General Chemistry CHM 11500
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austen Pollich on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 at Purdue University taught by Chittaranjan Das in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see /class/207970/chm-11500-purdue-university in Chemistry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHM 115 Dr Hilkka Kentt maa Lecture 10 Reading was 9193 Chemical Bonding Lecture 11 94 910 Electron Affinity EA EA is the energy released upon addition of an electron to an atoms Follows the opposite trend to IE CI e39 CI39 AH349 kJmol Energy is released Electron Affinities EA of Main Group Elements Positive difficult to add EA added an electron beyond e is not bound a full orbital Smaller atom greater EA Energy Energy of Orbitals f 4d 4p 3d Lu 3p 5 a I lll 2p Electron Affinities EA of Main Group Elements Positive dif cult to add an e ectron eyond orbital EA added e is not bound Smaller atom greater EA Rn highest for Electron Affinities EA of Main Group Elements dif cult to add an e ectron eyond orbital Halffilled porbitals Smaller atom greater EA N 132 232 2p3 0 132 2322p4 vlr Electron Affinities EA of Main Group Elements EA 1A ordering 1 Smalle atom greater EA Energy Energy of Orbitals 7 4d 539 5 4p Sc 3d Ca 4S I 3p 5 35 g IIl B 2 25 p B e 1Squotquot 1s Sc Scandium Electron Affinities EA of Main Group Elements nuclear attraction smaller atom greater EA orbital and shell energy levels Orbital Energy Diagram for a manyelectron atom Ed 75 5d 41 65 455 p 3 4s Energy neededreleased to add an extra electron EA depends on what s below 31 35 Energy E 2p 25 Summary Increase in size Increase in size within shell from decreasing nuclear charge A mm Q m E 2 E39 E 39 N 3 a 3 Greater ionization energy within shell from increasing nuclear charge shielding by other electrons a mmnlmmy Greater electron af nity within shell with increasing nuclear charge form n con guration c Elannunallmlly Remove electron to ohle gas Add electron to form noble gas con guration Periodic trends in thermochemical properties of elements IE EA Periodic Trends in the Chemical Properties of Elements Question 1 Li Na and K all members of group 1A form chlorides with the same metalchlorine atom ratio because Li Na and K atoms a are the same size b have the same first ionization energy c have the same valence shell e configuration cl have a similar electron affinity Period 1A 1 1 H 15 Periodic trends in composition of compounds of main group elements down groups 2A 2 3 Li 4 Be He 251 He 232 11 12 i Na Mg M M Be0H2 BOH3 MQ0H2 A0H3 BeCl2 MgCl2 BF3 AIF3 spunodwoo umoux M95 Period Periodic trends in composition across penods 1A 781017 1 18 1 2 1 H He 1 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 5 121 113 1141 1151 1161 1171 152 3 4 5 a 7 a 9 10 2 Li Be B c N o F Ne 11131231 He12s2 111312s22p1 He 2s22112 1He12322p3 He12522p4 He 2s 22p 3 He2s22p6 11 12 13 14 15 1e 17 18 3 1 Na Mg Al Si P S C Ar P4191331 Ne 352 1111911351 5 3131 Ne 3323p 1Ne13323p3 Ne3523p4 Ne 3523115 F111e352313396 NaF Mng AIF3 SiF4 PF5 SF6 CIF7 NaZO MgO AIZO3 SiO2 P205 SO3 CIZO7 NaH MgH2 AIH3 SiH4 PH3 HZS HCI How can these trends be explained I Chemical bond The force that holds two atoms together in a compound Scientists have three general models to describe these forces Ionic Covalent Metallic How are these models distinguished By the distribution of the electrons among the atoms involved in the bonding Buddy Question 2 Let s see what you know about bonds between atoms Covalent bonds can form when a Electrons are transferred from one atom to another b Electrons are shared between two atoms c Electrons are shared among all the atoms in a solid Ionic Bonding Electrostatic forces that hold positive and negative ions together electron transfer M I
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