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General Chemistry

by: Austen Pollich

General Chemistry CHM 11500

Marketplace > Purdue University > Chemistry > CHM 11500 > General Chemistry
Austen Pollich
GPA 3.75

Chittaranjan Das

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Chittaranjan Das
Class Notes
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austen Pollich on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 at Purdue University taught by Chittaranjan Das in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see /class/207970/chm-11500-purdue-university in Chemistry at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHM 115A Dr Hilkka Kenttamaa Lecture 6 Reading was 23 7 239 Lecture 7 71 85 Lab Using NaZCO3 to Determine the Amount of Acid in Solution used in 1800 s to determine acidity of wines EXAM next Thursday 630 730 pm in Hall of Music The main focus of the exam is on lecture material Lecture notes taken by a TA are in the Resource Room Some questions also come from homework assignments Old OWL assignments are on the web until the end of the semester old exams are in Blackboard About 20 questions important equations and constants will be provided The most important issues to study are given in lecture summaries more will be given on Tuesday and posted to Blackboard during the weekend Solution to Question 3 Lecture 5 How long will a 60Co source be useful if it can be used until the y rays it produces reach 70 percent of the original intensity 6 27Co decays with a half life of 530 years to produce 6 28Ni lt t In NNo kt Convert given halflife 530 years to rate constant k by using this equation kn2lt12 In 21530 y 0131y Use the integrated rate equation to obtain time t since you know k and NIN0 70l100 from question In NNo kt gt t In NN0 k In 70100 0131y 272 y Buddy Question 4 What percent of the original 14C remains in the heartwood of a bristle cone pine that is 3000 2 old 1460 gt N 045 t125730y nNNokt Inxy xeY n2kt12 gt kn2lt12 Summary from Previous Lecture Energy released in nuclear reactions AE A mc2 Radioactive decay follows firstorder kinetics halflife tyz reaction rate constant k k In 2 I t12 integrated rate equation In NINO kt Artificial nuclear reactions fission fusion TODAY predicting which one occurs based on NBE Radiation and biological matter nuclear medicine Nuclear binding energy NBE energy needed to separate a nucleus into protons and neutrons MN gt 711H 710n NBE1Ox1013Jmo The nuclear stabilities of different elements are compared using nuclear binding energy per mol of nucleons in the nucleus For 147N NBE 14 nucleons 10 x 1013 Jmol 14 nucleons 71 x 1011 Jmol nucleons Nuclear Binding Energy Nucleon The greater NBE per nucleon the more stable the nucleus Binding energy per nucleon maximizes around 56Fe NBE I 56 Mass number Question 1 NBE per nucleon provides a guide to the type of nuclear reactions nuclei will undergo Two nuclei in region will undergo a fission b fusion NBE nucleon 56 Mass number Question 1 These nuclei fuse together and form a heavier These nucleI split fissuon nuceus into lighter nuclei 238U1 87Br 149La 1 21H 31H 42He 1on 92 on 35 57 3 on I Greater NBElnucleon Greater NBElnucleon Sr NBE I nucleon Fissin n h it Fusmn h quot391 Mass number Degree of Radioactivity Activity or disintegrations transformations per unit of time is expressed in units of curies Ci or in the SI unit of becquerels Bq One becquerel Bq 1 disintegration per second 91 One curie Ci 37 x 1010 disintegrations per second 37 x 1010 becquerels Radiation and Biological Matter The damage caused by radiation to biological matter is not solely determined by the degree of radioactivity activity What matters more is The amount of energy absorbed The effectiveness of the particular type of radiation in causing tissue damage The Amount of Energy Absorbed Not all types of radiation are absorbed to the same extent For example y particles pass a living being while or particles stop at the outer layer of skin A gray Gy is the SI unit of absorbed dose by living tissue Gy 1 joule kg of body tissue 100 rads radiation absorbed dose Not all types of radiation are absorbed to the same extent For example v particles pass a living thing while or particles stop at the outer layer of skin The Amount of Energy Absorbed Not all types of radiation are absorbed to the same extent A gray Gy is the SI unit of absorbed dose by living tissue Gy 1 joule kg of body tissue 100 rads radiation absorbed dose The Effectiveness of the Absorbed Energy in Causing Damage Different Types of Radiation Cause Different Extents of Tissue Damage Particle Relative damaging power is measured by quality factors y 1 1 11p 5 10n 5 42He 20 Iiblz 14 39 some of Radmion Average Adult Exposure awnl Cosmic radiation 1040 mlemm Radiation From lhe ground len my mil nnd rocks 25 170 mmn In woodzn houses IO 20 Imamyr In brick house 60770 lnmnlyr In Canada under block house 60460 mumyr Radiation from Illa air mainly radon Ouklcors average value 20 mmm vr In Wuoden houses 70 mmmyr In br39ck houses 30 mmmyr In cancrcm cindcr block house 260 mmmyr lmcmaI mmauun Ilcvn minerals in lap waler and daxly imakc of feud K c Ra 40 mumyr rt 3 Diagnostic xray mullde Lung um 011402 rad lm Kidney Inca l5 3 rad lm Dcnml dose In the skin SI radmm Th avian nmaunem my I0 000 Ind us 191 mm 4 n mmm Nuclear taming lt4 mremyr Nuclear powu mduslry ltI quotmmyr TmAL AVERAGE VALUE wuin mremyr lablelu Acute Effectsuf quot 39 quot nu quothuhBody Irradiation Dose Lethal Dose rem Effect Population X No of Days 5 20 Possible late effect possible chromosomal aberrations 207100 Temporary reduction in 7 7 white blood cells 50 Temporary sterility in men rem 1 yr duration 100 200 Mild radiation sicknessquot vomiting diarrhea tiredness in a few hour Reduction in infection resistance Possible bone growth retardation in chi ren 300 Permanent sterility in women 500 39 enous ra ratio src ness 50770 30 marrow intestine destruction 40071000 Acute illness early deaths 60 95 30 3000 100 2 Acute illness death in hours 0 ays Radiation and Biological Matter Radiation when it interacts with matter can cause two effects Nonionizing radiation causes atoms to vibrate matter gains heat Ionizing radiation causes loss of eectrons Atom 9 ion e39 Radiation Damage 1 Gy gray 1 Jkg 4 Gy g H20 raises the temperature by 4 00 Radiation damage is not due to heating it results from breaking chemical bonds in a body producing free radicals mghlv reaitive species a l I a I J r 1 I H H 4 l i J Jr J a 3 z r N 5 I I 1 I y ya 0 J j w L H L I f h r y kg 11 lgi g l r Iquot k Free radicals unpaired e39 Radiation Damage The body can handle and repair a certain amount of free radical damage whether it is caused by radiation drinking alcohol heavy labor heavy exercise eating slightly rancid food from wounds Radiation sickness is a free radical disease just as hangover Radiation Damage The body can handle a certain amount of free radicals before the free radicals overwhelm the body39s free radical scavenging system After this free radicals damage the body39s free radical scavenging system creating a vicious cycle Radiation kills by breaking cells DNA As a consequence cells cannot reproduce LD5O is approximately 25 4 Gy 250 400 rem depending on length of exposure and treatment Question 2 Which is most important in deciding whether eating a radioactive material is a medical emergency The number of curies absorbed The energy of each decay event The length of the radiation exposure The number of moles of radioisotopes ingested The number of rems received DPPP39F J Question 2 Which is most important in deciding whether eating a radioactive material is a medical emergency The number of curies absorbed The energy of each decay event The length of the radiation exposure The number of moles of radioisotopes ingested DPPP39F J The number of rems received I Nuclear Medicine Radioactive substances are administered to treat disease or provide pain relief Iodine131 is often used for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer Prostate cancer Permanent implantation of seeds of Pd103 or l125 Pd103 t12 16 days xray energy 21 keV l125 t12 60 days gamma energy 30 keV 25 Nuclear Medicine Radioactive substances are administered and the radiation emitted is measured The substance is chosen based on its ability to concentrate in the tissue of interest Usually involves the formation of an image The images of healthy and sick individuals are compared H l 39 the Prpmraiiorlof l 0 Tcehlnnlllum Tt a m Sealamlbi t rlnjmtlm 99Mo gt 99m e 99Mo t12 66 h I 99mTC gt 99TC y gngC t19 6 h I vrays behave like xrays they pass through tissue Cardiolite distributes in the heart proportionally to the liillllEJL fv blood flow in the heart s a wiig rm muscle m implies that the nucleus is metastable Nuclear Medicine PET Imaging PET Positron Emission Tomography Positron Emission tdecay 3decay decay by loss of a positron 1580 157N 01e OMB The positron often interacts with an electron by annihilation 01B 13 2 y 0511 MeV each All of their mass is converted into energy PET Positron Emission Tomography 3quot 339 gt 2 y 0511 MeV each in opposite directions PETcomputed tomography CT image that shows lung cancer Nuclear Medicine PET Imaging Brain with blunt force trauma Question 3 189F is prepared in PET by bombarding a sample containing glucose with protons Which nucleus X in the glucose combines with a proton to produce 189F X 11p gt 18939 10 19 CHQOH CHZOH a 9F 0 O b 17 F 9 OH OH OH OH 17 O C39 18quot OH O OH H T d39 80 Glucose FGD Buddy Question 4 Which penetrates most deeply into the body a or radiation b 3 radiation Buddy Question 5 Upon absorption the deeply penetrating y radiation is a ionizing b nonionizing


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