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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Shana Santarelli on Monday September 8, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.
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If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!
-Dr. Wyman Heathcote
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Date Created: 09/08/14
Biology 230W Evolution of a cell Life began with prokaryotes 35 x 10quot9 billion years ago Eukaryotic life evolved 29 x 10quot9 billon years ago Prokaryotes Prokaryotes had nol little compartmentalization Eukaryotes Lipids in prokaryotes started to increase compartmentalization FECA First Eukaryotic Common Ancestor nucleus arose Early Transitional Eukaryote Mitochondria arose other organelles such as the phagocytosis endomembrane system flagellum and nuclear membrane a little arose after the nucleus LECA Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor late transitional Eukaryote chloroplasts arose in plant cells Cells further specialized by adaptive radiation Darwin s Finch example CONCEPT Modern Eukaryotes have more phenotypes and genotypes than earlier Eukaryotes How did the organelles in a cell just magically come together Proteins were in charge of alterations of the plasma membrane this time As proteins became more complex organelles were able to change and come more complex as well Organelles can be membrane or nonmembrane bound Membrane Bound Organelles Membranes allow specialized nucleus the control center of the cell site of transcription Golgi Complex modifies and packages proteins smooth ER synthesizes lipids and detoxifies rough ER studded with ribosomes folds proteins lysosomes recycles waste in a cell nuclear membrane encloses and protects the nucleus nuclear pores exit for transcriptional mRNA vacuole storage in a cell movement across cell stabilizes vesicle movement within cell NonMembrane Bound Organelles ribosomes protein and RNA proteins are made here cytoskeeton proteins involved in cell division involved in cell motility amp intracellular transport cell structure cilia flagella movement of a cell Endomembrane System nuclear membrane endosomes ER golgi complex vesicles cell membrane lysosomes vacuoles BIG PICTURE these membranes are all continuous and work together Proteins make the constant movement of the cell possible Each system has its own lipid composition MICROSCOPY Magnitude and Resolution Resolution and magnitude increase with higher energy Higher energy means shorter wavelength 1000 microns 1 milimeter reflected light microscope light bounces off an object and comes to your eye good for pseudopodia moving living creaturesanything interacting in a cell scanning electron microscope beam of electrons accelerated to a certain wavelength and produce an image of the object downfall samples must be dead samples must be god coated good for topography of any structure such as a blood cell transmission electron microscope beam of electrons travels through a sample downfall must be dead must be very thin needs heavy metals to contrast staining to contrast good for neurofilament of a neuron