Experimental Chemistry II
Experimental Chemistry II CHEM C1260
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Date Created: 09/19/15
NewCROP Factsheet Perilla Contributor David Brenner Common Names English perilla beefsteak plant Chinese basil purple mint Bengali ban tulsi Chinese tzu ssu yehssu chissu hungshayao ts39aot ou tsushih ts39ao Hindi bhanjira Japanese shiso egoma shisonoha red leaved form umeboshi plum pickled with perilla Korean kkaennip namul Scienti c Names Species Perillafrutescens L Britton Three other Perilla species are recognized by some authorities but the distinctions are ambiguous and a taxonomic revision is needed Family Lamiaceae Labiatae Uses The seed oil is used for cooking as a drying oil and as a fuel The seeds are eaten by people and used as bird seed The foliage is used as a potherb for medicine and for food coloring The foliage is also distilled to produce an essential oil for avoring The plants are grown as ornamentals Origin Asia It is a traditional crop of China India Japan Korea Thailand and other Asian countries Crop Status In South Korea 40800 ha were in production in 1991 Korean plantings are often partly harvested first as a potherb and later the seeds are harvested Lee et al 1993 The average seed yield in Korea is 770 kgha in commercial production Lee et al 1989 although research plots can yield twice as much summarized by Brenner 1993 Ethnic food stores in the United States that cater to people from Korea and Japan generally carry some perilla products including fresh greens in season seed oil pickled plums plum sauce and other condiments Perilla is infrequently used in the United States as an ornamental bedding plant with green or brightly colored red foliage Seed Oil There is new commercial use of the seed oil as a source of dietary omega3 fatty acid for health conscious consumers A WWW browser search for omega3 Perilla generated a list of nine commercial suppliers for this product in December 2008 The seeds of perilla contain 31 to 51 ofa drying oil similar to tung or linseed oil all drying oils leave a hard protective surface When dry Perilla seed oil has been used in paints varnishes linoleum printing ink lacquers and for protective waterproof coatings on cloth Perilla competes with linseed as a drying oil The oil has also been used for cooking and fuel The spent seed meal can be fed to ruminants The oil is highly unsaturated with an iodine number of 185 to 208 and includes linolenic linoleic and oleic acids The high linolenic content of the oil 64 makes it unstable due to oxidation plant breeders are developing new varieties With low linolenic content for edible oil and high linolenic oil for industrial uses Lee et al 1993 Culinary Perilla foliage and seed oil are used in Korean cooking The foliage is used as a potherb and a garnish in Japan The seeds are eaten in Japan Korea and India In Japan the foliage also provides a red anthocyanin food coloring and specialized redleaved perilla varieties are used in the production of pickled plums The perilla pigment is most stable under cold acidic conditions but light can bleach the pigment Suyama et al 1983 In addition to food coloring perilla adds a antimicrobial agent to pickled foods Volatile Oil The volatile oil of perilla is used as a avoring agent in which perilla aldehyde is the desirable avoring compound One of the aldehyde isomers is 2000 times as sweet as sugar and four to eight times as sweet as saccharin Guenther 1949 Perilla alcohol prepared from perilla aldehyde is used in fragrances and has legal food status in the United States A perilla line from Bangladesh is a potential commercial source of rosefuran a compound of interest in avoring and perfumery Misra and Husain 1977 Perilla genotypes with different volatile oil chemistries have been crossed to allow study of the genetic control of biosynthetic pathways Through these crosses chemotypes have been developed that demonstrate classical genetic segregation patterns summarized by Brenner 1993 One genotype lacks perilla aldehyde but has perilla ketone One recent example of this type of investigation involves a geranialproducing perilla Honda et al 1994 Traditional Medicinal Uses Asian herbalists prescribe perilla for cough and lung af ictions in uenza prevention restless fetus seafood poisoning incorrect energy balance etc summarized by Brenner 1995 Studies of perilla volatile oil have revealed that distinct chemotypes of perilla have dramatically different biological effects summarized by Brenner 1995 The perilla aldehyde chemotype is the source of Japanese aoshiso a medicine with an agreeable fragrance Toxicity Perilla is ordinarily avoided by cattle but has been implicated in cattle poisoning Plants are most toxic if cut and dried for hay late in the summer during seed production Perilla ketone causes pulmonary edema uid in the lung cavity in many animal species although not in pigs or dogs In Japan 20 to 50 of longterm workers in the perilla industry develop dermatitis on their hands due to contact with perillaldehyde Perilla toxicity is reviewed by Brenner 1993 Botany Identi cation The best diagnostic characteristics of perilla are the netpattemed testa of the nutlets Perilla super cially resembles basil and coleus Dry skeletons of the plants persist into the spring their racemes retain dry papery calyces when the purple to white owers have fallen away Weed Ecology Perilla is a common weed of pastures and roadsides in the southeastern United States Brenner 1993 One reason for perilla s survival in pastures is that cattle avoid it It stands 15 cm tall for most of the summer In August it blooms and its stem elongates rapidly The plant reaches a height of approximately 1 m before being killed by frost Photoperiod Perilla has been used by plant physiologists to investigate oral induction Long nights induce owering but different accessions have different critical night lengths Plants become photosensitive at the forth leaf pair stage Flowering starts 18 to 20 days after the start of long nights After 30 long nights plants will bloom until they die regardless of subsequent daylength The response of perilla to photoperiod is reviewed by Brenner 1993 Crop Culture AgronomyHorticulture Perilla is a summer annual adapted to warm humid climates The seeds can be planted one cm deep as early as possible in the spring The owers selfpollinate without insect visits Brenner 1993 One of the greatest difficulties in perilla cultivation is the limited seed viability in storage At room temperature the seeds can die in less than a year Lowered temperature and lowered humidity improve storage life summarized by Brenner 1993 Germplasm Government Germplasm Collections United States David M Brenner North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Agronomy Department Iowa State University Ames Iowa 50011 Tel 5152946786 Fax 5152944880 E maildbrenneriastateedu Nineteen accessions including the following representative examples PI 248668 early maturity oilseed PI 553087 red foliage for food coloring 0r ornamental PI 546460 white seeded from Nepal PI 572264 latematurity oilseed modern Korean cultivar Japan Mr Shirata National Institute of Agrobiological Resources Kannondai Tsukuba Ibaraki 305 JAPAN Te1 81298387461 Fax 81298387408 Emai1kazukunabraffrcg0jp Access to Commercial Sources Searching the www nds sources Key References This perilla FactSHEET is extracted from Brenner 1993 which has an expanded bibliography Brenner DM 1993 Perilla botany uses and genetic resources p 3227328 In J Janick and JE Simon eds New Crops John Wiley and Sons NY 39eFloras 2008 Published on the Internet httpwwwe 0ras0rg accessed 12 December 2008 Missouri Botanical Garden St Louis MO amp Harvard University Herbaria Cambridge MA Peri11a In Flora of China 172417242 1994 Guenther E 1949 The essential oils v01 3 D Van Nostrand New York Honda G A Yuba A Nishizawa and M Tabata 1994 Genetic control of geranial formation in Perillafrutescens Biochemical Genetics 32561557159 Lee J E Han H Park J Bang 1989 Review of the research results on perilla and its prospects in Korea Proceedings of national symposium on oil crop production and its utilization Crop Experiment Station Rural Development Administration Suwon Korea Lee BH JI Lee CB Park SW Lee and YH Kim 1993 Fatty acid composition and improvement of seed oil in perilla Crop Production and Improvement Technology in Asia p 4717479 Misra LN and A Husain 1987 The essential oils ofPerz39lla ocimoides a rich source of rosefuran Planta Med 533797390 Nitta M J Kyong Lee and O Ohnishi 2003 Asian Perilla crops and their weedy forms Their cultivation utilization and genetic relationships Economic Botany 572457253 Anjula Pandey A and KC Bhatt 2008 Diversity distribution and collection of genetic resources of cultivated and weedy type in Perillafrutescens L Britton var frutescens and their uses in Indian Himalaya Genet Resour Crop Evol 558837892 Suyama K M Tamate and S Adachi 1983 Color stability of shisonin red pigment of a perilla Perilla ocimoides L var crispa Benth Food Chem 1069777 Yu HeCi Kenichi Kosuna and Megumi Haga eds 1997 Perilla The genus Perilla Harwood Academic Publishers Amsterdam Selected Experts David M Brenner North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Agronomy Department Iowa State University Ames Iowa 50011 Tel5152946786 FaX5152944880 E maildbrenneriastateedu Contributor David M Brenner North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Agronomy Department Iowa State University Ames Iowa 50011 Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved Quotation from this document should cite and acknowledge the contributor
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