Julius Caesar Statesman, Soldier, Citizen
Julius Caesar Statesman, Soldier, Citizen CLCS 38100
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Terrell Haley on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLCS 38100 at Purdue University taught by Nicholas Rauh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see /class/208022/clcs-38100-purdue-university in Classics at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 3 The Conspiracy of Cataline o Sallust 9040s BC failed politician 0 Direct contemporary with Caesar and Cicero 0 Strong advocate of Caesar 0 Sent by Caesar to govern a province in Africa I Scandal involving embezzlement I Caesar expelled him 0 Writings I War with Cataline I War with Jugurtha I The Histories his take on the 70s BC 0 Cicero 10643 BC 0 From the same time as Marius cousins o Studied Rhetoric I Best orator of the time I Long winded o T Pomponius Atticus neutral Switzerland I A friend and wealthy banker I An of ce of scribes that wrote down everything by Cicero never let his responses to get wrote down 0 Ad Atticum o Catalinarian Orations o Plutarch s Lives 0 Cicero Pompey Crassus Caesar Cato M Antonius o 90 Sallust I Sallust 90 Cicero o 2 groups of people 0 Urban Poor I PA Brunt s RomanMangower I Large tenement buildings 0 10 stories tall 7 limit 0 Toilets at street level 0 Sullan Armies that lost their land Events of the 60s 0 3 sided power struggle o Oligarchy Optimates o Cn Pompey ip opped married a Marian then a Sullan o M Crassus hates Pompey M Porcius Cato Caesar s greatest enemy o Blended family half brother of Servilia Caesar s Mistress o Creates an agenda about good government policy Boundaries of Prostitution I 39I 39 39 I 39 39 139 1 1 1 Page 1 of7 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 3 Fear of exposure blackmail loss of reputation Fear of underworld connections physical danger Fear of Disease Fear of Addiction vice T Sergius Cataline 0 10862 BC Legate 82 Praetor 68 Governor of Africa 6766 Allegedly murdered brotherinlaw in 81 then added his name to the proscription list Allegedly murdered his lSt wife and son 0 Wanted to marry Aurelia Orestilla who didn t want a grown up son 0 Said to have worked w Antonius to try to murder the elected consuls in 65 and seize the fasces o The consuls L Aurelius Cotta Caesar s Uncle and L Manlius Tarquentus 0 Had affair with a Vestal Virgin that was the sister of Terentia Cicero s wife Young spend thrift aristocrats P Clodius M Antonius C Scribonius Curio o All about opportunities Restless unwise desperate indebted but smart and brilliant lSt attempt in 65 ran for consulship but prosecuted for extortion and could not run In 64 and 63 with P Sulicius Gabla o Other candidates Antonius L C Longinus C Licinius Sacerdo and Cicero I Cataline s radical program and the weakness of the other candidates brought strong conservative support for Cicero o Tried again in 63 o Defeated again while arming forces and plotting attacks on Cicero o Cicero got elected because of the widespread Fear of Cataline Three Parts of the Rebellion Sullan Veterans C Manlius Marian Proscribed o Became indebted because they wanted to live outside their means 0 Land 0 Land is collateral I Start w nothing then 10 acres then you can borrow against the land 0 Other Catalinian Allies o Cornelius Lentulus Cornelius Cethegus o Antonius doesn t go to battle because of Gout o The Battle 0 Cataline leads and says Die to the death I They all do I Cataline gets stabbed dozens of times I The conspirators animals die to the death 0 Those defending Rome ran Page 2 of7 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 3 o What does it say about the health of the Republic if the men who built it are coming up with conspiracies and dying to the death but those defending her aren t Pauci potentes powerful few a few people owned all the money held all offices Roman Women 0 Should not gyrate their hips o Questionable reputations swingers orgies ewwww o The decline of Roman Morals 0 Due to proscriptions I Confiscations of property I Annulment of debt 0 Relates to the young spendthrift aristocrats o Relating to the Conspiracy o Cicero found out through Fulvia I Accuses Cataline in the Senate 0 Cataline laughs it off but the senate releases a senatus Consultum Ultimum o It allows the magistrates to take the steps necessary to save the republic with no legally binding authority Caesar s View of the Conspirators Punishment 0 No executions for the conspirators o Might execute innocents 0 Could continue to execute for power 0 Killing them is too easy they suffer no pain I Put them in prison they will continue to feel pain 0 Epicurean Philosophy 0 Life is pain and death is freedom from it 0 Right to trial by peers 0 Then execute if guilty 0 Cicero asked for the people willing to speak 0 lst guy Kill them 0 No one until Caesar a newly elected Praetor Cato s View of the Conspirators Punishment 0 Should be executed o Caesar is in cahoots with them 0 Accuses the Senate of being cowards for not speaking up 0 Speech made him a national hero 0 He became the voice mouth of the Optimates I Old senators began to listen to him 0 Believed that people were more concerned with their personal gains 0 Execute them and show them who is BOSS Page 3 of7 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 3 In 62 BC the Rites of the Bona Dea was held by Pompeia Caesar s wife was scandalous o Ritual for women only had to be attended by the Vestal Virgins 0 At the house of a person with Imperium o Caesar was just elected praetor and pontifex maximus I Could the Rites be conducted at the Regia Which is the office of Pontifex maximus o P Clodius dressed as a woman to visit Pompeia because they are lovers during the Rites Caesar and Pompeia live with Aurelia at the time o A LOT of resentment between Aurelia Julia and Pompeia o Aurelia and Julia Caesar s mother and sister testify against Clodius 0 They caught him 0 Caesar divorced Pompeia after the scandal 0 Although he didn t testify against her 0 He said The wife of Caesar must be above reproach She must be honorable o Pompeia a caged bird 0 Caesar is sleeping around Servilia I Enemies wives if not them servants to gather intellect on his enemies I Used sex for political advances o Clodius picks that night I Aurelia and Julia find him cowering in a comer I A sacrilegious act has to be prosecuted and tried by the pontifex maximus o The trial 0 Fabia had an affair with Cataline who was tried by P Clodius is a Vestal Virgin She is the sister of Terentia Cicero s wife 0 Aurelia and Julia come forward with Fabia against P Clodius I Clodius got acquitted by 3 votes through bribery o P Clodius had a sister Clodia I Made her make advances towards Cicero so he wouldn t testify I She is sexually physically intellectually attractive I Married Metellus a consul 0 He died and left her everything She stayed single Had wealth and parties everynight A libertine autonomous independent woman that dates any man she wants 0 She controls her life no one else 0 Why 0 In 63 BC the Vestal Virgins start to interfere with politics I signs say for Cicero to execute the conspirators The Formation of the lSt Triumvirate o lSt tri loss of oligarchic power that will NEVER be regains o The Triumvirate o Cn Pompeius Magnus military power I In 3 months he has imperium over everything touching the Mediterranean I Was given the ultimate imperium Maius Imperium Page 4 of7 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 3 0 Had more imperium than the govemers I LeX Manila Mithridatic Command at any Cost in 62 BC I Archaeological evidence of his conquest period of stability I Treated like a hero when returned 62 BC 0 People had suspicions o Broke up army outside and away from the city 0 Entered as a private citizen I Needed his acts rati ed by the Senate and the People and Land for troops o The oligarchy rejected them for 2 years 0 M Licinius Crassus wealth and connections I Had a LOT of nancial relationships with the publican companies 0 If they were in nancial trouble he would back them up and try to save them 0 Cato was all like Hell to no 0 C Julius Caesar Love ofthe Roman People I Praetor in 62 governor of Spain I His army wanted him to have a triumph in 60 BC I He wanted to run for consulship in 60 for 59 BC I Asked for permission to run for of ce in absentia o Cato says No make a choice 0 Caesar now pissed off 0 FUN FACT Pompey and Crassus HATED each other I Caesar went to Crassus and Pompey and said I ll help you out if you help me ou Caesar took all the heat Caesar and Pompey were going to stearnroll the oligarchy Crassus wanted to help because he could see that he wouldn t be able to stop them 0 There is more connection between Caesar and Pompey 0 The connection between Caesar and Crassus is questionable 0 They were up against the oligarchy and M Porcius Cato I Cato was trying to reform the senate I Cicero said Cato s problem is he thinks he s living in Plato s Athens and not the slums of Rome Caesar s Consulship 0 Against L Calpumius Bibulus and a running mate 0 Caesar ran with L Lucceius o Caesar used Lucceius money to get elected o Caesar was elected rst so he ruled rst 0 Pork Barrel Legislation for Pompey I Give away land to people including Pompey veterans o Catallus and Cicero were against the Triumvrate o Catallus wrote many things against it I He was the lst public outcry against it o Vatinius o Helped pass the pork barrel legislation Page 5 of7 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 3 o Bibulus didn t agree with Caesar s Legislation I Caesar got it passed 0 It was illegally passed though 0 After this Caesar became an illegitimate ruler of Rome 0 Bibulus abused manure pushed shoved out at the reading of the legislation I Declared everyday of Caesar s rule as nefas o This means that politics are unable to be done that day 0 Everything Caesar did on these days violated Religious Law 0 Pompey married Caesar s daughter Julia 0 Caesar married Calpumius daughter 0 Offices after Caesar o P Gabinius in 58 worked for Pompey 0 P Clodius Pulcher in 58 tr pl turned against Pompey I Pompey asked T Annuis Milo to start and antiClodian gang 0 Cicero sent into eXile o Cato sells off royal estate of the Ptolemies in Cyprus 0 Consuls start on January lSt o Tribunes start on December 10m 3 weeks earlier Caesar s Gallic Wars 0 After the consulship Caesar received an extraordinary command 0 5 year grant of proconsular imperium of Cisalpine Gaul I Builds private army I Defeats Transalpine Gaul 0 After the 5 years he extends his imperium another 5 years 0 Caesar was in Gaul for 10 years consect Gallic Population N 5 million 0 Caesar uses divide and conquer wackamole to defeat it 0 ISI time they conquered some land not on the Mediterranean 0 Had to adapt to the Atlantic Ocean 0 So significant the even Caesar s enemies were prideful because of it 0 Book Called Caesar s Gallic Wars 0 Dispatches that mainly Caesar wrote 0 8 books the last book wrote by A Hirtius I 1 book l scroll in antiquity I He would send these to friends in Rome 0 L Oppius 9 Financier Caesar s Atticus o Cornelius Balbus 9 client of Pompey 0 These were tools of the triumvirate 0 These guys had scribal slaves that they forced to write copies of the dispatches so that everyone in Rome knew what was going on o PROPOGANDA Page 6 of7 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section3 Caesar had dozens of spies in Rome slept W enemies Wives bribe the cook or the chamberlin o Knew more about What was going on in Rome than most of the people in Rome Consequences o TIipled the size of his army In 58 he had 4 legions I ln40 he had 11 legions 0 Money Wise 9 vaccurnedout everything he conquered It s said that he ooded Rome With gold and silver that causedthe rates of it to go down I Wealth is a tool to become the greatest gure politically in Rome manimw The Army 50 draftees volunteers 0 4 legions 2 Italian 2 Roman Foreign Auxiliaries o Perks for foreigners 0 Highly skilled specialist Calvary archers Page 7 of 7 o 00 America in 1901 gt gt gt gt Horses everywhere I NYC 100000 horses Life was super formal pace much slower Entertainment limited I Primitive movies nickelodeon I Football game without a forward pass Everything was changing new world emerging Worldwide phenom The Power ofan deaProgressivism 19011917 VV V V V V V gt gt gt Create a big gov t that can moderate big business Begins with Assassination of McKinley ends with WWI Progress in 1901 I Progress in every aspect possible physical mental spiritual ethical moral I Unfettered individualism I Economic theories of Adam Smith no longer applied I Gov t had to play more active role in economysociety I Beginning of Progressive Era Enter Activist presidents presidents with agendas I Government is the solution Theodore Roosevelt I 19011909 I Writer rancher soldier William Howard Taft I 19091913 I lawyer Woodrow Wilson I 19131921 I Former professor president of Princeton Governor of NJ Universities I 19 h cent to produce wellrounded Christian gentlemen I Late 19 h cent people travel abroad to get PhD 9push the boundaries of their fields I Exposed to governments in high control I bring that back to US students Booker T Washington WEB DuBois Jack Johnson 39239 The Idea in Action gt Lester Ward I Dynamic Sociology I Critique of social Darwinism lassiez faire capitalism 9 they don t work create more disparities than solutions I Encourages students to go out into society and help people V V V I Individuals helping individuals Jane Addams I Sets up a settlement house in Chicago Hull House I Helps most disadvantaged in area Henry George I Progress and Poverty 18 79 o The more we progress as a society the more poverty exists 0 Compares society to a bunch of pigs eating in a trough o The economy should be ordered like people eating at a banquet civilized Edward Bellamy I Looking Backward o The future will be very different 0 Prophesizes stores like WalMart credit cards 0 Society will be so well organized in the future that you will be able to retire at 45 Thorstein Veblen I Economist I Theory of the Leisure Class 1899 o Conspicuous consumption Q We consume in ways to impress other people not to better economy 0 We need a gov t to step in and rationalize the economy Washington Gladden I Minister I Preached the lsocial gospel 0 As Christians don t worry about belonging to a wealthy congregation o Worry about creating a heaven on Earth 0 Helping those in need Walter Rauschenbush I See gladden Louis Brandeis I Lawyer I There is no precedent for modern urban industrial society I Cannot base legal decisions on common law Must look at Sociological factors I Mueller v Oregon 0 Oregon passed law limiting the amount of hours a woman could work in a day 10 per day 0 Men could be employed limitless hours 0 Brandeis defends Oregon O Writes a 104 page brief O Showed that ifa woman works more than 10 hours a day it is unhealthy V O fa woman has a child the child will not be brought up right unhealthy uneducated O Society will be worse off Muckrakers linvestigative journalists Expose a problem hopefully leading to correction Lincoln Steffens 0 Are city governments good or bad for residents 0 Investigated city gov ts for corruption 0 Generally cities were bad 0 Communist da Tarbell o The History of the Standard Oil Company 0 How did John Rockefeller become the first billionaire in America O Developed monopoly O Practiced shady business 0 Paints Rockefeller as the devil Upton Sinclair o The Jungle novel O Exposes Packingtown in Chicago 0 socialist CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 1 The Periodization of Rome 0 Royal Rome 753510 BC 0 7 kings from Romulus to Tarquin I Tarquin expelled in 510 BC 0 Roman Republic 51027 BC 0 Early Republic 510281 BC 0 Middle Republic 281133 BC I War w Pyrrhus of Epirus 281276 BC I First Punic War 264241 BC I Hannibalic War 218201 BC I Wars in Hellenistic East 201146 BC 0 Late Republic 13327 BC I The Gracchi 133121 BC I Civil War bw Marcius and Sulla 8882 BC I Dictatorship of Sulla 8178 BC I First Triumvirate 5953 BC I Civil War bw Caesar and Pompey 4946 BC I Dictatorship of Caesar 4644 BC I Second Triumvirate 4232 BC I Civil War bw Octavian and Marc Antony 3231 BC I Augustan Settlement 27 BC 0 Roman Empire 27 BC 476 AD 0 Early Empire 27 BC 180 AD I JulioClaudian Dynasty 27 BC 68AD I Flavian Dynasty 70 BC96 AD I Antonine Dynasty 96180 AD 0 Late Empire 180476 AD I Constantine 312336 AD King imperium absolute authority in military judiciary religion Senate heads of clans gens people who claimed ancestry from the same person usually the Gods The Gods were more inclined to talk to their descendents Assembly of Warriors show up in armor votes by banging shields and spears together Wealthy people counted more and the most Basic treason for politics common defense Only these that could provide for the common defense were in politics Consult the Gods before making a big decision Heads of families patres Aristocracy 0 Practical authority 0 Learned to compromise with outsiders gradually and by degrees Imperium Page 1 of6 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 1 o The right to command an army 0 Judiciary right to assembly 0 Kings power to consult with the Gods 0 At the core a religious belief or power Hoplite Phalanx 0 Large formation of heaVily armed infantry 0 Army diVided by clans and led by heads of clans o The king had to create a national army to take back power from the clans The Last King of Rome 0 L Tarquinius Suberbus o Built the largest temple got expelled 0 His son spends 50 years trying to take the city 2 annually elected consuls 0 They will be invested with imperium o The senate could elect 0 To prevent tyranny 494 BC Great Secession 0 Army refused to cooperate with the consuls and aristocracy o Lictors crowd control polics o Plebian tribunes 10 elected annually by plebian tribunes Sacrosanctitas 0 Protect the ordinary people cannot be touched or the ordinary citizen would come to the defense 0 Veto power is absolute O N650 BC Rome is a major urban center 650510 BC outside kings dominate the Roman aristocracy 510 BC kicked out the outside King Centuriate military assembly 0 Creator conducted a census 0 DiVided the army based on wealth in 100 people section 0 The wealthy were lst rank PontifeX Maximus o Resided over the messages concerning religious acts Auxilium o Plebeian tribunes help to the ordinary at of Rome No weapons displayed inside the city Page 2 of6 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 1 Outside the city the consuls have all the power the kings used to have Dual Polity 2 governments in the same city at the same time 0 Rule a year as a consul or tribune then go into the senate for life The Roman Constitution the Roman Aristocratic Ethos The Roman view of the constitution SPQR senate and the people of Rome Senate all eXmagistrates enter for life had no legally binding authority 0 Sentaus consultum roman coinage EX SC senatorial consent for the tribunes and to the people prevented unbalance o Auctoritas combined in uence and experience of its members 0 Finances for affairs Consular nobility determined whether someone was able to hold office LeX Hortensia 287 BC any leg passed by the plebeians was legally binding 2 consuls chief executive 42 presided over senate and assemblies commanded armies in the eld through imperium Cursus honorum races for the honors Publican state contractors collected taxes Curule aediles throw festivals for Apollo and Jupiter marketplaces Praetors courts of Rome imperium determined if you had a crime each has it s own type of law Consulship presided over senate leads the army defeat enemies of Roma run get elected person with most votes is consul l o Consul 1 goes 151 presents cases and then goes to battle 0 Consul 2 goes 2n goes to war then presents cases 0 Honos et Gloria to hold office and to gain glory purpose of main senate and government Most aggressive of 10 quaestors were in lead for consulship Censors every 5 years elected to look over the census list 5 year economic plan usually eX magistrates choose who is a senator Knights got horses Dictators temporary restoration of royal power for 6 months emergency no consul available when a dictator is appointed other offices are suspended marshall law Page 3 of6 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 1 Centuriate assembly organized according to wealth wealthier people voted lst and votes counted more No age requirement 10 Plebeian Tribunes civil liberties defender veto power of senate and of another tribune legislation auxilium Popularis looked out for the interest of the ordinary Roman Optimatus the best citizen a 35 to the 63911 bloodline could own cargo ships geographically organized according to residence to servants vote to worth consuls praestors and quaestors could be prorogued or extended for one year of the senate Consuls proconsuls Praetors propraetors Quaestors proquaestors Roman Nomenclature o 3 names 0 First Name picked by father 0 Second Name family name 0 Third Name epithet o Paterfamilias head of the family 0 Oldest male is in charge until death after male is passed to eldest male heir 0 Have the power of life and death over everyone in the family 0 Power of the family possession of the family 0 Example 0 Caius Julius C f C n Caesar I C f Son of Caius I C n Grandson of Caius Patron Client Relationship Patron senator helps client 0 Help get clients into business 0 Be a lawyer for him 0 Help lower classes out for voters etc Page 4 of6 CLCS 381 Protected by law Name Recognition is everything Crassus Fat one Balbus bald one Rufus Red head Julius Caesar Section 1 Scaevola lefthanded one or erect male organ Maximus the greatest Verrucossus Wart Face Cunctator The Delayer Vespillo the undertaker Types of War Wars for Survival and Local Supremacy within Italy 1 2 Wars of Defensive Imperialism 3 Wars of Conquest 4 Wars of Late Republic Roman Military Success Asymmetrical warfare Knowledgeable decisions Aristocratic ethos Trained troops Increasing manpower Incorporate outsiders Rome never surrendered 0 They never had to It wasn t just ghting it was a business It was the quickest way to get rich Romans were in awe of Greeks until they saw how the Greeks functioned Great culture from thousands of years ago 0 These are shadows Aristocratic Ethos Romans devoted lives to military politics Every Roman Male 16 years of military service Consulship Leader of an army Army votes must prove they can lead us 0 Courage proven experience supplying an army battle eld tactics Professional Training of Troops o By 410 BC9 became a pro army 0 Drafted army for 16 years 0 Greek 9 Roman o Hoplite phalant manipular legion o 180 men extending 900 yards in a checkerboard fashion Page 5 of6 CLCS 381 Julius Caesar Section 1 Mobility Reserve forces Adaptive Position the camps that might evolve into communities 0 Helps spread culture Roman legionary group 0 A duty roster a task you must complete for the rest of the troops 0000 0 Increasing Manpower 0 Roman confederacy o Gains allies gains troops 0 Roman citizens means business done in Rome 0 Eligible For Draft 0 264 BC 292000 males 0 225 BC 375000 males 0 218201 BC I million Roman males 2 million Italian males 0 Keep sending out wave after wave we ll eventually win Incorporate outsiders Accepting others as allies Security umbrella in exchange provide contingents at their own expense Lose foreign policy Status 0 Roman citizen live around Rome 0 Latin Allies subservient magistrate became a Roman citizen I By Hannibalic War was over 50 of aristocrats were descended from Latin Allies o Domi nobiles 0 Italian Allies O O O O Page 6 of6
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