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Intro to Criminal Justice Chapter 9 Vocab & Notes

by: Ryan Desjardins

Intro to Criminal Justice Chapter 9 Vocab & Notes CCJ 2020

Marketplace > Florida State University > Criminology and Criminal Justice > CCJ 2020 > Intro to Criminal Justice Chapter 9 Vocab Notes
Ryan Desjardins

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Chapter 9 covering Punishment and Sentencing of CCJ 2020
Introduction to Criminal Justice
Elizabeth Borkowski
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 2020 at Florida State University taught by Elizabeth Borkowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 03/14/16
Punishment and Sentencing­ Vocab & Notes Vocab 1. Penitentiary­ A state or federal correctional institution for the incarceration of felony  offenders for terms of one year or more. 2. General Deterrence­ The theory that crime rates are influenced and controlled by the  threat of criminal punishment. If people fear being apprehended and punished, they will  not risk breaking the law. 3. Specific Deterrence­ A crime control policy suggesting that punishment should be severe  enough to convince convicted offenders never to repeat their criminal activity. 4. Incapacitation­ The policy of keeping dangerous criminals in confinement to eliminate  the risk of their repeating their offense in society. 5. Blameworthy­ Culpable or guilty of participating in a particular criminal offense 6. Just Desert­ The philosophy of justice asserting that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished. The severity of punishment should be commensurate with the  seriousness of the crime. 7. Rehabilitation­ The strategy of applying proper treatment so an offender will present no  further threat to society. 8. Equity­ The action or practice of awarding each person what is due him or her; sanctions  based on equity seek to compensate individual victims and society in general for their  losses due to crime. 9. Indeterminate Sentence­ A term of incarceration with a stated minimum and maximum  length, such as a sentence to prison for a period of 3 to 10 years. The prisoner would be  eligible for parole after the minimum sentence has been served. Based on the belief that  sentences should fit the crime, indeterminate sentences allow individualized sentences  and provide for sentencing flexibility. Judges can set a high minimum to override the  purpose of the indeterminate sentence. 10. Determinate Sentence­ A fixed term of incarceration, such as three years imprisonment.  Many people consider determinate sentences too restrictive for rehabilitative purposes;  the advantage is that offenders know how much time they have to serve­that is, when  they will be released. 11. Sentencing Guidelines­ A set of standards that define parameters for trial judges to follow in their sentencing decisions. 12. Mandatory Sentence­ A statutory requirement that a certain penalty shall be set and  carried out in all cases upon conviction for a specified offense or series of offenses. 13.  Concurrent Sentences­ Prison sentences for two or more criminal acts, served  simultaneously and run together. 14. Consecutive Sentences­ Prison sentences for two or more criminal acts, served one after  the other. 15. Chivalry Hypothesis­ The view that the low rates of female crime and delinquency are a  reflection of the leniency with which police and judges treat female offenders.  16. Victim Impact Statement­ A post conviction statement by the victim of crime that may be used to guide sentencing decisions. 17. Brutalization Effect­ An outcome of capital punishment that enhances, rather than deters,  the level of violence in society. The death penalty reinforces the view that violence is an  appropriate response to provocation.  18. Lex Talionis­ The concept of retaliation, no specific punishment: the offender who was  convicted will be sentenced to a conviction similar to the original punishment. 19. Flogging­ The earliest form of physical punishment. Whipping 20. Mutilation/Amputation­ Used more in ancient times, mainly deterrence for criminals. Ex: Aladdin, stealing a loaf of bread and the hand is almost cut off 21. Branding­ a physical, visible representation. Concept was to be able to identify repeat  offenders and warn others 22. Public Humiliation­ done as a way for the community as a whole to get back at an  offender (social contract theory), humiliates the offender enough to deter them from  committing crime. 23. Exile­Sending criminals away to an island or isolated area and just completely remove  them from society 24. Workhouses­the earliest form of imprisonment, wasn’t originally started for criminals.  Made to teach the unemployed, homeless, etc (NOT CRIMINALS) how to farm, how to  cook, and how to be successful and self sufficient PowerPoint Notes Goals of Modern Sentencing Sentencing is view in one of two ways: 1. Too harsh for the crime committed 2. Too lenient for the crime committed Difference is largely attributed to individual opinion on the goals of modern sentencing 5 goals of modern sentencing 1. Incapacitation­Idea of this is that if you are going to commit crime, you are causing harm  to society, so we are going to take you away from that society. The "lock 'em up"  approach. **talks nothing about rehabilitation, but they will be released** 2. Retribution­Very similar to lex talionis, taking revenge on a criminal perpetrator. It is the  earliest known rationale for punishment (death penalty) **Corresponds to the just deserts model of sentencing, can't really do eye for an eye for  most crimes, so the punishment they receive will be appropriate to the type and severity  of the crime committed.   The primary sentencing tool of the just deserts model is imprisonment 3. Deterrence­Seeks to inhibit criminal behavior through the fear of punishment. Uses the  threat of punishment to convince people that a criminal activity is not worthwhile (10, 20, LIFE law by George W Bush) ITS OVERALL GOAL IS CRIME PREVENTION. 2 different types 1.Specific Deterrence­seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat  criminality 2.General Deterrence­seeks to prevent other from committing crimes similar to the one  for which a particular offender is being sentenced by making an example of the particular offender being sentenced One of the more rational goals of sentencing is deterrence. ***Retribution vs. Deterrence*** ­Retribution is oriented towards the past, it seeks to redress wrongs already  committed, and deterrence is a strategy towards the future. 4. Rehabilitation­attempts to reform a criminal offender. Seeks to bring out fundamental  changes in offenders and their behavior. Strategy is to apply proper treatment for the  individual that offended enough to where the offender does not show any more hints that  will offend in the future. The term rehabilitation is misnomer for the kinds of changes that its supporters seek.  Means to return a person to their previous condition, however, it is likely that restoring  criminals to their previous state will result in youthful type of criminality. "Nothing Works" Doctrine­shows that no matter how much rehabilitation people go  through, nothing will stop them from committing crime. VIOLENT CRIME PEAKED IN 1993 5. Restoration­attempts to make the victim whole again. Seeks to address the damage done  by making the victim and the community right (social contract theory) Equity/Restitution refers to reimbursement to society. It is the action or practice of award  each person what is due to them Sentencing Models 4 common models.... 1. Indeterminate Sentencing­ Encourages rehabilitation through the use of general and  relatively unspecific sentences. Believes that convicted offenders are more likely to  participate in their own rehabilitation if participation will reduce the amount of time they  have to spend in prison. 2. Determinate Sentencing­ A fixed term of incarceration. "A one size fits all" type of  sentencing. ­Based on three principles for all offenders.. a. Proportionality­ The severity of sanctions should bear a direct relationship to the  seriousness of the crime committed. b. Equity­ Based on concerns with social equality, that holds that similar crimes  should be punished with the same degree of severity, regardless of the social or  personal characteristics of the offenders. c. Social Debt­ An offender’s criminal history should objectively be taken into  account in sentencing decisions.  3. Mandatory Sentences­ A statutory requirement that a certain penalty shall be set and  carried out in all cases upon conviction for a specific offense or series of offenses. a. Includes the Three­Strikes Law. These are designed to impose longer sentences  upon career or chronic violent offenders 4. Truth in Sentencing­ Requires offenders to serve a substantial portion of their sentence in  prison, limiting the use of parole and good time credit. Sentencing Guidelines Must prove one of two circumstances... 1. Aggravated Circumstances­ tends to make the crime seem more cruel and unnecessary 2. Mitigating Circumstances­tends to make the crime seem less heinous Imposing the Sentence May be imposed either... 1. Concurrently­ Served simultaneously 2. Consecutively­ Service one at a time Presentence Investigation The examination of a convicted offender’s background prior to sentencing. Generally conducted  by probation or parole officers & are submitted to sentencing authorities. The PIR Presentence Investigation Report  Designed to help the judge decide on the appropriate sentence within the limits established by  law Presented in three forms... 1. A detailed written report on the defendant’s personal and criminal history, including an  assessment of present conditions in the defendant’s life. 2. An abbreviated written report summarizing the information most likely to be useful in a  sentencing decision. 3. A verbal report to the court made by the investigating officer based on field notes but  structured according to established categories 4 Traditional Sentencing Options 1. Fines­Requiring the offender to be deprived of proceeds from criminal activity, enforce  economic responsibility, or pay the courts or victim 2. Probation­Release of the offender on the grounds that they are monitored to make sure  they do not commit any future criminal acts. 3. Imprisonment­Confinement to a jail or prison for a determined amount of time, usually in a secure facility. 4. Death­Putting the person to death in a manner approved by the government. How People Are Sentenced 2 factors... 1. Legal Factors a. Characteristics of the offense that either aggravate or mitigate its seriousness,  such as the severity of the offense, the offender’s prior criminal record, whether  the offender used violence, whether the offender used weapons, and/or whether  the crime was committed for money. 2. Extra­Legal Factors a. Demographic factors relating to the offender or victim, such as social class,  gender, age, and race.


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