Chapter 11 Need to Know Information PSYCH
Chapter 11 Need to Know Information PSYCH PSYC 3206-003
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Monday March 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3206-003 at East Carolina University taught by Gary J. Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
Reviews for Chapter 11 Need to Know Information PSYCH
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/14/16
Chapter 11 Need to Know Puberty and Sexual Maturity PUBERTY the process that leads to sexual maturity or fertility the ability to reproduce Physicians in some Western societies see pubertal changes well before age 10 Puberty involves dramatic biological changes Puberty begins with hormonal changes a First the hypothalamus releases elevated levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH b Next the increased GnRH triggers a rise in lutenizing hormone LH and folliclestimulating hormone FSH c In girls increased levels of FSH lead to the onset of menstruation d In boys LH initiates the release of two additional hormones testosterone and androstenedione Puberty can be broken down into two basic stages adrenarche and gonadarche a Adrenarche occurs between ages 6 and 8 Adrenal glands secrete increasing levels of androgens most notably dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA b Gonadarche is marked by the maturing of the sex organs which triggers a second burst of DHEA production PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS the organs necessary for reproduction In the female the sex organs include the ovaries fallopian tubes uterus clitoris and vagina In the male they include the testes penis scrotum seminal vesicles and prostate gland During puberty these organs enlarge and mature SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs for example the breasts of females and the broad shoulders of males The rst external signs of puberty typically are breast tissue and pubic hair in girls and enlargement of the testes in boys ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT a rapid increase in height weight and muscle and bone growth that occurs during puberty Begins between ages 9 12 and 14 12 and in boys between 10 12 and 16 Typically lasts about 2 years SPERMARCHE the rst ejaculation Occurs at an average age of 13 MENARCHE the rst menstruation Occurs fairly late from ages 10 to 16 12 SECULAR TREND a trend that spans several generations Adolescent Brain Dramatic changes in brain structures involved in emotions judgement organization of behavior and self control take place between puberty and young adulthood Risktaking appears to result from the interaction of two brain networks a socioemotional network and a cognitivecontrol network SOClOEMOTIONAL NETWORK sensitive to social and emotional stimuli COGNITIVECONTROL NETWORK regulates responses to stimuli There is a steady increase in the white matter of the brain during adolescence It allows nerve impulses to be transmitted more rapidly and helps neurons synchronize their ring rate thus improving adolescents information processing abilities Described as a quotwork in progressquot lmmaturity of adolescent brain has led to questions of legal responsibility Two major brain changes Growth Spurt and Gray matter growth The growth spurt is chie y in frontal lobes Deals with reasoning judgement and impulse control Gray matter growth is continued myelination and facilitates maturation of cognitive abilities Sleep Needs and Problems Sleep deprivation among adolescents has been called an epidemic 45 of adolescents reported getting insuf cient sleep 31 were borderline 20 slept the recommended amount Children generally go to sleep later and sleep less on school days the other they get Sleeping in on weekends does not make up for the loss of sleep on school nights Sleep deprivation can sap motivation and cause irritability and concentration and school performance can suffer Young people ages 16 to 29 are most likely to be involved in crashes caused by the driver falling asleep Average sleep declines to less than 8 hours at age 16 Adolescents need more sleep than when they were younger Changes in circadian timing and melatonin may account for tendency to stay up late School schedules are out of sync with biological rhythms Nutrition and Eating Disorders US adolescents have less healthy diets than other industrialized countries They eat fewer fruits and vegetables and more sweets chocolates and junk food US teens are twice as likely to be overweight as their agemates in 14 other industrialized countries Numbers tripled between 1980 and 2004 A concern with body image may lead to obsessive efforts at weight control ANOREXIA NERVOSA quotSelfStarvation is potentially life threatening It is a distorted body image The patient is constantly dieting and believe that they are fat when they are actually far from it It may cause irregularity or cessation of menstruation These patients are often good students and perfectionists BULIMIA NERVOSA a person with bulimia regularly goes on huge shortlived eating binges and then may try to purge the high caloric intake through selfinduced vomiting strict dieting or fasting excessively vigorous exercise or laxatives enemas or diuretics Use and Abuse of Drugs SUBSTANCE ABUSE harmful use of alcohol or other drugs SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE addiction Can be psychological or physiological Addictive drugs are especially dangerous because they stimulate parts of the brain that are still developing in adolescence Nearly one half of US adolescents have tried illicit drugs by the time they leave high school Recent trend is abuse of nonprescription cough and cold medications BINGE DRINKING consuming ve or more drinks on one occasion RISK FACTORS a Dif cult Temerament b Poor impulse control and sensation seeking c Biochemical basis andor family in uence d Genetic predisposition or inconsistent parenting e Early and persistent behavior patterns f Peer rejection alienation or rebelliousness g Attitudes toward drug use and early initiation Common adolescent drugs alcohol marijuana tobacco Death in Adolescence 63 of death among adolescents result from motor vehicle crashes other unintentional injuries homicide and suicide Vehicular accidents are the leading cause of death among US teens Firearms are the cause of homicide suicide and accidental deaths One third of all injury deaths are caused by a rearm Suicide is the 4th leading cause of deaths among 1519 year olds Depression and feeling alone is a big problem with suicide Piaget39s Formal Operations Stage FORMAL OPERATIONS When adolescents move away from their reliance on concrete realworld stimuli and develop the capacity for abstract thought A capacity for abstract thought A more exible way to manipulate information Usually develops around age 11 HYPOTHETICALDEDUCTIVE REASONING Involves a methodical scienti c approach to problem solving and it characterizes formal operations thinking lnvolves the ability to develop consider and test hypotheses and the young person can be compared to a scientist exploring a problem Information Processing Knowledge Changes in the way adolescents process information re ect the maturation of the brain s frontal lobes and may help explain the cognitive advances Piaget described STRUCTURAL changes include changes in working memory capacity and increasing the amount of knowledge stored in long term memory a Declarative Knowledge knowing that consists of all the factual knowledge a person has acquired b Procedural Knowledge knowing how to consists of all the skills a person has acquired such as being able to multiply and divide and to drive a car c Conceptual Knowledge knowing why is an understanding of for example why an algebraic equation remains true if the same amount is added or subtracted from both sides 10 ll 12 FUNCTIONAL CHANGE the process for obtaining handling and retaining information a Mathematical and scienti c reasoning b Improved pro ciency in drawing conclusions Kholberg39s Levels of Moral Reasoning Level 1 Preconventional Morality a Punishment and Obedience b Instrumental Purpose and Exchange Level 2 Conventional Morality a Approval of others quotthe Golden Rulequot b Social concern and conscience Level 3 Postconventional Morality a Contracts rights and democratic laws b Universal ethical principles Gender Typing The process in which a child becomes aware of their gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as their own School Achievement and SelfEf cacy In uences on School Achievement Selfef cacy beliefs parenting styles ethnicity peer in uences gender SELFEFFICACY The belief that one can complete a task Students high in selfef cacy believe that they can master tasks and regulate their own learning These students are likely to do well in school The school can in uence achievement through the quality of the school whether or not the student likes the school whether or not the school tailors teaching to the student s abilities and whether or not the school helps the student transition to college Dropping Out of School 34 of high school students dropped out during 2009 2010 school year Students have a high risk of dropping out if they have a Low SES b Are male c Are Hispanic d Are students with low active engagement Average dropout rates are lower for white students ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT the quotattention interest investment and effort students expend in the work of schooV Vocational Training Programs Training that emphasizes skills and knowledge required for a particularjob function Usually used for students that plan to go to college
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'