General Chemistry CHM 11500
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austen Pollich on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 at Purdue University taught by Chittaranjan Das in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see /class/207970/chm-11500-purdue-university in Chemistry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHM 11500A Dr Hilkka Kentt maa Lecture 3 For next lecture In your textbook read Sections 231239 pp 11081137 focusing on nuclear chemistry Be prepared to answer questions about this reading assignment NEXT WEEK in CHM115 New OWL Assignment Due on Friday February 6th Lab Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 1 Lab Manual Prelab Chapter 1 Lab Manual Question 1 What is a unit of temperature 909959 ampere A gram 9 joule J kelvin K mol mol second 5 Base Units Fundamental Units 39 Physical Quantity Dimension Unit Name Unit Abbreviation Mass kilogram kg Length meter in Time second 3 Temperature kelvin K Electric current ampere A Amount of substance moi moi Any other physical quantity can be expressed as a combination of the fundamental quantities Any other physical quantity can be expressed as a combination of the fundamental quantities Force N Mass kg x Acceleration msZ Pressure Pa Area m2 Area m2 N kg Pa 2 m2 m x s Energy unit Joule J 39 1 J 1 kg m2s2 Question 2 Which is the largest unit of energy kJ mJ MJ nJ ames E imon Decimal Pre xes Used with SI Prefix Meaning Prefix Symbol Number Word Multiple tera T 1000000000000 trill ion 10 3 alga G room 000 000 billion 109 mega M 1 00000 million 106 kilo k 1000 thousand 103 hecto h 100 hundred 10 deka da 10 ten 10I 1 one 100 deei d 01 tenth 10 l centi c 001 hundredth 10 quot2 milli m 00m thousandth 10 3 micm u 39 39 millionth 1 39 439 nano n billionth 10 9 pica p trillionth 10 2 femto f 00000 quadrilliomh 10 739 The prefixes most frequently used by chemists a r in bold type Many of the calculations you ll perform involve written in exponential notationI which include a multiple written as a power of 10 If you ot lamiliar with this method of expressing numbers or just need a review be sure to read Appendix A Question 3 Which is the correct way to express the indicated temperature 0 OC 10 0C 10 OC 3 OC 3332141O 0C 33 0C aweocm Always use a reasonable number of significant figures Question 4 Which has the greater kinetic energy 0 KE 12 mv2 mass velocity Potential and Kinetic Energy Energy is stored in molecules As stored energy it is potential energy Some molecules store more than others When a fuel is burned potential energy is converted to kinetic energy The amount of kinetic energy you can get out depends on the amount of potential energy available Energy is neither created nor destroyed it is only converted between different forms Macroscopic vs Microscopic World Burning fuel to obtain heat macroscopic world Molecules containing C and H being converted to 002 and H20 molecules with high kinetic energy microscopic world Take a look at the thermite reaction 1 1 Reaction reaches 3000 C enough to melt Fe Let s dive deeper into the microscopic world 39 Electron clouzd Structure of the Neutral Atom Mostly empty space Negatively charged electrons Positively charged nucleus but where is it The tiny red dot is the size of the nucleus Nucleus is 10000 times smaller than the overall atomic radius Atoms and Molecules Atoms combine together to form MOLECULES gt A structure consisting of two or more atoms that are chemically bound together and behave as an independent unit a Q 9th 3 o 399 Properly balanced equations have the same number and types of atoms in both the reactant and the product side 17 Balancing Chemical Equations A balanced chemical equation has the same type and number of atoms in the reactants as in the products 5 Not balanced Fuel Cell Rxn 39 2H2 02 gt zuzo l99 gt Correctlgibalancedi 69098 lt6 53338 g 2335 AV E uv ma Eu Av nugww v fr F F a r F rt 0 4 Q rt Models of chemical bonding eIectron lransler A Ionic bondan E Covalent bonding C Metalllc bondan Structure of Ions h Sometimes electrons are removed from a neutral atom This results in a positive ion cation because there are more protons than electrons Other atoms can have electrons added to them This results in a negative ion anion because there are more electrons than protons The periodic table can be used as a guide to which ions form from which atoms 21 Question 5 We gas full valence shell of electrons What ion does this element form Why a X2 c X b XZ d X Question 6 What ion does this element form Why a X2 c X b XZ d X Buddy Question 7 Your text lists the following atomic masses H 1008 O 1600 Calculate the molecular mass of water H20 Molecular Mass Answer to Buddy Question 7 18016 Units Unit of molecular mass amu atomic mass unit 1amu 1661 x103924 9 The Mole The mole mol is a counting unit for objects atoms molecules ions etc A mole represents 60221367x1023 objects This is known as Avogadro s number Avogadro s number is chosen so that 1 mol of 12C atoms has a mass of exactly 12 g I D028 1216993 Mdeg l 6022x1023x 12 amu 12 939 6022x1o23 amU 1 9 1 mol of amu 1 g es or never Average Atomic Mass Why is the average atomic mass of carbon 12011 amu We average the masses of isotopes to give relative atomic masses Naturally occurring C consists of 98892 12C 12 amu and 1108 13c 1300335 amu The average mass of C is therefore 09889212000 amu 001081300312011amu Average atomic mass is also known as atomic weight AW AW are listed on the periodic table Atomic Mass and Molar Mass 1 mol of things 6022 x 1023 of those things thing can be atoms molecules or eggs 1 H atom weighs 1008 amu 1677 x1O3924 g What is the mass of 1 mol of H atoms Molar mass The molar mass of a substance mass of 1 mole in grams It is numerically equal to the formula weight in amu Avg mass of 1 C atom 12011amu Mass of 1 mole ofC 12011 9 Mass of 1 H20 molecule 18015 amu Mass of 1 mol of H20 18015 9 molar mass of 0 plus 2x the molar mass of H Multiply by Avogado s number to get atoms O atoms in 18 9 H20 18 9 1 mo 60x1023 0 If the moles are other than one how do I calculate the mass Gases The particles molecules or atoms in a gas are Far apart Move randomly O 0 0 gases liquids solids volume changes constant constant shape changes changes constant Pressure Caused by collisions of atomsmolecules wnth walls of container Pressure is force per unit area SI unit of pressure Pa pascal 1 Pa 1 Nm2 1 kgms2 1atm 101325 Pa atm 1 torr1 mm Hg 133322 Pa Newton N Mass kg x Acceleration msZ The Ideal Gas Law PVnRT P pressureatm V volume L n number of moles no units T temperature K R gas constant For these units 008205 atm Lmo K DO NOT USE 8314 Jmol K Standard Molar Volume 5 P 6224L 224 L K c O n1mol n1mol n1mo P1atm P1atm P1atm V 224 L V 224 L V 224 L Number of gas particles Number of gas particles Number of gas particies 6022x1023 6022x1023 z 6022x1o23
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