General Chemistry CHM 11500
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austen Pollich on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 at Purdue University taught by Chittaranjan Das in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see /class/207970/chm-11500-purdue-university in Chemistry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHM 115 Dr Hilkka Kentt maa Lecture 4 Reading was Chapter 231239 nuclear chemistry Lecture 5 Sections 234235 Lecture 6 Sections 237239 Homework Assignments in OWL 8 Are clue on Wednesdays 9 clays after the assignment was given 8 Each assignment consists of several questions 8 You have five trials on each question 38 Just looking at the questions without any attempt to answer will cost you one trial Nuclear Chemistry Nulear puwm 70 quote Hydropower VJCKJII39ECFVI HI smar Energy Use by Source United Slams Structure of the Neutral Atom Nucleus protons and neutrons Electron clo u39d Buddy Question 1 How many neutrons are in a 19F nucleus answer with a number Mass number of protons of neutrons 13F lt Symbol of the element Atomic number of protons Terminology in Nuclear Chemistry Nucleus Atomic Nucleus Nucleonsr ConStituent particles of a Nucleus Neutrons and Protons Isotopes Same number of protons but different number of neutrons Hydrogen Proton 11H Deuteron H Tritium H Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of energy and particles from atomic nucleii Marie Sklodowska Curie 18671934 When M Curie presented her doctoral thesis it was described as the greatest single contribution of any doctoral thesis in the history of science Among other tt ngs two new elements poloTIium and radium had been discovered In 1903 Becquerel M Curie and her husband Pierre were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in physics In 1911 M Curie won a second Nobel Prize this time in chemistry Natural Types of Radioactive Decay Some elements undergo spontaneous decay to form more stable elements by emitting a particle 77 4 39 V a a helium nucleus 2 He t 0 B an electron 16 How can a nucleus lose an electron Y a photon no charge no mass 00v excited stable 7 photon nucleus nucleus radiated an gt 1 O 130 in nucleus in nucleus B expelled Types of Radiation Produced w I II 39 ZnScoated screen or photographic plate Lead Radioactive block material Lilli Voltage source Nuclear Decay for 238U Number of neutrons 3 decay mass does not change but a neutron is converted to a proton and an e39 148 146 144 142 140 138 136 134 132 130 128 126 124 Copyright m McGruerHI Compamrr m Permls lnn mum N dwsNay 238v 0 decay 234Th a decay deca 234 y 43 of protons and of neutrons 230Th 0 decrease by 2 22 39 mass 222 9 decreases by 4 21820 I 218A 214pb k 2143quot 214po 210To 210Pb 0 21 210 206T K 206ij Stable 2 5Pb 122 7 r T r l r r r 1 T 7 I T 1 8 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 Number of protons Question 2 Which change involves adecay 98 a 43Tc 44RU 229 b 2Th 90 Th unstable nucleus to stable nucleus 212 208 c 84 P0 82 Pb What is going on here Nuclear Chemistry Equations 93 93 0 a e 43TC 44Ru 1 b 229Th 229Th 90 90 212 208 4 He c 84 P0 82 Pb 2 Loss of a photon v particle reactant atomic number product atomic number reactant mass number product mass number Nuclear Chemistry Equations 93 93 0 El e 43TC 44Ru 1 b 229m 229m 37 90 90 212 208 4 He c 84 Po 82 Pb 2 Look at the sum of atomic and mass numbers on each side of the equations what do you see Buddy Question 3 2 reactant atomic numbers note charge 2 product atomic numbers note charge 2 reactant mass numbers 2 product mass numbers Hence identify the atomic number of X and the element X 2512Mg 42He gt AZX 11H Buddy Question 3 Identify the atomic number of X and the element X 2512Mg 42He gt AZX 11H Answer 2813Al This is an unstable nucleus with a halflife of 23 min that will decay to 28148i and a 3 particle Nuclear Power Station Nuclear Energy What is the source of energy in a nuclear reaction Mass Defect Mass of nucleus is not equal to the sum of the masses of individual nucleons in the nucleus 140031 amu 141154 amu E mc2 or AE Amc2 E is the energy in J produced when mass m is converted into energy or consumed when energy is converted to mass m mass in kg 1 amu 16605 X 10 27 kg c speed of light 29978 x 108 m s AE nuclear binding energy NBE energy needed to separate a nucleus into protons and neutrons Question 4 What is the NBE of 147N per nucleus 147N gt 711H 710n AE NBE Am 01123 amu 1amu 166x1O27 kg 0 300x108 m 5391 a 10X1O16J b 34X1O7J C 17X1O3911J d 56X1O3920J Question 4 What is the NBE of 147N per nucleus 147N gt 711H 710n AE NBE Am O1123 amu 1amu 166 x1027 kg c3OOx108mS391 Am 01123 amux166x103927 kg1amu a 10X1O16J 186X1O3928kg b 34X107J AE Amxc2186X1O3928kgx300x108 C 17x1O11J ms12167x1o11kg m2s2167x1o11J d 55X103920J NBE167x103911Jnucleus Buddy Question 5 wa do ydu etUpt e o OWI gpro em What is the NBE of 147N ger mol MN gt 711H 710n AE N B E Am 01123 amu1amu 166 x1027 kg 0 300 x108 m s1 NBE 167 x1011 Jnucleus a 60X1O39J b 10X1O13J C 33X1O4J d 56x 103917 J Buddy Question 5 wa do ydu etUpt e o OWI gpro em What is the NBE of 147N ger mol MN gt 711H 710n AE NBE Am 01123 amu1amu 166 x1027 kg 0 300 x108 m s1 NBE 167 x1011 Jnucleus a 60x1039J NBEmo 13 31184 JJ 167 X1O3911 Jnucleus x 6022 x1023 d 55X1O 17J nucleimol 1Ox1013Jmo Nuclear Binding Energy 1X103kJ 22 2A F9203 gt 2 Fe A203 AE CH4 202 gt 302 2H20 AE 802 kJ 22 147N gt711H710n AE17X108kJ Nuclear Reactions Why do different nuclei decay in different ways Predicting Types of Nuclear Decay Band of Stability These nuclei are not radioactive Heaviest stable np too large 39 209 39 quoteumns 120 increase number nudeus39s 833quot mo of protons nlp 1 Number of np too small increase n or reduce p U 20 4D 80 80 100 Number of protons Question 6 if Nleber of neutrons How would m K n 1 we expect X g p to decay an X a 3 decay 4a b v decay 20 c a decay Number or protons Question 6 if Nleber of neutrons How would m K n 1 we expect X g p to decay an X b v decay c on decay Number of protons How would we expect Y to decay a 3 decay b a decay c v decay if Nleber of Question 7 neutrons 120 100 30 4a 20 4D 50 SD IUD Number of protons Question 7 if Nleber of neutrons Y o How would we 120 expect Y to 8 np 1 decay a B deca 50 c v decay 0 2D 4D 50 SD IUD Number of protons Predicting Types of Nuclear Decay Numberof 7 gt H 39 neutrons stable udecay 3 decay i l 6 capture or 3 decay 120 100 Neulrons N gt QCI new 39 KK39 60 Protons 2 U 20 4D 80 80 100 Number of protons 31 Predicting Types of Nuclear Decay 8 np too large Increase number of protons Beta decay neutron decays to proton plus a beta particle 38np too small Increase neutrons or reduce protons Positron 01e decay or electron capture 88Above the band of stability Alpha decay Summary 7 Emamp mass defect 8 Nuclear reactions are different from other chemical reactions Atoms change identity Energy scale different 3 Types of nuclear reactions vary and can be predicted
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