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General Chemistry

by: Austen Pollich

General Chemistry CHM 11500

Marketplace > Purdue University > Chemistry > CHM 11500 > General Chemistry
Austen Pollich
GPA 3.75

Chittaranjan Das

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Chittaranjan Das
Class Notes
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austen Pollich on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11500 at Purdue University taught by Chittaranjan Das in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/207970/chm-11500-purdue-university in Chemistry at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
lectureZ Dr Chitta Das I Lectures TTh w 1 R 11301220 and M quot 1230120 L For next lecture b c39 Review sections section 16 pp 2532 section 18 pp 3842 section 2325 pp 6976 section 33 pp 103107 section 35 pp 116119 section 123 pp 557561 H Observation and science 0 Your textbook gives a pretty good just so description of modern atomic theory Where did that view come from Is it self evident No it is based on observation In the scientific process Observe 9 hypothesize 9 experiment 9 Model the most important part is observe How do we observe what s around us Question 1 True or False The climate 17000 years ago in Indiana is much the same as it is today True False Caution what do we mean by climate b c39 Before we can answer the question we have to have general agreement on what we mean by climate It is not uncommon to mistake weather for climate Weather pertains to occurrences from hour to hour or day to day in a specific location Climate pertains to average weather over an extended period of time in a specific region or on a larger scale Climate can correspond to averages over a season year or century and over a county state country or the globe 5 When scientists talk about climate change they are using the scientific notion of climate Equally incorrect statements The average temperature went down last year global warming is wrong It s a scorcher out there today It s that global warming thing Lesson in order to talk science we need to use clearly defined scientific terminology How to observe the climate over extended periods of time before recorded weather AH How do we measure temperature Thermometers Glacier ice b c39 Glacier ice sublimes over the year mostly in the summer However water H20 containing 160 sublimes faster than qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq m that with 180 so 180 tends to build up over time The extent of buildup is temperature dependent and acts as p a thermometer 8 a 130 9 30 42 Longterm Climate Change Oxygen Isotope Global Ice Volume Last 500030 Years BP Less m Pm rious magma I Am Cuxrem Imm39gacial IC List nial I Iax139mum 20 5500 BP 39 Mme Ics 100 L11 3 O Age in thousands of years before presem Rik V Human Migration Floute North America during the Last Ice Age 20000 14000 years BP k vquot rearp 7 I I 3 40 a 239 Pacmc f r y Ocean i 30 1 I Iquot Iquot l Ocean I I E Ice Sheet Land Land exposed by Lowered Sea Level 39 3L flit 1300 3 Climate Change Views of Northern Indiana The landscape was shaped by glaciers Other Temperature and Climate 334 Data39 Proxies Ice Cores lt Lake 1 We can definitely observe Vquot the consequences of them 12 Glacier National Park 0 1938 1981 2006 13 TJ HiemanGacier National Park ArchivesKaren HozerUSGSCar KeyUSGS L Shortterm Climate Change From the IPCC report 2007 Warming of the climate system is unequivocal as is new evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level see Figure SPM3 32 42 55 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 14 Data Winter Sea Ice b c39 Minimum sea ice concentration in 1979 top and 2003 bottom Obtained by using a DMSP Special Sensory Microwave Imager NASA OHSummer Arctic Sea Ice Extent Yellow border 1979 2000 average White 2002 2005 average u average sea ice extent 197221100 Sea ice extent millions of km august September July 17 Retreating glaciers H39 o Changes in the Qori Kalis Glacier Quelccaya Ice Cap Peru are shown between 1978 top and 2002 The glacier retreat during this time was 1100 meters Photo credit Professor L Thompson OSU b c39 Data Beyond sea ice and glaciers what other data do we have What claims can we make that are supported by this data Since the 1860s we have temperature data obtained by using thermometers Temperature Anomaly C 0quot Instrumental T record Glo bal Temperatures Annual Average Five Year Average 39U 1860 1880 1900 1920 1040 1960 1980 2000 20 Modeling b c39 With all these observations and data what can we do Model past climate predict the future fill in gaps What do we need to know 21 Earth s Energy Balance 22 Re ected 2mm 0 FE tn 0mm 5 Rudxutmn madman SPACE squypammn upward mbuved emmm tram ptmusphere 195 Sur ce heat gain 168 324 492 Watts per square meter Sur ce heat loss 24 78 390 492 W rrr2 RADIATIVE FOHCING COMPONENTS RF Terms RF values W m39z 39 39 OSU l I I I I I 166 149 lo 133 Global ngh Longlived I greenhouse gases I I 048 043 In 053 l 016 IDJrI In and G b H II I Halncarbons quot3934 2quot Ir IIJII la al Ig I I l I I 4305 015 lo 005 Gamma Ozone Stratus heric Tro as heric Med 0 I p p p 035 025 Io 055 lo global E I I I 39 l g S ra ospher39c Water I I 04171002 lo 012 Global Law a vapour from OH I Il I o I e I I 1 l u 2 o 4 Io o 01 Local to Mad E Surface albedo n BIack carbon I 39 39 39 lt I on snow I 01 00 IO 12 oanIInenIal Low l l I Direct u cm I I I o395 I419 I0 0II CnnIInenIal Med I I I I0 global Low Total I I I Aerosvll Cloud albedo I Conl Ial I I men I ellecl I I I n7 I 18 Io o3 Law I I I I I I Linear contrails I I I 001 0003 lo 003 Conllnenlal Law I I I g I I I 2 Solar irradiance I l 012 006 to 030 Global Low as z I I I I I Tolal nel I I 16 06 to 24 anthropogenlc I I I l I 2 2 l 0 1 Radiative Forcing W m39ZJ Flgure sPM2 Global average radiative forcing RF estimates and ranges in 2005 or anrnropogenlc carbon dioxide 002i methane CH4 nizrous oxide N20 and 0 her imponant a ems and mechanisms together will the typical geographical extent spatial scale of the forcing and the assessed level of scienti c understanding LOSU The net anrhmpogenlc radianve forcIng and Its range are also she Additional Forcing factors not Included here are considered to have a very low LOSU volcanm aerosols conmbuze an edditsonai natural o awa on on coudiness 23 Figure 220 I I Idllyvlul I39Iiear 24 I302 Concentration ppmvj STE 350 325 300 2T5 250 225 200 1T5 160 140 arm Era 120 100 80 60 40 Age in Thousands of Years 20 25 C02 Concentration ppm 360 340 320 300 280 nosph rio Dark on Dioxide I39 M nee I teindu tf i39al I mes 1quot r Pre Industrial Level 275 ppm 1700 1750 1800 1850 Date 1900 1950 2000 26 COZ CONCENTRATION PPM 310 MAUNA LOA OBSERVATORY HAWAII MONTHLY AVERAGE CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION MLO145 gllllIII1IIlllLl11 I l j1l 7 Iw lelw I CO2 Increase from 1958 to 2004 IIIIIIIIHHIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIII Il11lllIIHIIIHl1l1l IIIIIIIIIJIIIIIIIIIIIllllxllllHlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlllxIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 1958 60 62 64 66 68 7O 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 YEAR 15May05 HIPCC report is based on models 390 Models provide mathematical descriptions need to accurately describe past events can be used to predict future events Prediction is difficult especially when it comes to the future Models can be discrete see the Bohr model of the atom or probabilistic see weather forecasts Weathermen can t even forecast the weather tomorrow why do they think they can predict what will happen in 100 years 28 HINT Weather climate LQIimate models are complicated Equations Fundamental physical principles thermodynamics gravity etc Equations Parameters patterns and interactions Specialize behavior of atm behavior of oceans land surfaces or ice sheets 29 Global and Contjnentatw39l39emperature Change a 1n 3 39 t i w t it 11 rag in quot a in E gm 9 s g t g mu 7 E 5 a a Wanmwa a b luflil H4LL Jean A 395 man gr 8 Tlmpulilun may 399 g a x 11mm mm 39c A Global E Global Land A 5 1 I 9 w I 9 39 239 a 5107 r g 107 g 10 g 5 e05 sn5 205 a 3 a gop gum 7A gau 34 s s s l l I t l l l t 1900 1950 2000 1900 1950 zono 1900 1950 2000 Year Year Year Models using only natural forcings Observeg 0 1 Models using both natural and anthropogenic forcings PROJECTIONS OF SURFACE TEMPERATURES 2090 2099 o 2 l n m b c39 a lquot 1 ll 7 z cw a s o A 2 5 lDl24S 7E E Globalwerage SurfaceTemperamre Change C 0 05 1 LE 2 5 3 35 4 45 5 55 s 65 7 75 C Lesson 3 Models help us to understand the patterns that we observe and make predictions about what we will observe What models will we encounter in Chemistry 31


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