source a Summarizing means to take ideas from a large passage of another source and condense them using your own words IEI When paraphrasing a source a Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words Purdue University Writing Lab I Keys to Parenthetical Citations Readability 1 Keep references brief 1 Give enly information needed to identify the source an your reference page 1 Do net repeat unnecessary infermation Purdue University Writing Lab Handling Quotes in Your Text El Author s last name publication year and page numbers of quote must appear in the text Car uth 1996 states that a traumatic response frequently entails a delayed uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena p11 A traumatic response frequently entails a delayed uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena Caruth 1996 p391139 Purdue University Writing Lab I Handling Parenthetical Citations Sometimes additional information is necessary E More than one author with the same last name H James 1878 W James 1880 E Two or more works in the same parentheses Caruth 1996 Fussell 1975 Showalter 1997 E Work with six or more authors Smith et al 1998 E Specific part of a source Jones 1995 chap 2 Purdue University Writing Lab Handling Parenthetical Citations IEI If the source has no known author then use an abbreviated version of the title Full Title California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers Citation California 1999 l J V Purdue University Writing Lab Handling Parenthetical Citations 53 IEI A reference to a personal communication Source email message from r C Everett Koop Citation C39 E Koop personal communication May 16 1998 IEI A general reference to a web site Source Purdue University web site Citation httpwwwpurdueedu Purdue University Writing Lab Handling Parenthetical Citations 53 Recently the history of warfare has been significantly revised by HigOnnet et al 1987 Marcus 1989 and Raitt and Tate 1997 to include women s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects Feminist researchers now concur that It is no longer true to claim that women39s responses to the war have been ignored Raitt amp Tate p 2 Though these studies focus solely on women39s experiences they err by collectively perpetuating the masculinecentered impressions originating in Fussell 1975 and Bergonzi 1996 However Tylee 1990 further criticizes Fussell arguing that his study treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions p 6 Purdue University Writing Lab Handling Quotes in Your Text AA There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format If you run into something unusual look it up Purdue University Writing Lab Where can you go for additional help with APA documentation in IEI Purdue University Writing Lab El Heavilon 226 El Grammar Hotline 765 4943723 IE Check our web site IE Email brief questions owlowlenglishpurdueedu Purdue University Writing Lab
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