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# General Chemistry CHM 11500

Purdue

GPA 3.75

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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austen Pollich on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 at Purdue University taught by Chittaranjan Das in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see /class/207970/chm-11500-purdue-university in Chemistry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15

CHM 115 Dr Hilkka Kentt maa Lecture 5 Reading was 234 and 235 Lecture 6 237239 Summary from Previous Lecture E mc2 mass defect Nuclear reactions are different from other chemical reactions Atoms change identity Energy scale different Types of nuclear reactions vary and can be predicted Fraction of sample i F a P on P 4 P a F 11 P J P w P M P D Radioactive Decay Follows Firstorder Kinetics Decay 0f Tcng halflife 6 h 5 1a 15 20 25 30 35 Time h 4 Buddy Question 1 X is radioactive How much of a sample ofX is left after 3 halflives a 12 b 13 014 d18 e Impossible to tell without knowing the initial mass ofX and its half life Buddy Question 1 X is radioactive How much of a sample ofX is left after 3 halflives a12 gt b 13 014 Two halflife halflives l d 18 e Impossible to tell without knowing the initial m mass ofX and its half life Buddy Question 2 The halflife of 239Pu is 24000 years How much 239Pu remains in a sample that initially contained 10 kg of plutonium after 96000 years 12 kg 14 kg 18 kg d 116 kg 939 0 Buddy Question 2 The halflife of 239Pu is 24000 years How much 239Pu remains in a sample that initially contained 10 kg of plutonium after 96000 years a 12 kg Time halflife halflives b 4 kg 96000 y 24000 y 4 gt 4 halflives 1 2 c 18 kg 1 kg gt 05 kg gt 025 kg gt 0125 kg fgt 00625 kg 116 kg d 116 kg Nuclear Reactions Kinetics N decaying nuclei dN dt change in of nuclei per 3 or min hr First order rate equation CiN Cit k N k rate constant with a value depending on the nucleus Integrated rate equation ln NN kt Reaction rate is 0 independent of the N0 initial N at time t concentration ofN Detecting Radiation Geiger Counter Counting the number of disintegrations per second dps or disintegrations per minute dpm for elements emitting or or 3 particles both charged space filled with a suitable gas eg Argon Pulse of electric current voltage wire at about 1000 volts relative to the tube Nuclear Reactions Kinetics N decaying nuclei dN dt change in nuclei per 3 In countSS counts per 3 or min hr Integrated rate equation In NNO kt time Rates Are Often Given as Halflives Halflife time required for onehalf of nuclei to decay nNNokt In12oNQIn12 n2 kn2lt12 ort12n2lk The Nuclear Halflife Halflives vary dramatically 31H t12 1226 y 1460 t12 5730 y 6027CO t12 53 y 23994Pu t12 24 x 104 y 26310689 t12 08 S Question 3 How long will a 6000 source be useful if it can be used until the vrays it produces reach 70 Eercent of the original intensity 602700 decays with a half life of 530 years to produce 6028Ni 1 Calculate k from halflife 2 Use the integrated form of the rate equation to find t Question 3 How long will a 6000 source be useful if it can be used until the vrays it produces reach 70 Eercent of the original intensity 602700 decays with a half life of 530 years to produce 6028Ni 1 Calculate k from halflife 2 Use the integrated form of the rate equation to find t knzt1m n0UNQkt Question 3 How long will a 6000 source be useful if it can be used until the vrays it produces reach 70 Eercent of the original intensity 602700 decays with a half life of 530 years to produce 6028Ni 1 Calculate k from halflife 2 Use the integrated form of the rate equation to find t k In 2 t12 0693 I 530 y 0131 V1 In NNo kt gt t In NN0 k In 70100 0131y 272 y n upper atmosphere 14C I19 14 1 14 1 7N on GC quot39 1P keeps 14C12C ratio constant NO Number Initial Number of of nuclei number halflives at time t of nuclei Mt 9 60 X Plants and animals 39 12 14 take In CO2 and CO2 After 1st 1 Mr halflife 5730 yr After 2nd halflife 11460 yr After 3rd halflife 17190 yr Once a plant or animal 9150 dies its ratio of 14Cl12C 1 a O goes down I 0 IV 1 Y I Y I 10000 20000 146C 147N quot39 B Time yr t12 5730 y JHrAIHL 39hm39cozv qu02 th Pulyncs n gulqu I 1503L1039quotum 0mm I39m max Guamnmlz mmd with Maw um raw In 1m 51 00 um wrapping from Bank at k 0 Dead Sm Scroll lt M 5 39md 4 IIIom orl lulm pt odlzypl 1250 bLlUquot39oodu uncmxy IIpmmbor5mmi1IIEgypxmao 0un rcoal Iarlw ph 39uf Slonchk ngc Lair Nl ulr uc armzl from mum w lcmcnl in japan 0 amm beam mm rs er nEgyleS39N unch quotE from uupmn than rwalzd crLakgOmgon 8515 450 nurncd bones of dmh hum in cm n b 0 31 an Snail Isl Magdlan Chilr 1 5k 0139 mn rzq II Imcc ohm alol 440 mm Indian occupantn quot9 395 quot quotmmm lcvcl nl Harman CHI Keck Shaker lllinoi 9003 A35 urntd hmquot ham amimd 0m romny Man mm at Lubbock Texas 103602610 MImIIIIIImeiIhi Iransi on me Bolt 22 aI mulllcm Ir 7 I l r r 4 J l I I n 2000 4000 6000 9000 I0000 12000 H000 I5 000 l Ag ycal39s Plot of carbon 14 decay rate in counts per minute per gram of carbon ram the sample against the age of the sample In years Buddy Question 4 What percent of the original 14C remains in the heartwood of a bristle cone pine that is 3000 y old 146C gt 147N 046 t12 5730 y nNolNkt Inxy yeX Inzkt1m Buddy Question 4 Whatpercent of the original 1 C remains in the he rtwood of a bristle cone pine that isiC 00 old 146C gt 147 0 15 t12 5730 y nNNo k t Inxy yeX Inzkt1m Buddy Question 4 What percent of the original 14C remains in the heartwood of a bristle cone pine that is 3000 2 old 1460 gt 1 W 016 t125730y nNNokt lnxy Xey n2kt12 gt knzt1l2 N N0 e kt e 3000 y In 25730 y e 0363 0695 695 Nuclear Power Station Generating Electricity Nuclear iiT7 a Q iiiiif ir 9 ti 9 IIIEI Arauicnucnanmx snurramxk39imw WT WWMWWE mm mssmsumn mcmaoucssmcmm quot1 Generating Electricity Combustion aunNsn 10 MM 5 A much mm M quotmums Wm w n mousz Eucmcir l f a 7 e a 51 NV Q E 33 IEl EDAL GAS DR 07 IS 5 M CN SPINS TNE GENENAYER N N Artificial Nuclear Reactions Fission Neutron capture Fusion Nuclear reaction fission ENERGY 235 92 U 236 U Fleeionable 92 nucleus Unstable 11 intermediate 55 Ba Fission products Nuclear Reactions Fission Production of lighter nuclei by the decomposition of a heavier nucleus Often but not always occurs when a heavier nucleus captures a neutron One of many examples in a nuclear reactor 235 1 87 146 1 Manufacture of tritium 639 1 4 3 3LI On gt 2He1H Nuclear Reactions Neutron Capture Neutron capture by a nucleus gives a heavier isotope with a one unit greater mass number Stable plutonium forms in a series of reactions several of which involve neutron capture 23892U 10 gt 23992U 23992U gt 23993Np 0 16 23993Np gt 23994Pu 0 16 23994Pu 10 gt 24094Pu 24094Pu 10 24194Pu Question 5 Is energy produced or required in this nuclear reac on 1 1 2 1H on 1H 11H 1007825 amu 21H 201410 amu 10n 1008665 amu c 300 x108 ms Question 5 Is energy produced or required in this nuclear reac on 11H 10n 21H For one mol 11H 1007825 9 21H 201410 9 10n 1008665 9 c 300 x108 ms Question 5 11H 10n 21H Am 201410 9 1007825 9 1008665 9 000239 9 per mol AE Am x c2 000239 gmol x 1 kg10009 x 300 x108 ms2 215 x1011 kg m2 2 215 X1011Jmol A lot of energy is produced Nuclear Reactions Fusion Production of a heavier nucleus by combination of lighter nuclei 2 3 4 1 1H1H gt 2He On Deuterium Helium o v 0 Energy 00 Tritium Neutron 73951 PHInquot 397 Emma NW fEELW 39 Nuclear fusion is the energyproducing process which takes place continuously in the sun and stars In the core of the sun at temperatures of 1015 million K hydrogen is converted to helium providing enough energy to sustain life on earth Why doesn t heavy water fuse Why doesn t the heavy water in the ocean undergo spontaneous fusion 21H 21H gt 42He 402820 amu 400260 amu 2 2 2 Met 1H 1H J Low collision frequency 24 MB Huge activation energy 4HE T m 10000000 K required to fife2 ignite deuterium fusion Summary Radioactive decay follows 1St order kinetics Decay rate is characterized by halflife The BE per nucleon provides a guide to predicting whether fusion or fission will occur

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