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by: Melanie Maino


Melanie Maino

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About this Document

Week 6 of notes.
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Brianna Stinebaugh
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.

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Date Created: 03/14/16
3/7 Chapter 5… Quasi Experiment  True Experiment: 1 or more essential elements lacking  Correlational Designs: Looking at relationships between different variables  Quasi Experimental Design: differences between groups of participants o Track these differences over time o Looking at differences NOT relationships o Manipulation varies with quasi experimental design, imposition of units we tend to be very high 2 main differences between True and Quasi… o 1) Can’t know for certain what is causing the effects that I am seeing…low internal validity compared to a true experiment o Already existing characteristics you can’t control all other differences o 2) Random assignment is not possible within a quasi experimental design Quasi Experimental Designs…  1) Ex-Post Facto Studies o these studies we are interested in the effects of traits, behaviors, and naturally occurring events that can’t be manipulated o 3 things we do with this type of design…  1 personal characteristics (age, gender)  life events and effects on daily living  psychological functioning and how personality affects behavior o not manipulating differences…no cause and effect and no manipulation o forming treatment conditions based on already known and existing antecedents and that is how I would divide them within my study o most similar to true experiment design because I can control them the most o Ex post and true…biggest difference is random assignment o Low internal validity  2) Non-equivalent Groups Design o comparing the effects from different treatment conditions on already existing naturally occurring groups  ex. take two classrooms and taking those non equivalent groups and distributing different treatment conditions to the two groups…not worried about how representative you are being just comparing differences. o Not very controlled o Not worrying about random assignment  3) Longitudinal Designs o Measuring behavior on the same participants over different time periods and looking for changes o Very interested on the influence that time has on behavior o These designs typically look at human development, aging, and lifespan. o These studies can last for weeks, months, years, or decades. (LONG TERM) o No cause and effect because we are not dealing with a true experiment o Not manipulating anything o Same sample and tracking it over a set time period o Powerful statistical analysis since you are using the same participants  4) Cross Sectional Designs o looking at participants that are already at different time periods or stages in their life and comparing them at one time o Has a lot more participants so our statistical analysis becomes weaker compared to longitudinal studies o Cross sectional looks at those participants in the moment  5) Pre Test/ Post Test Design o Analyzing and tracking a behavior before and after an event occurs o Comparing the before and after and seeing if the event made any difference on behavior o 2 times you would use this design  1- to asses the effects of a natural occurring situation  ex. beginning of the semester give a survey about your thoughts on research methods and then distribute the same survey after the semester is over  2- interested in the actual effect that a treatment has (given in a lab setting)  ex. participants come in and gave them a questionnaire about concentration and then give them a drug that induces the ability to concentrate and then give the same questionnaire and seeing the effect o Not interested in random assignment and control just distributing test and seeing its effects before and after o No control group, deemed unethical o Low in internal validity not as controlled as a true experiment o Other variables can effect: Practice effects, familiarity, remembering examples or answers on the pre test 3/9 Chapter 7: The Basics of Experimentation  With a true experiment we are able to make a causal statement  Very controlled so we have HIGH internal validity…LOW in external validity 3 main features of all true experiments. o 1- we have to have a way to manipulate our antecedents (@ least 2 different treatment conditions because we need something to compare) o 2- we have to have a way to measure the effects of an antecedent on behavior o 3- Way to record our observations using statistics to analyze  Assess hypothesis supported or not  After 3 main features, we assess if hypothesis is supported or not…  Hypothesis is a potential relationship and influence between 2 variable o Variables: Independent Variable + Dependent Variable  If…(IV)…then (DV)  Independent Variable= manipulating antecedents intentionally changing  Each independent variable is going to have at least 2 values and they are equivalent to the levels of the independent variables  Each level of the independent variable gets its own treatment condition  Dependent Variable= measuring determines whether independent variable had effect or not…looking at behavior  IV (What am I manipulating?)  DV (What am I measuring?) usually a behavior we are trying to explain  Ex. antidepressant effect on sadness within a patient  Sadness would be the Dependent Variable  And the drug would be the Independent Variable o 2 treatment conditions (half placebo, half real drug)  Ex. different foods slow down aging and memory  IV: diet in general  DV: memory test o 2 treatment conditions: 3 different groups with different conditions (one group blueberries, one group spinach, one group nothing)  Operational Definitions: gives us the precise meaning of what we want to study in our research o IV +DV must have 2 variables  1 is a conceptual definition  2 is operational definition which is the precise meaning of our variables in regards to our study  used to carry out your study  reader should be able to replicate your study o What to think of when you are coming up with your Operational definition!  1- Operation/observations that are going to play a part in your study as a result of your variables  2- procedures to follow  3- measurements that are going to be used  4- manipulate and measure the Independent and Dependent Variables o 2 kinds of Operational Definitions  1- Experimental Operational Definition specifies the meaning of your independent variable  describing how you’re manipulating your antecedents  explaining how you are creating your different treatment conditions  going through a very detailed description of the exact steps you are taking as a result of your independent variable  for non experimental designs we are selecting participants not necessarily manipulating them  2- Measured Operational Definition how are we measuring our dependent variable  measurements used  how are we assessing the effects of an independent variable  how are we going to record our responses/ observations if we are using a non experimental design  how are we going score the responses  2 types of variables o 1- hypothetical variable: variables that you cannot directly observe  measure them through some type of behavior that we cannot directly observe (anxiety, opinions, depression) but associated with some type of behavior o 2- non construct variables: variables that we can directly observe  (blushing, sweating, crying, laughing)


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