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Modern Art

by: Cierra Wunsch

Modern Art AD 38300

Cierra Wunsch
GPA 3.6

Catherine Dossin

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Catherine Dossin
Class Notes
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This 96 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cierra Wunsch on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AD 38300 at Purdue University taught by Catherine Dossin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/208006/ad-38300-purdue-university in Art at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Abstraction A New Language of Art 1172009 13000 PM Wassily Kandinsky Russia 18661944 c Parents lawyer and a mathematician o High bourgeoisie o Leaves Russia and wife behind o Goes to Munich Germany to study art Munich Germany is between Folk Art and Modernism o Rider is very important for Kandinsky 0 Horse symbol of movement forward speed Wassily Kandinsky Blue Rider 1903 o Influence of Impressionism o Small quick coarse brushstroke Wassily Kandinsky Gabriele MLinter Painting 1903 o Becomes his student and partner 0 Told her he would marry her after he divorces wife in Russia o Start traveling together throughout Europe to do art Salon d Automne 1906 Fauvism Matisse La Maulade 1905 o Captures Kandinsky s attention 0 Differs from Impressionism 6 all Kandinsky knows now o Matisse not using actual color but arbitrary color Wassily Kandinsky Riding Couple 1906 o Inspired by Russian artwork and life o Almost divisionist brushstroke o Vivid color Wassily Kandinsky Blue Mountain 1908 o Motif rider o Space pushed to surface of the canvas o Vivid color and harmony 1908 Murnau o Kandinsky and Winter rented a house in Murnau 0 Small city near Munich 0 Move to countryside o Visited by many artists o Discover Gauguin Wassily Kandinsky MurnauView with Railroad and Castle 1909 o Move away from Fauve o No longer form but mass of colors o Train telegraph poles not representation of modernity but represent movement and sound o Left half see representations Right half mass of colors more abstract Wassily Kandinsky Church in Murnau I 1910 o Church is one of Kandinsky s favorite motifs o Become more masses of color o Not a representation of color to explain of show something like Van Gogh and Gauguin 0 Just representing color to have color Wassily Kandinsky Improvisation III 1909 o Rider going onto a bridge leading to a castle 0 You can identify all elements but it s not about them it s about the mass of color o Asks Where are we going 0 Rider is leaving the past to go into the future something new Der Blaue Reiter exhibition o Munich Germany 1911 o Wassily Kandinsky Gabriele MLinter Franz Marc August Macke Alexej von Jawlensky Marianne von Werefkin Paul Klee O O O O O O Alexej von Jawlensky SelfPortrait 1912 Marianne von Werefkin Rote Stadt 1909 August Macke Lady in a Green Jacket 1913 Paul Klee Red and White Domes 1914 Franz Marc The Large Blue Horses 1911 o Landscape and animals mimic one another 0 Curvature organic forms o Closeup composition 0 We are close to the horses the horses are close mimic the landscape Links us the viewer humans to nature o Color used in an arbitrary fashion 0 Plays with primary colors Blue masculine Yellow calm feminine Red dangerous Wassily Kandinsky Lyric 1911 o Horse o Sound and connection with music o Reduction of everything to minimum form 0 Line and color primary colors o Calligraphy one line makes a drawing Towards Abstraction Wassily Kandinsky Impression V Park 1911 o Two horses two riders two walkers person sitting on a bench o Looks abstract but is not 0 Still shows representations of reality o Impression and response to landscape Theosophy o Sect of religious belief that influence art in the early 20th century o Theosophy is a doctrine of religious philosophy and metaphysics o Theosophy holds that all religions are attempts by the quotSpiritual Hierarchyquot to help humanity in evolving to greater perfection and that each religion therefore has a portion of the truth Kandinsky believes his reality is an illusion therefore there is no need to represent it o Need a higher meaning spiritual power Impressionism o Sees Manet s Haystack series 0 Thinks nothing is there just color with no meaning o Gives first idea that maybe representing nothing should be tried M o Richard Wagner 0 Kandinsky sees color when listening to music 0 Colors all coming together and merging Kandinsky sees one of his works on its side thinks that it is so much better it works and erases all representations Wassily Kandinsky Untitled First Abstract Watercolour 1910 o His first abstract work o Represents nothing but conveys emotion Doubts and Hesitation Wassily Kandinsky Lady in Moscow 1912 Wassily Kandinsky Black Spot 1 1912 o Black spot threatening to cover the sun Still not sure where to go to continue with abstraction or not Sketch o First Abstract Watercolour 1910 or 1913 o Argue over who did abstract work first 0 Maybe redated to act like the first A sketch for the work done in 1913 Kandinsky s book o Titled Uber das Geistige in der Kunst o Munich Germany 1912 Wassily Kandinsky With the Black Arc 1912 o Based on Arnold Schbnberg dissonence music o Red mass purple mass blue mass 0 Three continents colliding o Masses united by black arc connected 0 Influenced by pause in music A breather that connects the piece o Making his own visual music 0 Create an effect without telling a story Russia 9 Germany 9 Paris o Left MLinter after many promises to marry o Told her he had been divorced for 3 years which was not true o Met and married a 17yearold Return to Russia and WWI o Russian Revolutions February and October 1917 Wassily Kandinsky In Grey 1919 o Kandinsky did not like this work or display it o Created during a bad time in his life Invited to come back to Germany c To teach at the Bauhaus School c School attempted to connect all forms of art Move from Orqanic to Geometric Wassily Kandinsky Composition VIII 1923 o Circle becomes the new rider 0 New motif o Perfect geometry Wassily Kandinsky Yellow Red Blue 1925 o Left all about linear and geometric o Right all about organic 0 Play with yellow and blue 0 Dark mass of red in the middle o Described as the sun and moon 0 Luminous yellow sun 0 Blue moon Night and day 0 Red emerging new art Clash color Hitler comes to power in 1933 o Closes the Bauhaus School and makes all artists leave in exile Wassily Kandinsky Composition X 1939 o Returns to organic shapes and form at the end of his life Wassily Kandinsky Composition IX 1939 Biomorphism Wassily Kandinsky Blue Sky 1940 o Interest in cells what can be seen in microscope Gabriele M39Linter Gabriele MLinter Portrait of a Young Woman 1909 o Influence of Fauve and color 0 The Green Stripe by Matisse 0 Use of cold and warm colors and dividing line in the background Gabriele MLinter Still Life with Book 1912 Gabriele MLinter Boating 1910 Influence of Gauguin o Flatness and color Raising the vertical Kandinsky standing on the boat and Winter rowing Everyone looking forward except for Winter who is shown from behind 0 Like Kandinsky and the others are looking forward to the future what is ahead Descriptive of their relationship and private life 0 Winter rowing putting a lot of work into it o Kandinsky looking toward the future to preoccupied to put much into the relationship Sense Kandinsky is using MLinter since he still is married with a wife in Russia Abstraction Continued 1172009 13000 PM Frantisek Kupka Bohemia 18711957 c Trained in Prague o Enrolled in religious and historical painting o Circle is important for Kupka o Represents the big cosmos o Wants to represent what is beyond the appearance o Vertical is important for Kupka o Chronophotography and Xray spark his imagination Traditional Painting Frantisek Kupka The Other Bank 1895 1895 Left Bohemia for Paris Mysticism Frantisek Kupka The Beginning of Life 19001903 color aquatint o Symbolic o Embryo cord merged with cell and then to a flower o Strong connection of human and nature Very different than what is going on in art Fauvism Frantisek Kupka The Lipstick 1908 o Response to Parisian life and art o Color can express all he needs 0 Doesn t need symbolism and text Frantisek Kupka Yellow Spectrum 1907 o Blue eyes represent mystic quality o The mass color of Matisse o Yellow of Gauguin and Van Gogh o Impact just with color Frantisek Kupka Water The Bather 19061909 c Taking from Impressionism and Divisionism Searching for his own style Frantisek Kupka Planes by Colors Large Nude 1909 o Xrays were a new technology o Trying to transfer black and white xray into color o Trying to see all layers of the body 0 Looking beyond flesh to inside the person Fits his mysticism idea and interests Xray triggered his imagination Frantisek Kupka Woman Picking Flowers 19091911 c Chronophotography influence of movement Frantisek Kupka Planes by Colors 19101911 c Like a veil over her transparent 0 Maybe symbolic of the veil covering us from seeing Talked about in Theosophy o Maybe a prism quality Still searching Frantisek Kupka Mme Kupka among Verticals 19101911 c Verticals covering over the woman in front of her Dematerialization of Art o Music Frantisek Kupka Les touches se Piano Le lac 1909 Keyboard merging with the trees and landscape Vertically raising like the sound Representation of sound rising like the bars of sound waves and volume on a stereo display Needs a model of music to head toward abstraction Abstraction Frantisek Kupka Nocturne 1910 o Arrives at abstraction o No longer needs piano or landscape o Still verticals with representation of rising o Darker color strokes rising into the space above 0 Like the rises and falls in music coming at you then moving away 0 Musical notes rising and drifting away Was it the first abstraction o Kandinsky 1910 or 1913 o Robert Delaunay 1912 o Sonia Delaunay 1911 May be first but not very well known Frantisek Kupka Arrangement of Vertical 19111912 Towards abstraction with keyboard piano piece expands to Nocturne then further to Vertical Plans Frantisek Kupka Vertical Plans I 1912 o Coming toward us then moving back 0 Like music rising in volume and intensity then going back down o Wrote an entire book on vertical form o All about movement 0 Verticals represent movement and strong tall form Frantisek Kupka Vertical Plans 1912 o Music works without story Frantisek Kupka Amorpha fugue a deux couleurs 1912 o Starts to rid vertical form o Using rhythm and color to create connection of universe and everything else o Playing with dynamism of organic forms and color First abstract artwork to be exhibited o People were like what is this o Thought Kupka was insane o Viewers did not get it Constantin Brancusi Romania 18761957 c Thinks less is more o Reduction idea o Sculptor o Brancusi loves Rodin o Thinks he changed sculpture forever o Went by foot from Romania to Paris 0 Took two years 0 Did odd jobs to help pay o Almost always created a pedestal for his works 0 Similar idea to decorating the frame as some painters did Primitivism Constantin Brancusi The Kiss 1907 o An African influence merged with a primitive Eastern European influence 0 Much more geometric than African works o Reduction in form o Inspired by Rodin s The Kiss work Constantin Brancusi Maiastra 1912 o Contrast of highly polished bronze sculpture on a stone rough pedestal o Gives contrast of smooth on rough o Pedestal draws great attention to brilliant bronze bird Magical transformation of form into idea o Bird reduction to what is really necessary o No wings no need 0 Still tell it s a bird 0 Like Rodin s Walking Man with no arms o Just displaying the idea Constantin Brancusi Bird in Space 1919 o Abstract but with the dynamism of going upward representing rise or flight o Upward motion and movement o Reduction of all form simply idea of motion Constantin Brancusi Sleeping Muse 1 19091911 c Minimal reduction of detail but enough to identify a face of a woman sleeping Constantin Brancusi Sculpture for the Blind 1920 o Erase face and all detail o Just a oval elliptical shape o Essence of a face with just the shape remaining What is real is not the external form but the essence of things it is impossible for anyone to express anything essentially real by imitating its exterior surface Constantin Brancusi Beginning of the World 1924 o Working with pedestal and artwork together o Beginning of the world eggshape hatching all life o Circle orb representation of creation of all life Brancusi did not like to sell his works o They were his babies strong connection to his creations Gives his entire studio to France under the condition that they would leave it exactly how it was o Everything is still there exactly as he had left it 0 Still able to visit today They are imbeciles who call my work abstract That which they call abstract is the most realistic because what is real is not the exterior but the idea the essence of things Kazimir Malevich Russia 18791935 1172009 13000 PM Revolution in Russia 1903 o Malevich was one of the revolutionaries but escaped having to go to jail o Malevich did not believe in Theosophy or God 0 Believed in the revolution c He wanted to change the world Personal Life o Simple background o Did not receive a good education o Worker parents o Wanted to be an artist since 12yearsold o Saved up money and went to study art in Moscow 0 1904 devoted himself to art From Impressionism to CuboFuturism Impressionism Kazimir Malevich Unemployed Girl 1904 o Sensitive to social problems and the human condition of the place and time Symbolism Kazimir Malevich SelfPortrait 1907 o Intensity in eyes o Looking beyond the world to a greater truth Primitivism and Donkey Tail o Meets a group of artists who change his outlook on art 0 Strong solid artists interested in representing primitivism in Russia o Group is called Donkey s Tail 0 A name not meant to be taken seriously 0 Story behind the name A conservative painter had supposedly gotten his work accepted that had been painted with a donkey s tail 0 Donkeys known to be stubborn and non intelligent animals 0 Members of the group were crazy in painting and daily life Painted their faces and wore strange clothing a Went out in public like that Change in Style Primitivism and Donkey Tail Kazimir Malevich Bather 1911 o Primitive o Expressing the movement o Does not care if it looks good just moving away from Western art o Same color for man and background Kazimir Malevich Peasant Woman with Buckets 1912 o Darker o Really flat o Color of Cubism o All geometric form very simple o Influence of Cezanne apparent o Influence of Russian folk art o Simple manner with outline and shapes Sergei Shchukin and Ivan Morozov o Russians o Very important art collectors o Collected all types of art from all artists o Loved an collected works by Cezanne o Supporters of the arts and artists o Lost everything after Russian Revolution and had to flee o Promoted modern art in Russia Tubism o Combination of Cubism with the use of tubular shapes Kazimir Malevich Woodcutter 1912 o Everything is formed in tube shapes o Following Cezanne need to see everything as geometric forms 0 Pushing this idea to the extreme o Playing with the technique of Cubism but smoother Kazimir Malevich Peasant Woman with Buckets 1912 o Everything reduced to geometric form o Playing with passage technique of Cubism CuboFuturism Kazimir Malevich The Grinder Principle of Flickering 1912 o Looking at Futurism but not interested in the action beauty of speed and time movement in stages 0 Interested in deconstruction of one moment of motion 0 Multifacets of one moment of action 0 Like Kaleidoscope Kazimir Malevich Perfected Portrait of IV Kluin 1913 o Prismkaleidoscope used to deconstruct explode everything o Eye is a prism o Log cabin chimney with smoke coming out Victory Over the Sun This play will be a huge event and important in Malevich s life Created by Matiushin Malevich and Kruchenykh in 1913 o Mainly works with poets and musicians o Creating a play o Malevich does the costumes and backdrops o Idea of the play is destroying the sun to start anew o Took place in Petrograd on December 3rd and 5th in 1915 Creation of Costumes and Backdrops Sketches Kazimir Malevich The Athlete of the Future o Playing with 3D and geometric form Kazimir Malevich Coward 1913 Kazimir Malevich Victory over the Sun Act 2 Scene 5 1913 Alogism o No meaning o No logic a move beyond logic 0 Logic doesn t exist Kazimir Malevich Cow and Violin 1913 o Mocking Cubism o Puts a cow on top of the work central focus 0 Semblance to Violin and Candlestick by Braque o Placing things that don t go together logically 0 Creating no meaning o Creating new meaning by using objects that are illogical together Kazimir Malevich Aviator 1914 o Kruchenykh s Zaoum poem Liberation of the World 0 Poem making up words with no meaning o Malevich doing the same in visual form Kazimir Malevich An Englishman in Moscow 1914 o Arrow fish words a man candle latter and shapes 0 All put together to make no sense o Made up words o Everything with no meaning Reason is a slave39s chain for the artist that is why I wish all the artists lose their reason Malevich 1915 Kazimir Malevich Soldier of the First Division 1914 o Influence of Picasso o Rejecting reason 0 Transforming reason 0 Plays in idea of revolution o Stamp with the face of Tsar ear medal mustache o All representations making up the idea of a soldier o Picasso s Suze work o Liberation of geometric form 0 Merging geometric form with collage Kazimir Malevich Portrait of the Composer MV Matiushin 1913 o Ruler with no numbers o No logic Reason is a slave39s chain for the artist that is why I wish all the artists lose their reason Malevich 1915 The Fourth Dimension o Very important for artists in early 20th century o Concept of another dimension that we cannot see c Time space continuum close to theory of relativity o Time and space merge together Kazimir Malevich Lady on a Tram Station 1913 o Showing us what the lady sees and thinks at the time o Stream of consciousness o Lady in the fourth dimension Move toward Suprematism o Zero of the form silence rebirth starting over Kazimir Malevich Partial Eclipse with Mona Lisa 1914 o Eclipse sun disappears 0 Victory over the sun idea Partial not yet a victory o Mona Lisa with X s o Mona Lisa is of the past want to destroy o Collage words shapes o Geometrical shapes most important forms in the piece o Remove the collage and arrive at abstraction Last Futurist Exhibition Petrograd December 1915 Kazimir Malevich Black Square 1915 o The end the zero 0 Reached zero of form new beginning o Old world is gone new world can start Placed in the corner of the gallery at the Last Futurist Exhibition 0 In Russia religious icons or pieces always put in corner Stating his work is the icon of the new world First letter of the new world A new religion Idea was there during 1913 with Victory Over the Sun but this work was not done until 1915 Kazimir Malevich Black Cross 1915 Kazimir Malevich Black Square and the Red Square 1915 Kazimir Malevich Visual Realism of a Peasant Woman in Two Dimension 1915 O O 0 Just a red square Stating that you can call anything anything Illogic nature of language Who says it s not a woman Kazimir Malevich Soccer Player in the Fourth Dimension 1915 Kazimir Malevich Suprematist Composition Airplane 1915 Zero end and beginning Victory over the Sun ending scene 0 Airplane aviator captured the sun 0 Aviator s brain is at zero silence end and beginning Plane crashes Destruction of the sun victory Kazimir Malevich Suprematist Painting 19171918 Kazimir Malevich Suprematist Composition White on White 1918 Silence no more to say Unovis Shortlived but influential group of Russian artists founded and led by Kazimir Malevich at the Vitebsk Art School in 1919 Vitebsk Art School Malevich begins working at Vitebsk art school o Created by Chagall o One of the most advanced art schools at the time 0 Combined study of all art forms Chagall goes on vacation 0 Malevich takes over the school El Lissitzky one of the most important students 0 Used Malevich s idea in a political way El Lissitzky Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge 19191920 c Representing fight between white army and red Communist army o How it relates to Malevich 0 White sun attacked by the wedge o Use of Malevich idea in an informative way Final Years Kazimir Malevich SelfPortrait 1933 Kazimir Malevich On the Boulevard 1930 0 Had to stop doing abstract work 0 Forced by the oppressive government o Retracts to former more bourgeois work 0 Signed them with a black square as a signature Malevich s tomb is a black square Primitivism New Roots for Art 1052009 70800 PM Looking at other cultures on how to transform art o Many look to Africa 0 Very little to do with African art but more how they saw and interpreted that culture o Move away from Academy and tradition Colonialism behind how cultures were seen o Europe mainly France saw themselves as the center of the world and bigger as a country than they actually are Colonial exhibitions o Pulled art and works from other countries Africa etc o No context put with the art 0 Most did not understand it or what it was all about Paul Gauguin France 18481903 c Grew up in Peru 0 Came to France but saw it as a boring place c When a teenager he took a ship from France to Brazil 0 Worked on the ship for a while o Had an exotic life o After all his travel he became a stock broker 0 Married a Danish woman and had 5 children 0 Quite wealthy o Collected art 0 Became a hobby painter No desire to become an artist Paul Gauguin Mette Gauguin 1884 o Met Pissaro o Taught Gauguin of Impressionists o Gauguin started to do more art 0 Did not like Impressionism thought it was superficial and unrealistic o Saw art as not being about science like Seurat and not about being emotion filled like Van Gogh 0 Saw art as being poetic o Influenced a lot by Chavannes o Stock Exchange crashed 0 Lost his job o Wanted to be an artist at this time o Went to Denmark lived with his inlaws 0 His inlaws did not like his work thought he needed a real job o Leaves his wife and children in Denmark and goes to Brittany in France 0 Isolated place with backward traditional religious folks 0 Thought he d find primitive culture being not around civilization o Left Brittany and went to Polynesia 0 Wanted to find a savage area 0 Found Polynesia had more civilization and culture than he thought o Wanted to find a savage woman to live with girlfriend o The first one he met was not savage enough 0 Next one he found was 13yearsold 0 Still had a wife and children elsewhere 0 Gauguin had syphilis o Left Polynesia and went back to France 0 Decides he is going to try to be the primitive of France 0 Brings his mistress with him to France She had a boyfriend who destroyed his studio and broke his arm or leg 0 France does not receive his work well o Leaves France for Polynesia again 0 Gets a new girlfriend o Marquesas Islands is where Gauguin ends up at the end of his life 0 Builds a house where the entire village can come to o Encouraged the villagers to not wear clothes 0 Told them not to follow the priest Priest disliked Gauguin and saw him as an incorrigible o Gauguin never found the primitive paradise he was looking for 0 Possibly does not exist with all cultures being westernized Changing Mentality o People started to question modernization and industrialization 0 Many artists including Gauguin criticize these things o Gauguin changes his style Paul Gauguin The Vision After the Sermon Jacob Wrestling with the Angel 1888 Representing a vision after the sermon for traditional churchgoers and the priest Japonisme tree diagonal Use of red 0 Shows violence and clash o Overbearing solitary color shows simplicity and primitive quality Representing primitive religious superstitious people 0 Intellectuals tend to question things like god Cow gives a reference back to reality Very flat with outlining of figures Wrestling style taken from Japanese drawings of moves Brushstrokes show a move away from Impressionism Coarse canvas with a thin layer of paint 0 Wanted a flat quality 0 Show through to the canvas The viewer doesn t enter the work but just sit at the surface 0 Its flat quality makes it bounce back to the viewer Paul Gauguin The Yellow Christ 1889 o Not shown during Gauguin s lifetime 0 Afraid of the reception it might get o Gauguin liked yellow a lot o Selfportrait o Represented as a selfportrait of himself as Christ Paul Gauguin SelfPortrait with Yellow Christ 1889 o Double selfportrait o Putting himself as Christ but also symbolizing under the protection of Christ at the same time o Made soon after he decided Brittany was not the place for him Paul Gauguin Merahi metua no Tehamana Ancestors of Tehamana 1893 o The 13yearold girl Gauguin was dating 0 Not exploiting her but representing her as strong Polynesian girl wearing French clothing 0 Symbolizing how the westerners came into uncivilized regions and pressed their morals ethics and religion on them Culture destroyed by westerners o In the background it shows how the Polynesians would have traditional dressed how Gauguin thought they would have The girl is carrying a fan that the elite women would o Saw the westerners as coming in and telling them how to dress and how they need to be 0 Telling them everything they did before was bad and the new culture is right o Three tier setup 0 Top writing intellectual 0 Middle religious spiritual and traditional 0 Bottom Ripe mango fertility Gauguin fabricated the writing and religious symbol god figure to present the point o Gauguin believed westerners should not impress ideals on other cultures o Flower in her hair and in the hair of the idol both representing fertility and sensuality Paul Gauguin We Hail Thee Mary 1891 Paul Gauguin Words of the Devil 1892 o Christianization of primitive cultures o Lost innocence o Told sexuality and nudity is bad and immoral by the westerners Paul Gauguin Spirit of the Dead Watching 1892 o The girl is scared of the Spirit of the Dead o Representation of the spirit 0 Egyptianlike eye from the side of the face looking at the viewer o Represents darkness with the purples and blues o Clear outline of the girl figure Paul Gauguin Nevermore 1897 o Inspired by Edgar Allen Poe s poem The Raven o Raven in the background o Two people in the background spirit of the dead plotting to take her away Paul Gauguin Where Do We Come From What Are We Where Are We Going 1897 o Evolution of living 0 Left Where do we come from religion 0 Middle What are we searching 0 Right Where are we going many paths o Androgenic figures no real hint at genders o Main figure stating we do not need material things 0 We can take from nature nature gives us what we need o Apple in the hand of a little girl 0 Biblical reference seen as a destruction of innocence 0 Showing that the Bible tells us how to think and live our lives o Westerner mindset Christianity makes things bad and evil o Painting asks us to let go of all these religious mindsets live from nature and be independent o Can see a difference at the top corners 0 Just a painting 0 Peeling or chipping off like a painting in front of wallpaper The Fauves 1052009 70800 PM Henry Matisse Mauric de Vlaminck and Andre Derain The Fauves o Fauves name meaning wild beasts created by a critic who thought their works were awful Definition of Fauvism o Matisse Seek the strongest color effect possiblethe content is of no importance o Derain Color for color s sake 0 Pure colors Simplified forms Abolished perspectives Deleted shadows 0 O 0 First Exhibition of Van Goqh s work in 1901 o All fell in love with Van Gogh s work o All met and became friends Discovering Seurat o They discover Seurat and divisionism in 1904 0 Like how he plays with color and separation All 3 artists trying to find their way in 1904 and 1905 Vlaminck is more intense while Matisse and Derain are more classical and traditional Matisse and Derain Matisse goes to Derain s parents telling them it is okay to be an artist and one can be successful as an artist They think intense color is nice but it does not fit their personalities Spend the summer of 1905 together in Collioure in South France 0 Bright sunny 0 Nice vibrant colors They start to define a certain style Not using color to display emotion rather just to experiment 0 Mixing the styles of Seurat and Van Gogh Discover Gauguin works 0 Gauguin s mindset One has to discover the primitive inside themselves it cannot be found in the world Derain is one of the most influenced by Gauguin o Trying to forget the Academy what is taught and learned 0 Become a child again primitive and uneducated 0 Try to paint bad o Came back to Paris in the fall of 1905 to display works 0 Salon d Automne of 1905 Each had there own particular way of brushstroke o Borrowed from many artists o Not interested in creating their own personalities The Fauves in the Golden Age o Derain and Matisse 0 Strong influence of Gauguin s poetic style 0 Finished with the idea of painting badly and needed something new 0 Make statement pieces o The Golden Age 0 Idea that no one needed to work just enjoy life and live off the land and nature Henry Matisse France 18691954 Henry Matisse Carmelina 1903 o Traditional painting o Treatment of paint is modern o Feet and hands left unfinished Henry Matisse Luxe calme et volupte 19041905 Henry Matisse Nude in the Studio 19041905 c Bare canvas plays important role o Not the painstaking technique of Seurat all dots but the same general principle Henry Matisse Andre Derain 1905 o Using direction and brushstroke o Balanced o Looks like it s not done well but shows training by the use of complementary colors o Playing with complementary colors o Done fast full of energy Henry Matisse Femme au chapeau 1905 o Wore black dress and hat o Black was not seen as an interesting color for Matisse in artworks o Matisse loved use of colors o Black created by using many colors combined and layered together Henry Matisse Portrait of Ms Matisse The Green Stripe 1905 o Play with color and direction of light on face 0 Cold and warm tones o Green stripe down face separating light side from shadow side Henry Matisse La Joie de vivre 1906 Matisse s statement piece o Completely imaginary space or scene 0 Lost paradise Mythological scene 0 Reverting back to Academic subject matter When everyone is following everyone else regress to earlier styles More transparent smoother 0 Thin layer Gauguin influence Curvy and organic lines Using color for no reason Association of line and color working together Andre Derain France 18801954 Andre Derain Port of Collioure The White Horse 1905 o Bare canvas plays important role o Seurat style divisionism and complementary colors basic elements Andre Derain Bateaux dans le port Collioure 1905 Andre Derain Mountain at Collioure 1905 o Less canvas left bare o Constructing brushstroke o More of a Van Gogh style with brushstroke directions Andre Derain Henry Matisse 1905 o Use of a very coarse canvas o Background thin paint face thick paint o Very careful in way of brushstroke to create volume Andre Derain Femme en chemise 1906 o Use of outline 0 Influence of Gauguin o Painting of a dancer o Woman with red hair 0 Very popular of 19th century and early 20th century models o Well composed and balanced o Triangular forms face arm elbow on knee hand on chin directions of legs Andre Derain Les Romorquers 1906 Andre Derain Charing Cross Bridge 1906 Andre Derain La danse 1906 Derain s statement piece o Garden setting symbolic of Garden of Eden 0 Parrot symbol oflust 0 Snake symbol of sin and evil 0 Toad symbol of witches and witchcraft Three dancers people in the painting 0 Left inspired by Romanesque sculpture and painting 0 Middle inspired by Hindu art 0 Right inspired by Egyptian art The lady in the background taken from Gauguin s painting What Are We but is just inverted flipped 0 Isolated and symbolic of Eve o Rhythmic three persons colors and layers Mauric de Vlaminck France 18761958 Mauric de Vlaminck House at Chatou 1905 o Curvy brushstroke o Very thick in pastel o Intense color Mauric de Vlaminck Portrait of Derain 1905 o Really closeup o Direction of thick paint o Layer of color o Splotch here and there to create shadow and volume Mauric de Vlaminck Restaurant at Bougival 1905 o Foreground square strokes o Midground circular splotches o Background swatches of color combine with outlines for buildings The Fauves and the Discovery of African Art o First to really pay attention to African art 0 Vlaminck buys an African mask in 1905 o Derain visits a British museum in 1906 o Loves African masks and sculptures o Matisse discovers a Bakango figurine in 1906 0 Found it amazing Andre Derain France 18801954 Andre Derain Nu debout 1907 o Based on African sculpture 1052009 70800 PM The Academy and Academic Art 952009 31500 PM The Academie des BeauxArts o Founded in the 17th century by Cardinal Mazarin o Controlled education style and subject matter of the artists 0 State selected people to control the art artists and institute o Louis XIV was known to select graduates from the school to decorate the royal apartments at Versailles 1863 Napol on III granted the school independence from the government changing the name to quotL Ecole des BeauxArtsquot L Ecole des BeauxArts o 400 to 500 people chosen 0 Not considered students until they won a competition in a subject matter More competitions won the more prestigious the student was CharlesLeon Vinit L Ecole des BeauxArts 1840 o Students were only to copy from art that had been done before 0 Beaux Arts style was modeled on classical quotantiquitiesquot preserving these idealized forms and passing the style on to future generation o Start at copying drawings then plaster casts of sculptures then the highest level is lifedrawing o All about learning techniques Prix de Rome c To enter Prix de Rome 0 Single 0 Under 30 years of age 0 Recommended by high official o Three stages assigned subject matters 0 1St stage approx 100 people sketch from topic most likely mythology 0 2nd stage approx 20 people nude man sketch 0 3rd stage approx 810 people sketch and huge painting The French Academy in Rome o Go here after you win the Prix de Rome 0 Learn more about philosophy art history and geometry 0 Still copy artwork Send the work copies to show people The Salons Where winning artworks would go to be displayed o Controlled by the State to figure out which works are displayed 0 Won a prize 0 Typically the government would buy works No way to exist as an artist outside of the Academy Alexandre Cabanel France 18231889 c Grew up in region of France o Won Prix de Rome o Became teacher at the Academy Artwork o Typical of Cabanel to display women looking up almost in ecstasy o Milky white skin of women Cabanel Napoleon III 1865 Cabanel Pandora Mlle Nilson 1873 Cabanel Birth of Venus 1863 WilliamAldophe Bouguereau France 18251905 c Very successful o Sent to Paris to BeauxArts o Won Prix de Rome Artwork o Representation of peasant people typical of Bouguereau o 1871 French Revolution tension None of this seen through artwork idealization WilliamAdolphe Bouguereau Rest of the Harvest 1865 o Buyers of the time are men o Seductive quality Bougereau Birth of Venus 1879 Bougereau Breton Brother and Sister 1871 Elizabeth Gardner USA 18371922 c Not very privileged o Went to Paris to study art Women of the Time o Not allowed to do nude life drawing o No access to competitions 0 Only if they had a man representing or behind their work could they succeed Gardner went to study life drawing disguised as a man o Very successful o Among important artists of the time Gardner The Imprudent Girl 1884 Gardner Young Girl with Child 1905 JeanLeon Gerome France 18241904 c Failed Prix de Rome many times 0 Told he could not draw the figure well enough Gerome The Cockfight 1846 c Figure of the man copied from famous sculpture that is displayed in the Louvre o Became very popular besides not winning the Prix de Rome Gerome Pelt Merchant of Cairo 1869 o Not really painted in Cairo o How westerners saw Cairo o Idealization Gerome The Slave Market 1867 Gerome The Bath 1885 Gerome Pygmalion and Galatea 1890 o Man fell in love with sculpture so much that he kissed it and she came to life Importa nt for Academy Academy and people of the time liked pleasant art 0 Not too strong negative emotions 0 Not too light not too dark just pleasant to look at 0 Pleasant feeling when viewing the work Very important therefore common to have cherub in Academy paintings Feet are important in Academic art 0 Showed skill and detail of artist Very fine smooth texture o No brush strokes visible 0 Beautiful idealizations Academic art is idealized to what is seen as beautiful Mythological and biblical art is typical Nobody questioned or challenged the Academy AntiAcademism and Independent Art 952009 31500 PM Bourgeoisie You can make it even if you are not nobility or go through the Academy Gustave Courbet France 18191877 c Changed course of art through work and attitude o 1839 he decided against art school 0 art cannot be taught o Quit Academy and went off on his own o Enrolled in Swiss school to do his own work and style o Sees art as being individual 0 Wants all to create own style Courbet The Stone Breakers 18491850 c Shows real lifeaction of everyday life o Not following rules of Academy o Faces of workers not shown to represent them as everyday people o No idealizationno fantasy o Nonpersonal Revolution and revolt everywhere misery o Unknown whether they are revolters o Shows the anonymity of revolutionaries Courbet A Burial at Ornans 1849 o Death of common personCourbet s grandfather 0 Death popular topic of art o The dead is not seen in work just a hole for a coffin o Used a huge canvas for the dead of a nobody normal person 0 Glorification of a normal person did not make sense in mind of Academic art o Realistic view of funerals o Symbolic of burial of Romanticism o Political statement 0 Closest figures to grave have different clothes that are colorful Fashion typical of French Revolutionaries 0 Watching the death of hope for a republic and dying fight for socialism Differ from Academic Art o Little detail big brush strokes o Very sketchy o Crowded o No pinpoint subject matter 0 Nothing more important than the other things Courbet The Artist s Studio 1855 o Most famous work o Shows things for what they are 0 Not trying to make beauty no idealization o Painting a landscape when a nude model is present o Egotistical everyone is adoring him 0 His hand gesture of painting resembles God s arm position in Michelangelo s Creation of Adam o Courbet in middlecenter of focus o Three section setup same as The Last Supper and The Last Judgment pieces o Little boy mesmerized by Courbet and his work 0 Audience around Courbet is a representation of how he is painting for the poor o On the left are his foes and people Courbet generally dislikes 0 Guitar and items on floor represent dislike for Romanticism o On the right are his friends and those Courbet likes Reception of work o People associated those in Courbet s studio as trashy o Saw models big brush strokes and little detail as ugly The Autodidact Artist o A person who has learned a subject without the benefit of a teacher or formal education a selftaught person The Realist Artist c To be a republican in France at the time in favor of the Republic not monarchy o Gustave I am not only a socialist but also a democrat and republican in short a supporter of all that the revolution stands for and first and foremost I am a realist Revolution of 1848 Spring of Nations o Start is France to overthrow monarchy o Began by workers and peasants standing for socialism 1852 Napoleon III in power 1848 The Revolution is dead The Independent Artist o So infamous so many wrote about Courbet not necessarily in a good way he becomes famous Bad publicity is still publicity Courbet holds his own exhibition o Turns down the official exhibition in which State judges would be chose to judge his art 0 Never been done before or even thought about 0 Rents building next to the official exhibition to contain his Edouard Manet France 18321883 c Opposite of Courbet o Just wanted to be a great artist no ego or socialist 0 Wanted to be accept as an artist o Comes from high Bourgeoisie o Was not good enough for Prix de Rome o Trained as Academy artist o Draws back to the traditional piece adopted to a modern work o Creation process very modern and nontraditional but representing traditional values 0 Modern representation of traditional pieces m o First to go away from old technique of covering canvas in a dark color as a primer then apply color as a transparent glaze o No priming just straight to colorcrude technique 0 No building of color and layers Le Salon des Refuses of 1863 o The cemetery of the rejected 0 Over 7000 rejected pieces of work o Rejected artwork would be viewed to mock and get a good laugh at o Manet is the biggest star of the rejected Manet The Picnic 1863 o Nude female at a picnic not in a normal setting or context o Everything is radically new with a light hold on tradition o Awkward representation of space and perspective 0 Representative of Japonisme Japonisme diagonal perspective with layers one over the other Shifted perspectivelayers of spaceleaning quality Differs from Academic Art o Nude is looking directly at audience o Set in a formal settingnot mythical o Nude woman seen as an equal o Seen as sloppy not refined and detailed esp the background The Salon of 1865 Manet Olympia 1863 o Mythological character o Prostitute 0 Covering what she is selling o Black catbad omen o Mother s bracelet on her wrist o Separates painting from real life Differ to traditional women in painting o Skin tone not milky white flawless skin o Eye contact 0 Nonchalantly looking at the viewer acknowledgement of fact she is being seen o Not idealized Compare to the traditional women in painting o Reclining nude o Similar to Titan s Venus of Urbino 1538 0 Green veil in background Reclining woman Animal at the foot Wall separation in the same area 0 O O 0 Flowers represented 0 Covering their lower area 0 Laying on sheets and pillows of white Had 2 policemen in front of work o Riots in the Salon 0 Manet s friends were defending his work 0 Others were mad that their work didn t get accepted when his as they saw horrible art did Called it an unsatisfactory work of art and ugly The Universal Exhibition of 1867 o Manet holds his own exhibition because his artwork was rejected 0 Most think that only a crazy man could paint that bad In reality Manet is an upper class and wellgroomed man Manet Emile Zola 1868 o Showed Manet s interest in Japanese art 0 Japanese art in the background o His drawing of Olympia in the background o A book written by Emile Zola about Manet to the right o Natural pose at the time when most were trying to draw most difficult poses Edgar Degas France 18341917 c Went to the Academy o Drawing was important for him o Traveled a lot o Never submitted to the Prix de Rome 0 Knew he wasn t good enough o Trying new techniques were important to Degas o Liked lines and structure o Drew with color pastels were medium of choice o Enjoyed prying into the bad parts of people ex bad relationships 0 Interested in what s behind the facade of people Degas The Orchestra at the Opera 1870 o Way to access and paint society o Meant to be a portrait of the bassist good friend of Degas 0 Active in time of portrait 0 Much distraction o Represented as if it were a photograph 0 Cutting off of objects and people in the background 0 Framing style of photography o Influence ofJaponisme layering and diagonal representations Degas The Caf Concert 1876 o Representation of artificial light lit from below o Snapshot quality representing them how they were Important for AntiAcademism o Not idealizations 0 Subjects seen as they were without beautification o Paintings were not illusions of life 0 Simply paint not real and not trying to portray real 0 Brush strokes visible o Just paint nothing more nothing less The Impressionists 952009 31500 PM Idea that artists could go outside and paint mobile artists o Landscapes o Can paint anywhere o Allowed more freedom Industrial Revolution brought production of tubes of paint o Poppy seed oil used in paints made brush strokes more prominent 0 Trace of artist left in artworks Impressionist Style o Painting a fleeting moment a time that will pass 0 Snapshot photograph quality o Black rarely used even for shadows a dark blue or purple will most likely be utilized o Rather small paintings while impression is still in their mind o Nothing too well defined 0 Most everything is sketchy o Train prominent in works o Presence of artists in artwork o Visible brush strokes visible hand marks in sculpting o Idea that art is simply art not real life 0 Uses texture to create volume 0 Exploits industrial tube paints which leave strokes to their advantage First Impressionist Exhibition 1874 o Impressionist pieces had no place in Academy or Salons since they were landscapes o Not State judges but artist judged work Most think Manet was included in this exhibition o However he refused because he wanted to be associated with Academy 0 Remember Manet wanted so bad to be related with Academic work but kept being rejected Reception of Impressionist work o Seen as bad and ugly o Dangerous and bad to look at 0 Not pleasant like Academic art o Perceived as unfinished Claude Monet France 18401926 c Diagonals of Japonisme utilized often along with verticals Monet Impressions soleil couchant 1872 o Slight receding diagonal Japonisme matched with vertical and horizontals o Simplistic composition c Sun reflection on the water brings composition together by adding depth o Representation of modernity Monet Railroad Bridge Argenteuil 1873 o Trains were very important 0 Changes lives travel from Normandy to Paris in one hour 0 Symbol of modernity o Diagonal of bridge and land with a cross diagonal of water matched with vertical pillars of bridge trees and sails of boats Monet Boulevard des Capucines 1873 o A reconstruction of Paris 0 Big grand street boulevards which used to be narrow streets 0 This new paris symbol of modernity Diagonal receding to the right Japonisme with verticals of buildings people and trees Flecks of lighter colors to add 3 dimensional quality Very sketchy people mad of lines and shapes adds to the anonymity of people 0 Shows snapshot quality blurred people in motion 0 Life and movement Optical mixing viewed closely people appear to just be lines and shapes but from a distance it makes sense Monet Luncheon 1873 o Setting at one of Monet s homes son playing with toys o Why did he paint lunch with no people o For the light and atmosphere 0 Diagonals of shadows and patterns of light going through the leaves and branches o Diagonal of bench and shadows Japonisme horizontal of line separation of ground and house and the verticals of the women and windows Haystack Series 18901892 c Same objects with the light and atmosphere changing 0 Similar paintings during different times of the day and seasons o Systematic series o Same diagonals and verticals typical of Monet Monet Haystack End of Summer 18901891 Monet Snow Effects Overcast Day 18901891 Monet s brushstroke changes in 18905 c Long strokes no more dabs with brush o Blending of color Try to forget what objects you have before you a tree a house a field or whatever Merely think here is a little square of blue here an oblong of pink here a streak of yellow and paint just as it looks to you Pierre Renoir France 18411919 c Likes to represent life of people 0 Life activity o Refused to use black o Painted faces with more detail while leaving the rest undefined and blotchy o Fluffy quality in artworks Gives a lot of textural quality to works Renoir La Loge 1874 o Man in the background looking around at others 0 Going to the opera at that time was to see others and to be seen o Looking at us passively and nonchalantly displaying herself o Face white from makeup and powder with red lipstick to contrast Strong diagonal Japonisme vertical of subject and background orientation Only thing well painted with detail and smooth is the subject s face 0 Like Academic art Flecks of reds add to 3 dimensional quality Represents texture throughout Renoir Le Moulin de la Galette 1876 Upper class would go here on Sundays to eat pancakes and socialize Some middleclass would be permitted Representation of modern life Details in faces and blotchy quality elsewhere Optical mixing in background gives representation of people further back Light and shadow through trees playing with light Repetition of straw hats Photographic snapshot quality fleeting moment Highlights used to help create volume Renoir Luncheon at Bougival 1881 Very high society people 0 Boats needed to travel there or far distances needed to be traveled to get there Train present in the background symbol of modernity Modern life People are mixing between classes Borgese men with man in an undershirt Diagonals of railing overhang and background scenery Japonisme and verticals of people standing and tall foliage More detail in faces than throughout the rest Camille Pissaro France 18301903 Landscapes with people People and their interaction with landscape 0 People in their environment Life of people in the countryside 0 Most in France did live in countryside Representation of realistic life Pissaro Pissaro Pissaro Constructed work with a lot of geometry Used very few colors on palette and artworks Makes shorter lighter brushstrokes in later works Gelee blanche Hoarfrost 1873 Activity of winter in countryside o Carrying firewood home Reality of poor people 0 Like Stone Breaker of Courbet Open composition Unity of color similar colors throughout 0 Adds to empty open space 0 Goes from darker closer and lighter as it receeds Gives slight diagonal of Japonisme Uses quality and texture to create volume 0 Brush strokes visible 0 Exploits industrial tubes paints brush strokes Landscape Near Pointoise 1878 Shorter lighter brush strokes Works well as a three piece set 0 Not much detail in woman or cow to draw audience eyes to the village which the roofs in the village draw our eyes to the hill Unification of composition through use of blues and greens Uses brush stroke to represent texture Fond de l Hermitage 1879 Path leads the eye to the background 0 Get to the building in the background and get blocked in Building in the back is more well defined 0 Eye comes back to the foreground to see man and goat Open composition Many verticals to help framework Short brush strokes of foliage represent texture Path and trees are longer strokes helps lead viewer throughout Blues and greens form unity Representation of person in natural environment Berthe Morisot France 18411895 Morisot Morisot Morisot Organizer of Impressionist exhibitions 0 At forefront of the movement Well liked by Manet 0 Met with Manet and he supported her which led to her success 0 Married his brother Female work confined to family friends and home 0 Could not paint men alone unless it was their husband Untypical of women to draw men Women could not do landscapes typical of Impressionists 0 Lose white skin that women of the time were supposed to have 0 Sweat loss of powder 0 Would need to bring umbrella plus all other materials hassle More energy and length in brush strokes later in life Sketchier and more dynamic than other Impressionists Eugene Manet and his Daughter in the Garden at Bougival 1881 Manet and his daughter Atypical for women to paint men 0 However another subject is present and Eugene is family The Cradle 1872 Very limited palette Black used unlike Renoir and other Impressionists Brush stroke not blotchy like Impressionists Face of mother has most detail 0 Most focus on the face of the mother All focus on mother in general In the middle with purpleblack dress makes her stand out from all the white around her Baby covered by lace not the focus 0 White lace of cradle repeated on the window in background Room is dark repetition of black Framed closely like a closeup Woman at her Toilette 1875 O O 0 0 Morisot Much more energy and length in brush strokes Muted similar color throughout 0 Limited color palette Size and direction of strokes to create volume Position of woman slightly similar to Academic art pose Young Lady in Evening Gown 18791880 Long sketchy brush strokes typical of later work Mary Cassatt USA 18451926 0 0 Cassatt 0 Cassatt Did not just do art as a past time she wanted to be successful 0 Very determined Went to Paris to try to be successful Discovered Spanish artists and Courbet Became prot g of Degas o Degas hated women but thought Cassatt had the painting style of a man and thought she painted very well Japonisme very important to her As her work evolves it becomes more detailed Reading Le Figaro The Artist s Mother 1878 Uncommon to paint woman reading the newspaper or doing any normal everyday activity 0 Woman portrayed how she is doing what she normally does Older womannot pretty 0 No idealization and not posed in a feminine way Woman does not care about being viewed Diagonal of Japonisme Close tight frame 0 Use of mirror opens up the relatively closed composition 0 Not much background Face most defined focused while the rest remains sketchier At The Opera 1879 Woman is the observer of others 0 Playing with the stereotype of woman going to the opera simply to be viewed Renoir La Loge o The viewed is now the viewer Face most well detailed o Strong diagonal and layers strong Japonisme representation o Black red gold and white o Unified palette that creates atmosphere and impression Cassatt Bath 18911892 c More toward Japanese art style o Takes style from Japanese wood block o Later work so it contains more detail James Whistler USA 18341903 c Went to Europe to be an artist o Studied with Degas o Liked the work of Courbet o 1879 first artist to sue a critic for criticizing his art harshly o Whistler won the lawsuit Got very little money from the critic for winning a Completely bankrupt from trial fees n Reputation was ruined o Converges idea of painting and music 0 Art flowing together and working together to form a musical quality 0 Would use musical terms to name his pieces Whistler At The Piano 18581859 c First work o Strong horizontals o Symmetry of the two females mother and daughter o Shallow in depth close tight composition o Open space in the center with two focal points 0 Viewer s focus goes back and forth between the subjects o Red and green background set off the subjects making them stand out who are primarily black and white Whistler The White Girl Symphony in White No1 1862 o Shown next to Manet s The Luncheon on the Grass in exhibition o Looks empty no expression or gesture o It s about the painting and composition not the subject emotions or interpretations o Uses many tones of white that play together 0 Symphony colors work together and flow as a musical piece Whistler Arrangement in Grey and Black Portrait of the Artist s Mother 1871 o Verticals and horizontals o Shallow space o Curvature of the subject brings together the verticals and horizontals o Exploration of different shades of grey and black o Musical quality of working together Whistler Princess of the Porcelain Country Harmony in Blue and Gold Peacock Room 18761877 c Constructed background with horizontals and verticals o Curvature of subject o Shallow depth o An ethnographic look at Japanese culture 0 Rather than a representation of Japanese art Japonisme o Work that was criticized that led to trial Whistler Nocturne in Black and Gold The Falling Rocket 1875 Lady Meux o Very wealthy woman o Wanted paintings of herself to bring her in good graces and represent her well 0 Commissioned 4 paintings to be done by Whistler Whistler Arrangement in Black Lady Meux 1881 o Everything tells of her wealth o Tiara diamonds fur coat pearls o Tiara and diamonds help to frame face o Grand figure 0 Says I m rich and beautiful o Boldly looking at the audience 0 showing she does not care what you think of her Perceived in British standards o Woman looking at the viewer is not something a lady of good standing would do o Makeup is a sign of prostitution o Wealth should never be displayed or shown off Whistler Harmony in Pink and Grey Portrait of Lady Meux 1881 o Wearing what women at forefront of fashion would wear o Everything used to accentuate curvature of her body o Hat would never be worn with that dress Butterfly right corner is a sign of wisdom o Whistler began using this symbol as his signature Whistler The Artist in his Studio 18651866 c Summarizes everything about Whistler as an artist and person 0 Porcelain shelves on left shows his interest in Japanese art and culture Woman wearing a kimono Representation of woman in white Shallow depth Horizontals and verticals balanced with curvature of the women figures 0 A better than you or don t mess with me look on his face Stating I can sue a critic 0 Beautiful play on greys pinks and whites O O O O Auguste Rodin 18401917 c Sculptor o Changed the way and style in which sculpture was done 0 More expressive and true 0 Not idealizations o Followed same modern idea of sculpting simply being medium not reallife o Believed in leaving the marks of the artist 0 Not smooth idealization of Academic sculpture o Cut and paste approach taking an arm leg head torso etc from one sculpture and putting on another 0 Constructed sculptures in pieces at a time then placing them together to make the whole o Worked to show emotions and people as they were to represent them how they are or were something true Rodin Burghers of Calais 18841889 o Commissioned by France to create this piece 0 Represents 6 men who came to give key to British for winning the war knowing they d be killed on arrival o Displays emotions of the men 0 Wanted to represent suffering weak men o Many focal points to the composition o Feet hands and heads appear somewhat too big 0 Shows not concerned with anatomy but the emotion o Male models posed nude first to convey the emotion in the body stature and gestures o Added clothes onto the sculpture after piece together property Rodin Honore de Balzac 18931897 c Commissioned to create a monument to Balzac famous writer who died o Talked to people to get an idea of how they saw him and dimensions 0 Represent him how he was true to life o Sculpture described as ugly and formless o Upset they spent the money to get that result o No hands visible no exactness 0 It s all about the face what is in the face and facial expression o Long phallic shape and energy 0 Suggested creativity power and strength o Rodin s hands and marks visible in the clay Rodin Walking Man 1900 o Trying to represent the action of walking 0 Don t need head or arms to walk 0 Cutting head takes away emotion and interpretations by audience and focuses directly on action o The emotion and subject do not matter o Can see trace of artist working on it 0 Action of ripping off arms and removing head 0 Adding emphasis to artist at work o Rodin has the ability to sculpt well and smoothly but chooses not to 0 Displays the emotion of artist doing the work 0 Does not pretend to be reallife Rodin Exhibition o At a time when modern art was beginning to be accepted o First modern exhibition to be funded by the government 0 Not like the exhibitions of Courbet and Manet who had their own because they knew they couldn t get into the regular exhibitions of the time The Isms The New Plastics for Art Cubism 1162009 115400 PM Georges Braque France 18821963 c Early 19005 followed Fauvism summer 1907 Georges Braque Landscape at La Ciotat 1907 o Not a good draftsman could not paint real life easily o Interested in space and creating atmosphere Cezanne reference 0 Atmosphere everything is made of the same basic things atoms o Center composition leave edges unfinished o Just what exists not relating to another reality 0 It s its own reality Salon d Automne 1907 Homage to Cezanne o First time most see or know of Cezanne o Discovery of Cezanne 0 Return to form o Cezanne s letters published wrote to young artists Braque has a big revelation after discovering Cezanne ProtoCubism Georges Braque Viaduct a l Estaque 1908 o Reduction in number of colors o Focus on shape and form 0 Not about colors but shape o Braque went from organic forms to geometric forms o Only kept the essentials Passage Technigue Georges Braque Les usines du RioTinto a l Estaque 1910 o Overlap of one thing to another 0 Merging elements of a scene o No relation to the outside world just what is seen Analytic Cubism Georges Braque Violin and Candlestick 1910 o Possible shift in perspective o Wanted to stay with same neutral colors Stenciled Letters Georges Braque The Portuguese 1911 o Investigation of space o Images all start to look similar 0 Use of text to add dimension to painting o Man holding playing a guitar in a caf for money 0 Idea Not about deciphering the subject about painting Pablo Picasso Spanish 18811973 c Braque and Picasso were close hung out in each other s studios o Braque and Picasso had same fundamental conclusion 0 However difference in way of representing their conclusion o Richer representation of reality o Not about what he sees but what he knows o Knows that forms are 3D and what the other dimensions should look like Differences of Braque and Picasso o Ideas of Cezanne o Braque important to represent geometric shapes in nature 0 Picasso importance in perspective of planes to a central point o Idea of Cubism o Braque Cubism is a solution to not being a good draftsman o Picasso Cubism is a way to challenge him as an artist Pablo Picasso Les demoiselles d Avignon 1907 o Deconstruction of form o Constant shifts in perspective Pablo Picasso Seated Nude 19091910 Analytic Cubism Pablo Picasso Ambroise Vollard 1910 o Trying to analyze the subject o Showing movement and backside of the head o Paints what he knows 0 Subject in the same position but Picasso knew what he couldn t see was still there and what it would look like and painted it o All the lines are there because they look good together 0 Not a representation of something Stenciled Letters Pablo Picasso Ma Jolie 1911 o Braque uses letters to create dimension but it does not work like that for Picasso becomes more of a title o So engrossed in own reality that they lose realistic interpretation Collages o Collage meaning to paste Georges Braque Clarinet 1912 o Instead of real wood a representation of wood o Pasting paper representing wood on top of white paper o Instead of representing reality he uses shows something from reality Synthetic Cubism Georges Braque Still Life BACH 1912 Pablo Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning 1912 o Took Braque s idea and pushed it to a new level o Real rope o Picture representing a chair 0 Constructing a chair 0 Text o Starts to paint on top of other object medium Pablo Picasso Glass and Bottle of Suze 1912 o Newspapers parts of articles o Instead of representing a bottle he puts the label of the bottle o Blue of table o Represent a caf scene 0 Go to a caf to meet friends talk about what s going on in the life and the world 0 Drink represented by the label representing the bottle o Pieces of the articles represent people and their conversation Pablo Picasso Guitar and Wine Glass 1912 Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger Jean Metzinger Tea Time 1911 Fourth Dimension o Jouffret s octahedrons Albert Gleizes Le chemin Meudon 1911 Defining Cubism The art of painting original arrangements composed of elements taken from conceived rather than perceived realityquot Orphism 1162009 115400 PM Robert Delaunay France 18851941 Robert Delaunay Selfportrait 19051906 c Interest in color Fauvism Robert Delaunay Landscape with Discs 19061907 c Interest in divisionism o Idea came out of Fauvism and divisionism o Through Fauvism he discovered divisionism Discovers Cezanne in 1907 Robert Delaunay Study for La Ville 1909 o Cityscapes and the Eiffel Tower are motifs for Delaunay o Looking through window at the city of Paris Robert Delaunay La Ville n02 1910 o Mixture of divisionism cubism and Cezanne c Sun striking the window and curtains of window 0 Painting is of a view through a window 0 Art is a window open unto the world 6 playing with that mentality Delaunay s Masterpiece Robert Delaunay La Villa de Paris 19101912 c Eiffel Tower three nudes symbolic of Derain s La danse 0 Three nudes symbolic of The Three Graces 0 Greek mythology goddesses of charm beauty nature human creativity and fertility o Named Aglaea quotBeautyquot Euphrosyne quotMirthquot and Thalia quotGood Cheerquot o Mixture of artworks o Rousseau Derain and Three Graces sculpture o Homage to great works some of his favorites o Divisionismsynthesispassage technique 0 Applied theory of color with a Cezannecubism technique Eiffel Tower is almost brand new at the time symbol of modernity and progress o Delaunay taking position of welcoming modernity o Delaunay works to answer How do I make the Eiffel Tower seem great and momentous in a 2D painting Destructive Phase o Cezanne played with idea of trying to make a 2D space represented as 3D Robert Delaunay Eiffel Tower 1911 o Multiple perspectives Cezanne and Picasso style o Deconstructing the space o Eiffel Tower in reddish colors 0 Stand out showing importance o Squish it into the space canvas 0 Makes it seem too important and big to fit Constructive Phase Robert Delaunay Simultaneous Windows 2nd Motif 1St Part 1912 o Light and color most important Chevreul s color theory o Simultaneous contrast of color o Looking at two colors together they begin to change Robert Delaunay The Window n03 1912 Color and light become the most important for Delaunay o Move toward abstraction not about subject Robert Delaunay Premier disque simultan 1912 o Abstract piece o Abstraction does not exist at this time in art 0 Ground breaking idea Did not stay in abstraction very long Robert Delaunay Circular Forms Sun Moon 1913 o Rhythm of complementary color and how they interact Guillaume Apollinaire o Very important poet in early 20th century o Discussed work of artists 0 Thinks what Robert Delaunay does is pure poetry Robert Delaunay Homage to Bl riot 1914 o Based on a postcard o Bleriot first to fly the Chanel in 1906 o Airplane represented the dream of humanity and symbol of modernity o Eiffel Tower present o Complementary color rhythm and motion Sonia Delaunay Russia 18851979 c Came to France in 1907 to study art o Wealthy family o Met Robert in 1907 married and had children o 1907 interested in Fauve and Van Gogh color o Work in fashion design Sonia Delaunay A Young Girl Asleep 1907 Sonia Delaunay Blanket 1911 o Many argue first abstract art o Sonia did not intend it as artwork but simply a blanket Blaise Cendrars o Met Cendrars 0 Gave her a long poem he wrote o Sonia wanted to illustrate the text 0 Modern poetry Sonia Delaunay La Prose du Transsib rien et de la petite Jehanne de France by Blaise Cendrars 1913 o First simultaneous book 0 Accordion style 0 Color merge in text 0 Contrast of color from Robert Delaunay Chevreul s theory Blends of colors seen differently together o Ends with Eiffel Tower Sonia Delaunay Electric Prisms 1914 o Like seeing reality through a prism o Looks thinner and more transparent than Robert s works Robert and Sonia flee to not be in the army for WWI Sonia Delaunay March au Minto 1916 o Market in Portugal Came back to France which was not very happy he left and not helped to fight in the war o Part of the reason he was not very wellknown Define Orphism o About color light and movement Futurism 1162009 115400 PM Important to pay attention to title not only the piece with Futurism o Not about art but a way of living 0 About destruction rashness energy and danger o Movement the aesthetic of speed Filippo Tommaso Marinetti o The founder of the Futurist movement We want to sing the love of danger the habit of energy and rashness Futurist Manifesto Le Figaro February 20 1909 o Published in Le Figaro a French daily paper in February 20 1909 We want to demolish museums and libraries fight morality feminism and all opportunist and utilitarian cowardice o Mark the beginning of new movement o Want to destroy the past culture and tradition 0 Did not wish to be attached or compared to older artworks or artists o Did not like the idea of museums o Destruction to start anew o Wanted fight movement destruction of society 0 War symbol of destroying everything Exploding destroying conventional typography o Transformation of regular type c Reading from left to right 0 Wanted to destroy this tradition The Futurist Art of Noise o Wanted to make noise not music just noise The Futurist Esthetic Manifesto Everything is in movement everything rushes forward everything is in constant swift change o Wanted to go forward from Picasso idea of knowing what is there without having to see it o Wanted to display movement 0 Represent movement on a flat surface o Nothing is ever static EitenneJules Marev and Chronophotoqraphv o Faster shutter speeds and development times bring about photographing different stages of movement 0 Futurists utilize this quality for their artworks Luigi Russolo Italian 18851947 Luigi Russolo Dynamism of an Automobile 19121913 c Illusion of forward movement o Triangulars form an arrowlike quality to display forward movement o Photography clearly influenced Russolo o Landscape moving with the automobile merging together Luigi Russolo The Revolt 1911 1913 stops painting to focus on music Umberto Boccioni Italian 18821916 Umberto Boccioni States of Mind I Farewells 1911 o Train progression of people saying goodbye to one another o Representation of radio waves 0 Movement of sound Things that are usually not visible o People in the smoke of the train o Modernity train and radio waves Umberto Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space 1913 o The movement of the human body in motion o Legs where they have been and extending to where they are going o No arms similar to Rodin s Walking Man focus on motion 0 Differences from Rodin Rodin interested in the movement motion of people Futurists interested in speed c Not about the artist working like Rodin 0 Smooth bronze exterior Umberto Boccioni Dynamism of a Soccer Player 1913 o Almost like prism refraction of light like R Delaunay o Lights shining on soccer field and player o Movement and motion Gino Severini Italian 18831966 Gino Severini Dancer in Blue 1912 o Interested in dancers movement o Close to Picasso and cubist representation 0 Discussed with Picasso and advised him to add things to artworks o Deconstruction of movement Gino Severini Dynamic Hieroglyphic of the Bal Tabarin 1912 Different forms of dance Black cat Many flags Arab on a camel Nude woman on scissors Polka waltz writing Two choir girls patron and singer Movement explosion of sound motion and dance Giacomo Balla Italian 18711958 Giacomo Balla Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash 1912 o Influence of chronophotography o Famous piece one thought of when thinking of Futurism Giacomo Balla Speed of a Motor Car Light Sound 1913 Triangular progression of movement White representing light Representations of waves of sound Explosion point of where all sound and light emits from Giacomo Balla Abstract Speed 19131914 Pure representation of speed Short period of representing speed in general No subject Short abstract period Frames create limitations 0 Painting on the frame Seurat used this with complementary colors Pointing out that movement does not end and continues outside of the canvas Giacomo Balla Mercury Passing in Front of the Sun seen by Telescope 1914 Speed movement and energy Piet Mondrian Netherlands 1872194411212009 92800 PM Piet Mondrian Netherlands 18721944 c Comes from family of artists o Trained in a traditional manner o Line is very important for Mondrian Called Mondriaan with two A s from his first works till 19111912 c His move to Paris From Symbolism to Cubism Piet Mondriaan SelfPortrait 1900 Piet Mondriaan At WorkOn The Land 1898 o Muted palette o Landscape o Traditional o Thin paint o First exhibition of Van Gogh in the Netherlands Amsterdam o Radical response Piet Mondriaan Mill in Sunlight 1908 o Thick paint o Vivid colors o Direction of brushwork o Same traditional matter but aspect of form style changed Mysticism Piet Mondriaan Devotion 1908 o Flower as if growing out of her o Spiritual o Think of Kupka s The Beginning of Life Theosophy c Member of Theosophy starting in 19081909 c Opening of the Modern Art collections at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam o Influences Mondriaan s interest in form Piet Mondriaan Windmill 1911 o Traditional subject matter o Texture and form o Mass and vivid color Piet Mondriaan Evolution 1911 o Color form modernity mysticism all come together o Reads left to right like a visual story 0 Left to right background Flowers Circles orbs Stars 0 Left to right nipples and navel Upside down triangles Upward triangles Diamonds Triangle down nondivine earthoriented 0 Flowers earthly plants 0 Eyes closed Triangle up divine heavenly being 0 Circles orbs light from the divine 0 Eyes open see the light of the divine Diamond resolution both up and down earthly and divine 0 Stars celestial heavenly bodies not of this earth but higher 0 Eyes closed serene at peace balanced Theosophy no longer a division 0 Arriving at unity balance resolution of conflict 0 Representative art no longer necessary Everything in life will be art Theosophy and Modernism o Equilibrium between man s outwardness and his inwardness Cubism A New Platonism o Discovers Cubism and absolutely loves it o Believes they are spiritual showing unity and essence o Big revelation Piet Mondriaan Gray Tree 1911 o Deconstruction of tree o Gray mist of morning o Thick paint texture Piet Mondriaan Still Life with Gingerpot I 19111912 c Gingerpot came from Cezanne o Try to find geometric form and play with line Leaves Amsterdam for Paris and began being Mondrian with one A Piet Mondrian Still Life with Gingerpot II 19111912 c Decomposition of form o Gingerpot central o Moving direction following Cubism Meets Picasso o Realizes Picasso not a spiritual guy Picasso not about essence o Realizes he misunderstood Cubism The deception Cubism is not neoPlatonism Piet Mondrian Flowering Apple Tree 1912 o Background completely disappear almost o Merge branch with background o Disperse out from center 0 Blooming o Becoming indefinite o Process of deconstruction continues o Expansion from center to outside Evolution of Tree c From Modernism to Cubism to deconstruction Piet Mondrian Trees 1912 o Integrated block of color o Line and space representation o Mix of curvature and straight line 0 Curve lines becoming straight interested Piet Mondrian Composition Trees II 1912 o All reduce to vertical and horizontal o Progression from real to creation Piet Mondrian Composition No9 Blue Facade 1913 o Move from organic to linear Piet Mondrian Composition 8 1914 o No longer give descriptive title o Not abstract but it s about facade o Vertical and horizontal create equilibrium o Cross may be unity he s looking for Abstraction Piet Mondrian Composition No11 1913 o Completely about verticals and horizontals o Unity and balance o Still few curves because he is unsure o Everything connected made up of same thing atoms idea 0 May have created unity of lines and cross but still opposition of background Not complete unity Goes back to Netherlands away from the War De Stijl o Should be no distinction of life and art 0 One and the same Piet Mondrian Composition with Gray and Light Brown 1918 NeoPlasticism 1919 comes back to Paris o Finds style of solution he thinks o Use primary color and black and white Piet Mondrian Composition with Red Yellow and Blue 1921 o Don t know if white is background or foreground 0 Unity of both o Trying to reduce opposition o Directionality of strokes o Blue underneath red on top maybe not 0 No distinction of background and foreground Refused to use diagonal o Nothing in life is diagonal Piet Mondrian Composition of Red Yellow and Blue 1925 o Can t have diagonal but painting displayed as diamond o Diamond is the resolution 0 Go back to mysticism piece and Theosophy o Frame problem diamond solution o Use of shades of white play with foreground and background resolution Piet Mondrian Composition I 1930 o Full of energy but stable o White and black o Mondrian decides it s not working not solving anything 0 Can t create resolution by showing harmony 0 Can t create unity by showing unity Must show opposite Everything expressed by opposite Change everything need for movement o Nazis arrive in power 0 Burn works 0 Banish artists His whole studio was like a Mondrian painting Move to London 0 Studio bombed Invited to NYC and goes Discovers life movement and intensity of NYC Piet Mondrian New York City I 1942 Grid with straight lines horizontals and verticals 0 Like the blocks of NYC intersecting Discovers colored tape Instead of drawing uses color tape Live in color removed black and white Piet Mondrian Broadway Boogie Woogie 19421943 Loved dance and music 0 Especially Broadway boogie woogie Paint not tape Squares form music quality Pixelation Achieve harmony unity through instability and disharmony Piet Mondrian Victory Boogie Woogie 19421944 Taped and painted Unfinished before death Resolved everything Opposition rid Diagonal frame change Unity of foreground and background Recent Consumerism Mondrian interested in something spiritual and huge 0 Reduced to consumerism paintings on Nike shoes and dresses What he was against o What would he think of this exploitation for consumer products Realism New Levels of Reality 11212009 92800 PM Artists go back to Realism after the War but in a different way Return To Order o WWI not only Europe destroyed the artists destroyed inside World War I 19141918 Giono Severini Plastic Synthesis of the Idea War 1915 o Futurist representation of war o Beginning of War o Futurism want war for destruction Nationalism Pablo Picasso Vive La France 1914 o Picasso had a hard time during War period 0 All friends went to war 0 From Spain didn t have to go to war 0 Derain Braque friends come back changed men No longer friends material A Reaction o War was bringing France back to reality AntiModernism o Losing touch with the world o Skewed Cubism to seem German 0 Two main Cubists French and Spanish 0 Derived this claim from boullion cube Cubism seen as bad in France considered German Giono Severini Canons in Action 1915 o Explosion of war o Violent intense o Typical Futurism Giono Severini Maternity 1916 o Radical change o Going away from Futurist ideals o After seeing so much war people want beauty and calmness o Starting new innocence safety o Motherland o Return to value fullness of body not exploding forms Henri Matisse Piano Lesson 1916 o Told Matisse too old to fight 0 All friends are fighting 0 Can t fight for his country 0 Whole family held hostage during War didn t hear from them o Gloomy for Matisse Henri Matisse Music Lesson 1917 o What people wanted to see c Pleasant relaxing o People wanted to forget awfulness of war 19161917 from avantgarde innovation and creativity experimentation to beautiful works o What public wanted Return to French Tradition o Victory and return to common sense Image d Epinal o Type of images emerge in France especially in French Revolution 0 Outline simplistic image and color o All artists go back to this style Pablo Picasso Apollinaire en artilleur 1914 o Mimic Image d Epinal style Comedia dell Arte o Form of imagery o Moved from Italian to France in 17th century o Comedic and fun o Show stupidity of nationalism o Artists go back to idea of Comedia Pablo Picasso Paul as Harlequin 1924 Giono Severini Perriot the Musicien 1924 Andre Derian Harlequin and Pierrot 1924 o All revivals of French tradition Andre Derian Harlequin and Pierrot 1924 o In a strange place for the costumes o Playing instruments with no strings o Stating the artist can no longer express themselves o Gloomy faces not too happy o No music silence o Stop motion o Puppetlike o Realistic but artificial at the same time o Face trace of time older man 0 Where are we Why are we here Synthesis of Modernist Research o Go further move on 0 Not just going backwards o Not seen as digressing but using knowledge of gained from experimentation in a new way or style Pablo Picasso Portrait of Olga in the Arm Chair 1917 o Go back to nineteenth century painting 0 Face position o Difference is in background unfinished o Edges unfinished too 0 Creating new representation of space 0 How can integrate Cubist ideas into a more realistic traditional painting o Taking what learned from Cubism and bringing back the human form Pablo Picasso Mother and Child 1921 o Classical Greek clothing o Taking Cubism and making it smoother 0 Think Ambrose analytic Cubism smoothed out o Cezanne shape form tubes nature in shapes o Not interested in exact representation o Cezanne brushwork and form but smoother Pablo Picasso Le Corbusier SillLife 1922 o Shape geometry o Solid line o No longer passage technique Silence of Painting Fernand Leger La Partie de carte 1917 o If most artists went to war where are all the war paintings 0 One of only paintings of war Playing cards in war o Why did people who experience war not paint it o How to paint WWI No longer idealizations of glorifying war o Not a photogenic war o Trenches mud gray outfits o No longer beautiful color o Not a war that could be painted o War better for photography than painting Do you really want to represent remember this c When you ve seen war you don t want to paint it o People want to escape from reality not see it o Paint what you d rather see Fernand Leger Le Grand Dejeuner 1921 Andre Derian Mme Paul Guillaume 1928 o Derian tried for years to do monstrous painting of war could not do it o No trace of this work anywhere o Wrote about by Surrealist painters Consequences of war completely change mindset and a desire for peace and returning to order Derian s Retreat in Style Andre Derain Dos 1924 o Failure of painting to do any painting of the War o Saw himself as a failure o Retreated o Painting cannot create utopia o No more illusion Dada 11212009 92800 PM Dada signifies nothing it is nothing nothing nothing Francis Picabia Dada is what you can make out of yourself Raoul Hausmann o Form of realism o Coming out of WWI World War I Response of WWI Mostly younger artists not yet established Think war is great romantic destruction to start anew Many from Germany A movement of protest started in Zurich not only in the world of art but in the world of politics Wanted to include art into the fight for a new ethic Hugo Ball o One of the founders of Dada went to Switzerland Hugo Ball Cabaret Voltaire 1916 o Had Dada evenings o Led to Dada manifesto Idea of the word dada important 1916 o Went to bar in Zurich o Switzerland to escape war and madness o War is logic western logic led us to war o Need to do something illogical Dada sound poems c Poems made of sounds that mean nothing 0 Illogical sounds o Antilogic Sophie TaeuberArp Sophie TaeuberArp The King The Warrior Freud o Making fun of psychoanalysis this logic Tristan Tzara Romania 18961963 c Goes to Zurich and France o Poet o Takes control of Dada group in Zurich o Learns to just speak and write French 0 Change identity o Writes own manifesto o Work with media to have dada known in public 0 Everything is DADA o Did not like Futurism o Believed they had too much logical idealism Jean Arp Jean Arp Rectangles According to the Laws of Chance 1916 o Dada poem visually random sounds random rectangles o All chances dropped on paper randomly Jean Arp Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance 19161917 c Said they are realities within themselves 0 It is what it is 0 Own reality o Life is random therefore represents realness Jean Arp Collage of Squares According to the Laws of Chance 19161917 Life is stupid western civilization is stupid o All over there is control and need for control o Lose control lose logic Dada International Dada in Germany c French dada more poetical o German dada very politically oriented Raoul Hausmann Raoul Hausmann Mechanical Head The Spirit of our Time 1919 o Dummy head maybe representative c He is a tool made up of tools o In war you are a number not an individual o Cannot see cannot talk o Cartridge for typewriter in ears spot 0 Only hears what newspaper government tells him o Bourgeois man cause of the war 0 Does whatever government tells him o Collapsible cup on top of head 0 Fill his head with anything o Reduced to followers of the government Raoul Hausmann Dada siegt 1920 o Dada on top of the world o Politic in nature Raoul Hausmann Ein Burgerliches Pracisionsgehirn Ruft Eine Weltbewegung Hervor 1920 Hannah Hoch Hannah Hoch Da Dandy 1919 o Profile of a man made up of collage of women o All man does is think of women o Profile of Raoul Hausmann whom she was seeing o Womanizer 0 She liked Raoul and he was married Collage is anti everything that has been done before at this time o Collage changed what art was about o Now conceptualization and picking pieces to paste o Artist now selects instead of makes Hannah Hoch Die Schone Madchen 1920 o BMW light bulb modernity Kurt Schwitters Kurt Schwitters Untitled Hand Mirror 19201922 c Collected trash to make collages o Back to Picasso bring real objects into art collages Chair Caning Dada in France Marcel Duchamp o Dadaist before the war Marcel Duchamp Bicycle Wheel 1913 o Idea of readymade o First readymade o Art depends on context o Can call anything art H D m o Not about what it is about context o Art is about what is said about it o All certainty of art disappears Marcel Duchamp Fountain 1917 o Signing and dating is what makes art 0 Signed it under the pseudoname R Mutt o Immediately was rejected at an exhibition o Asked friends to go talk about the art 0 Talk about how great it is and ask the judges why they don t like it Build it up as if it is such great art Judges start to question their rejection Proving art is context 0 O Destroyed idea of what art can be Marcel Duchamp LHOOQ 1919 o Thought about English and French 0 English pronounced like LOOK making people look 0 French a pun standing for She has a hot ass She is horny hot in the pants etc o So many layers yet so simple 0 Creativeness is in the way he represents it 0 Creativity within the mind and concept o Mona Lisa with a goatee and mustache done in pencil Marcel Duchamp LHOOQ Shaved o Without beard and mustache o Just the Mona Lisa again but in a different context Duchamp stopped art to play chess Francis Picabia Francis Picabia Danse de SaintGuy 1919 o Brings us outside composition to the real world o Signature makes it art o Blank frame no canvas strings inside it This painting was made to be hung in a room from the ceiling it was meant to remain transparent The strings accompanied the movement of what was happening outside the frame Picabia Francis Picabia The Cacodylic Eye 1921 o Graphic art 0 Yes started back in the 1920s o Sick in the hospital 0 Artists come visit him and write on this canvas 0 Collaboration When there was no more space for writing it was finished o All context of signatures and writing make it art quotThe true dadas are against Dadaquot Quotations from the Dada Manifesto quotGive yourself a poke in the nose and drop dead Dada A priori that is with eyes closed Dada places before action and above all doubt Dada doubts all AntiDadaism is a disease selfkleptomania the normal state of man is Dada But the true dadas are against Dada we are all idiots and you are all idiots Take a good look at me I am an idiot I am a clown I am a faker Take a good look at me I am ugly my face has no expression I am little I am like all of youquot Against the Academization of Impressionism9192009 81500 PM Impressionism began being followed and copied like Academism used to be Everything Impressionism stood against started to become part of it 0 Almost dogmatic following 0 Like a new Academy of impressionism Georges Seurat France 18591891 Seurat Loved artist Pierre Puvis de Chavannes 0 Not and Academic or modern artist in between Influenced by Delacroix s use of color and clarity 1879 discovers Impressionism Interested in politics and representing French society Works look really flat Does not mix colors Believes in the preservation of colors Pure colors next to one another Skin tone made up of all different dots of pure color Use of complementary colors side by side Dots style like musical notes for a musician put all together to create a harmony Seurat s Theory of Expression 0 Gaiety above the horizontal Warm colors light values ascending lines o Sadness below the horizontal Cool colors dark values descending lines Le Tacheron 1882 Influenced mainly by Pissaro o Landscapes with people people interaction with landscape Interested in light and color Thought there was nothing scientific about their works 0 Studied colors and learned about complementary colors Influence of Charles Blanc s Grammaire des arts du dessin 0 Theory of expression 0 How Line influences how we perceive O O O Divisionism reduce color and stroke to simplest elements Dots of color side by side to make up the painting as a whole Seurat Seurat 0 Seurat Seurat 0 0 0 Division between the paint globs dots A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte 18841886 Represents pleasure of urban life 0 Puts himself in modern tradition Very large piece Cultural implications of the time o Dignified woman with a monkey implies prostitution 0 Woman fishing usually a man s role Makes a social statement Large social stratification 0 Working class upper class rigid figures military personnel and middle class all in the same environment Did many preliminary drawings over 2 year span Not that great of a divisionism example 0 Painted with small brush strokes with globs of color added on top Plays with colors and complementary colors Stiff in composition 0 Technique does not allow much movement or movement to be represented well 0 Wanted it to be a classical work Well organized repetition rhythm and verticals 0 Music of the space space organized to rhythm La Parade de Cirque 1889 Profile painting Strongly shows the idea of globs of paint side by side to create the work as a whole Complementary colors Young Woman Powdering Herself 18881890 The Circus 1891 Better depiction of divisionism Glimpse of French society Frame around work complementary to predominant color of artwork to make it pop Upper class down in first rows lower class in higher rows and balconies 0 Showing strata of French classes by rows o Circus had a bad reputation at this time 0 Related to prostitution o Performers not just performing but selling themselves 0 There is a woman looking around implies prostitute o Stiff rigid upper class and more relaxed lower class o Directions of lines all going up 0 Above horizontal light values warm colors related to gaiety according to Seurat s Theory of Expression Hair going upwards moustaches pointing up etc Paul Signac France 18631935 c Another divisionist o Met Seurat o Seurat convinces him to not mix color 0 Converted by Seurat o Typical subject matter not symbolic like Seurat s o Signac s book explains color and how Pointillist understand nothing Signac Breakfast 18861887 c Same techniques as Seurat o Represents typical Bourgeoisie life Women at Well 1892 o Similar palette as Seurat s The Circus o Diagonal Japonisme quality o Classical representation o About curve and shape o Does not use outline typical of Seurat 0 Colors come together to make line like quality 0 More meticulous than Seurat More Important Information Pissaro Father figure of Impressionism o Saw Seurat s work and style divisionism technique and adopted it near the end of his life 0 Pissaro was always questioning and diversifying in his work Always kept same subject matter just changed techniques used 0 Old painter following a new age style Camille Pissaro The House of the Deaf Woman 1886 Summation of Modern Art A canvas is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order Paul Cezanne France 18391906 9192009 81500 PM Paul Cezanne One of the most important artists of the later 19th century and early 20th century 0 Still affects artists today Difficult personality shy and lack of selfconfidence 0 Father destroyed much of his work 0 Father had a strong personality and thought son Cezanne was a loser Influenced by Courbet and Manet Best friends with Emile Zola o Zola not convinced of Cezanne s artwork Made Impressionism color and outside classic and solid 0 Beyond changing of appearance of Impressionism o Held belief that a painting is simply a painting o Took a very long time to paint o Thick pastel used in Cezanne s early works o Did not date his works so all dates are historian guesses o Leaves areas of unfinished or bare canvas Important for Cezanne o A painting is a limited flat space o A painting is not a window opened unto the world o Cezanne thought Impressionism sacrificed form o Form and mass is essential o Sees things as geometry structure underneath 0 House as a rectangle human as a sphere etc o Not looking at how light plays on things or care of representation of life unlike Impressionism Subject Matter o Did not care about representing culture or life of people o Usually poor people and family members 0 Shy with models o Unique poses Problem for Cezanne o Entire career of Cezanne focused on solving one main problem 0 Wanted a flat non 3D quality that had mass and form 0 Possibly impossible o This quest for the impossible kept Cezanna going Paul Cezanne LouisAuguste Cezanne The Artist s Father 1866 o Cezanne s artwork above his father 0 Mocking his father o Newspaper is a leftwing paper that praises modern art nothing matching his father s politics Paul Cezanne Portrait of Achille Emperaire 18671868 c Was a dwarf and a hunchback o Used thick pastel Cezanne Discovered Impressionism o Met Pissaro o Took Cezanna under his wing o Taught him how to paint and paint outdoors o Introduced him to all other Impressionist artists o Degas thought Cezanne was a joke and Manet did not like him either o Cezanne s work changes a lot under Impressionist influence 0 However he would never become an Impressionist artist Paul Cezanne The Railway Cutting 1870 Paul Cezanne Madame Cezanne in Conservatory 1880 o Edge of canvas left unfinished bare canvas o Brushstroke points out it s just a painting Paul Cezanne The Bridge of Maincy Near Melun 1879 o First solution to problem brushstroke o Have shape and form3D depth but still feel as it is just a painting o All the brushstrokes next to each other 0 Play with brushstroke 0 Well structured with complex brushstroke o Not illusion of landscape Paul Cezanne Still Life with Fruit Basket 18881890 Ginger pot famous typical of Cezanne Did many of these stilllifes and just modified the position of objects Background is a small peek of the rest of the room his studio Messing up perspective 0 Doesn t seem to make sense Multiple perspectives moved to paint different parts of the painting from many points of view 0 Step away from single point perspective Paul Cezanne Still Life with Plaster Cupid 1895 View from below to Cupid statue and table Unusual for Cezanne to use vertical format Background is from the perspective of looking at the floor 0 Representation of floor illusion Painting in background within a painting 0 Represents that the painting is a painting 0 Painting of a sculpture within a painting of a sculpture 0 Painting of fruit within a painting a fruit Creates an illusion of space to take it away Apple painting and basket in background appears as if they are going to fall straight down Use of blue 0 Represents air an intangible object 0 Makes the air space be felt Paul Cezanne Woman with Coffee Pot 18901895 Woman formed into geometric shapes 0 Face is an oval and her body is a pyramid Appears to be sitting at the very edge of seat 0 Almost as if she is standing or about to fall on the viewer Deals with human and still life Tilted perspective Background is a geometric pattern o Square brushstrokes 0 Wave of brushstrokes create the painting Paul Cezanne Mont Sainte Victoire 1898 o Placed objects that were not there to achieve a balanced composition o Makes drawing first then paints o Idea of being unfinished does not make it complete 0 Even Impressionists use all the canvas o Leaves unfinished canvas space o All about the process of artist and artist at work 0 Mentality of Rodin Paul Cezanne Mont Sainte Victoire 1902 o Everything disappears into web of brushstrokes o Verge of abstraction o Square geometric planes Paul Cezanne Large Bathers 19001905 c Worked with nude and the landscape later in life o Shyness caused him to use books and drawings to draw nudes not models o Subject matter going back to classical art and mythology 0 When everyone is doing what everyone else is you go back in time Paul Cezanne Large Bathers 18991906 c Unfinished quality 0 Can see under layer and bare canvas o See outline sketch drawing quality o Looks artificial to have trees coming together 0 Strong constructed quality o None of the subjects and objects interacting with each other o Use of blue airy intangible feature to make the space felt o Layered 0 Looks as if water is going to fall and background o Creates receding space o Block of color one above the other Vincent Van Gogh Netherlands 1853189O9192009 81500 PM Vincent Van Gogh Timeline Father s side were priests and the other part were art dealers All of Van Gogh s work was done within the last 4 years of his life 0 Constantly transforming his style during this period Interested in something deeper than life society and leisure Poetic Everything was color for Van Gogh 0 Loved yellows and blues sky Takes art too seriously 0 Intense and argumentative Left school early to become art dealer 0 Had no interest in becoming an artist Becomes influenced by writing of Charles Dickins interested in poor Van Gogh becomes very religious Hard to talk to with 0 Without making a big discussion or debate Fired as an art dealer Now wanted to become a priest 0 Even at seminary he is too intense and not accepted as a priest Becomes a missionary and goes to Belgium to spread religion to poor Begins to draw sketch 0 Still no intention of being an artist 0 No education knows nothing about art anatomy etc Tries to selfeducate o Wants to represent life of peasant poor people Living in deep poverty with the only money being sent to him by his brother Sent some of his artworks to his brother an art dealer in Paris 0 Not wellreceived in France Nervous breakdown o Tried so many things and failed sees himself as a failure Goes to live with his brother in Paris for a while o Brother convinces him to go away from Paris 0 Thinks Paris is not good for him o Moves to Aires in southern France 0 All places he had been prior England Paris and Netherlands were all dreary grey places 0 Southern France was sunny and had blue skies o Wanted Gaugin to join him in creating a colony of artists Gaugin had no interest Van Gogh tells Gaugin he will buy all his artwork he does while there to give to his brother the art dealer to sell 0 Thus Gaugin agrees to go live with Van Gogh o Cuts off portion of his ear o Another nervous breakdown and is put in a mental hospital o Went to visit a doctor Dr Gachet in northern France o Shoots himself in the stomach and dies 0 0 Vincent Van Gogh Potato Eaters 1885 Lithograph o Representation of the poor peasants o Wanted people to have earth colors 0 Show that they work for what they have 0 Potatoes from the garden to eat o People connected with the earth o Alienation o All subjects are not talking or communicating 0 Everything is darkness and sadness o Hoped to make people important 0 Make the poor seen and noticed o Sent to Paris 0 Not received well by French artists and public 0 All about color at this time in art complementary Told Van Gogh to study color Seen as dull and missing the point of art at the time Vincent Van Gogh Skull with Burning Cigarette 18861887 Vincent Van Gogh Montarmartre Near the Upper Hill 1886 o Subject matter more modern o Starts to use color or what he learned from readings about color Vincent Van Gogh Paris Seen From Vincent s Room in the Rue Lepic 1887 o Breakdown division of brushstroke o Seurat style Vincent Van Gogh Japonaiserie Plum Tree in Bloom after Hiroshige 1887 o Start to look at Japanese art and Japonisme o Space and perspective Vincent Van Gogh Japonaiserie 1887 o Taking a famous work and transferring it to his own style 0 Put on a background landscape symbolic of Japanese print o Resting on a frog 0 Floating quality o Boat on top of head o Brushstroke transferring into what we typically think when we think Van Gogh 0 Evolution of his work Vincent Van Gogh Sower with Setting Sun 1888 o Harsh lighting sunny o Influence of Japonisme o Clothes and man are the same color as the tree 0 Combines man with nature Peasant Painter o Harvest landscape o Transform color and brushstroke Vincent Van Gogh Olive Grove 1889 Vincent Van Gogh The AllNight Caf at Aires 1888 o Titled all night caf but displayed as day 0 Daylight bright colors 0 Bars are normally seen as dark smoky places Short brushstrokes texture Not harmonious Does not seem like a pleasing place 0 Where drunks spend all their money and ruin themselves Sinister power of the place 0 Makes the viewer feel trapped Clash of colors 0 Not pleasant and used together 0 Helps create feeling of discomfort Extending space helps draw the viewer into the piece All used to be through the perspective of a drunk 0 Lights spinning orb effect 0 Tilted and skewed perspective Not mathematical perspective 0 Objects appear to be falling or sliding toward the viewer Everyone in the painting is alone and not communicating Threatening shadow of the pool table Window open into the soul of the artist 0 Simplist conveys his emotions outright 0 Own interpretation of life Not comfortable to view Vincent Van Gogh La Berceuse 1889 Similar colors as AllNight Caf Flatter more 2D Not much perspective Tight closeup composition Deeper Meaning Motherhood fertility o Exaggerated bust Venus statuesque 0 Flowers appear to grow out of her Flowers symbolic of fertility and birth Rocking motion by use of rocking chair Yellowish quality and thick paint Rope in her hand o Symbolic of the umbilical cord o A feeling of a mother dealing with an empty nest Vincent Van Gogh SelfPortrait with Bandaged Ear 1889 o Not asserting himself with the same intensity of other selfportraits 0 Low selfesteem o Introverted and unhappy o Avoiding eye contact looking slightly down o Green uniform palette not typical of portraits o Sickly color o Bandage prominent with a 3 view o An open window or door is visible in the background 0 Like he just got home from hospital and drew it 0 Still has hat and coat on o Primed but not started canvas and Japanese art in the background Vincent Van Gogh Courtyard of the Hospital in Aries 1889 Vincent Van Gogh Starry Night 1889 o Done while in the mental hospital o Placed a Dutch village inside a south France landscape 0 Shows he is homesick o Same representation of orblike light radiating from stars and moon o Cyprus tree in the foreground 0 These trees are typically found in cemeteries o Alluding to death o Brushstrokes relay organic movement of the trees and wind Vincent Van Gogh Old Man in Sorrow 1890


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.