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Date Created: 09/08/14
Anthropology 102 908 0 Magic religion and ritual O O O O O Worldview Defining religion Religious beliefs Religious practice Kinds of religious practitioners 0 Notable theorists of religion 0 O O O 0 Edward Tylor animism ames Frazer Victor Turner liminality I Child status on one hand and adult status on the other hand Emile Durkheim Clifford Geertz I Cultural anthropologists 0 Religion and worldview O 0 Every culture involved in sense making that links experience to wider world Process results in worldview all encompassing view of the world and how it operates Establishment of symbolic frameworks that highlight certain kinds of experience and downplay others 0 Defining religion 0 O A belief in spirits Edward Tylor animism I Anima is Latin for soul A system of belief and action associated with supernatural beings and forces Related to a people39s world view origins design and their place in it A system of meaning that offers a model of life and pattern for how to live it Geertz I Geertz was an interpretative anthropologist Magic people39s efforts to get supernatural forces and beings to do certain things James Frazer Ritual practices whose apparent effects have no scientific explanation and have in uence on outcome of practical matters 0 Defining magic 0 Imitative magic things that resemble one another can be acted upon to in uence the other I Voodoo dolls I Contagious magic things that were in contact with someone can still have an effect on them 0 Hairnail clippings 0 Physical objects owned used by target I Belief that propter performance of rituals can insure healthhealing growth of crops recovery of lost or stolen objects I Lack of proper performance can cause opposite 0 Defining religion Magic and religion 0 Early religious theorists Tyler and Frazer develops evolutionary model 0 Magic developed into religion and religion would develop into science 0 HOWEVER a belief in magic still persists I Sports I Farming I Love 0 Origins 0 Early people39s need for explanation animism a belief in souls or doubles Tylor o Evolutionary perspective animism polytheism and monotheism Tylor 0 Religion arose at the failure of magic Frazer 0 Religion as developing to give cohesion to society through shared symbols and rituals Emile Durkheim 0 Religion developed to serve purpose of reducing anxiety and uncertainty Malinowski I Deep sea fishers 0 Religious beliefs 0 Two major ways religious beliefs expressed and transferred across generations I Myth stories or narrative about supernatural forces or beings I Doctrine explicit descriptions of supernatural forces and beings and how we should related to them 0 Historically myth part of oral tradition 0 Narrative with a plot that has beginning middle and end 0 Expresses core beliefs and teaches morality Malinowski I Urban myths 0 Help people deal with conceptual contradiction btw life and death good and evils 0 Doctrine o Explicit written definition of supernatural and how to relate to them 0 Associated with institutionalized large scale religions o Codified in sacred texts Bible Christianity Torah Judaism Qur an Islam 0 Supernatural forces and beings o Expressed in different forms cross culturally I Zoomorphic gods appear in shape or partial shape of animals I Anthromorphic gods appear in human form I Pantheons collection of gods I Ancestor veneration spirits of dead prayed to for intercession Patterned forms of behavior related to supernatural realm Periodic rituals I Regularly performed during year Nonperiodic rituals I Irregularly performed in response to unforeseen events Life cycle rituals rites of passage mark status change of individual group from one life stage to another Phases to life cycle ritual separation transition and reintegration Rituals of inversion normal social roles and relation inverted I Carnival old dress as young young dress as old rich as poor poor as rich etc I Egungun festivals Sacrifice offerings to the supernatural I Human I Animals I Food owers and other products 0 Religious specialists O O Shaman part time religious specialist I Direct relationship with supernatural I Usually called to profession Priest priestess full time religious specialist I Abilities usually gained thru formal training Diviners Palm readers Prophets convey divine revelations gained thru dreams visions
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