General Chemistry CHM 11200
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austen Pollich on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 11200 at Purdue University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/207974/chm-11200-purdue-university in Chemistry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 18 Fundamentals of Nuclear Chemistry Chagter459627173 Chapter 18 5 7 11 13 15 19 21 23 29 21 35 37 43 51 55 575961 Periodic Table on web httpQearhlanlgovl9eriodicldefaulthtm Review of atomic structure Each atom of chemical elements contains A nucleus that includes protons and neutrons And Electrons which are localized in orbitals in speci c regions outside the nucleus Examine the periodic table You will find that The number of protons Z uniquely identifies a chemical elemen ie Carbon has 6 protons Oxygen has 8 protons In a chemical element the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons The previous chapters focused on the electrons in atoms and how these electrons participate in chemical reactions For example Redox reactions are about electrons The focus of chapter 18 is on the nucleus of atoms and the types of reactions that could take place in the nucleus Nuclear Symbol A nuclear symbol of an atom has the following form 3X Z the atomic number the number of protons A the mass number the number of protons plus neutrons Example Provide the nuclear symbol of Helium According to the periodic table He has 2 protons and 2 neutrons Therefore the atomic mass of He is 22 4 Nuclear symbol 4 2H6 Example Provide the nuclear symbol of U235 According to the periodic table Uranium has 92 protons 235 92 U In U235 Uranium has 235 92 143 neutrons Provide the nuclear symbol of Thorium 231 According to the periodic table Thorium has 90 protons 231 90 Th In Thorium231 Thorium has 231 90 141 neutrons Provide the nuclear symbol of a proton A proton has a mass of one and a charge of1 Therefore 119 Provide the nuclear symbol of a neutron A neutron has a mass of one and no charge Therefore 1 on Isotopes Isotopes have the same atomic number Z the same number of protons but They have different mass numbers A the number of protons plus neutrons Example of isotopes Carbon 12 and carbon 14 Carbon 12 includes 6 protons and 6 neutrons Carbon 14 includes 6 protons and 8 neutrons In the periodic table we can see that the element with 6 protons corresponds to carbon Therefore 120 and 140 represent two isotopes of carbon Nuclear symbols 12 6 C 14 More example Another example of isotopes and nuclear symbols Radium 266 228 88 Ra 88 Ra Radium266 has 22688 138 neutrons Radium288 has 228 88 140 neutrons
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