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Geography 2050 Notes (Week 1 & 2)

by: Alexia Gallien

Geography 2050 Notes (Week 1 & 2)

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Geography > Geography 2050 Notes Week 1 2
Alexia Gallien
GPA 2.75

Luigi Romolo

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About this Document

These notes cover the basic meaning of Geography, latitude and longitude, and lastly the Solar system and atmosphere. They are very thorough.
Luigi Romolo
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Gallien on Monday September 8, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Louisiana State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 163 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/14
Fl rst Day Tuesday August 26 2 14 1158 AM Luigi Romolo Office E328B Howe Russell Phone2255785028 Email romo1suedu or cimateboffingmaicom Teaching Assistant MrRudy Bartels Geography 0 From the GED meaning quotEarthquot and GRAPHY or GRAPHEIN meaning quotto writequot What is Geography 0 The science that studies the interdependence and interaction n among geographic areas natural systems processes society and cultural activities over space 0 Spatial gtnature or character of physical space 0 Spatial Analysis is the key approach of Geography What is Geography 0 It is a quotspatial science 0 Spatial similarities gtTempora Component 0 Spatial variations gtTempora Component 0 Temporal Component 0 There are 5 spatial themes in Geography 0 Relative 0 Regions 0 Place 0 HumanEarth Relationship 0 Place 0 Movement refers to migration refers to movement of the land itself continental drift 0 Geography can be divided into two categories 0 Physical 0 Human Geography 0 Scientific Method 0 The approach to science that uses common sense in an organized and objective manner It is based on i Observations ii Questions and Variables iii Hypothesis iv Testing v Results vi Theory Development 0 Systems Concepts a system is any set of ordered components and their attributes linked by flows of energy and matter as distinct from the environment that surrounds that system 0 Open Systems and Closed Systems 0 Open i Inputs and outputs cross back and forth between the system and surrounding environment 0 Closed i System is shut off from the surrounding environment The system is self contained in terms of energy and matter 0 Positive Feedback the feedback information encourages changed in the system SNOWBALLSit builds up 0 gtgtaccount balance growsgtgtmore interest is earnedgtgtaccount balance grows further SNOWBALL EFFECT Feedback Mechanisms occur when a portion of a system output is retuned as an information input causing changes that guide further system operation 0 Negative Feedback the feedback information discourages change in the system 0 gtgtbody temp risesgtgtbody sweats moregtgtgteads to a lower temperature 0 Simplified model of Earth Systems 0 Three 39abiotic39 systems and one 39biotic39 systemwhich are abiotic o Hydrosphere I Oceans lakes frozen on Greenland water in my body o Lithosphere 0 Atmosphere 0 Biosphere I Trees plants human fish other animals What kind of circle is the equator A Great Circle ltltFirst Daywmagtgt FIND EXAMPLES OF THESE TWO THINGS Geographic Reference system Latitude and Longitude 0 Both are measure in degrees Each degree can be broken up into 60 minutes Each minute can be broken up into 60 seconds 0 Lines of latitude run east west 0 Lines of longitude run north south a Runs east west they are parallel on a sphere and therefore they are often referred to as parallels b 180 degrees of latitude are divided into 90 degrees to the North and 90 degrees to the south c They are referenced by degrees North and South 69 miles between each degree of latitude O 2 a Run NorthSouth and they converge at the poles Each line starts at one pole and ends at the other b 360 degrees of longitude are divided into 180 degrees to the West and 180 degrees to the East c They are reference by degrees East or West d They are often called meridians International date line is 180 degrees longitude 0 Key Lines of Latitude a Equator located at 0 degrees latitude b Tropic of Cancer located at 235 degrees North Latitude 0 Tropic of Capricorn located at 235 degrees South Latitude 235 is the degree that the earth tilts on its axis d Artic Circle located at 665 degrees North Latitude e Antarctic Circle located at 665 degrees South latitude Prime Meridian located at 0 degrees longitude runs through GreenwichEngand International Date Line located at 180 degrees longitude Marks the start of each day 0 Mercator Map flat projection of map Problem is distortion The further away from the equator the more distortion An advantage is it keeps the same 0 Cylindrical Projection 0 True shape 0 Distorts size 0 Planar Gnomonic Projections 0 Great Circles are represented by a straight line Rhumb lines are curved 0 There are 3 general types of map scales 0 Written 0 Representative Fraction 0 Bar Scale gtgtgtgtRead Chapter 3 ltltFirst Daywmagtgt Lecture 2 The Atmosphere Read Ch2 by Thursday Tuesday September 2 Z 1AL 1Z 4 PM ltltLecture 2 The Atmospherewmagtgt I Time Zones a Think about how much the earth rotates in one day i Once ii 360 degrees So how many times zones would you expect i Each time zone makes up precisely 15 degrees of longitude How many degrees of longitude does each time zone make up 0 Greenich Time listen to 30 seconds for this note If it is 4pm at 90 degrees West longitude what time is it at 60 degrees West long ude 2pm 60 W 75W 90W FIND TIMEZONES OF THE WORLD MAP How thick is our atmosphere 300 miles or 480 km thick 90 lies within first 10 miles or 16 km 50 lies within 35 km or 2 miles How did the atmosphere form C d 0 Stage 1 Primordial Atmosphere at 1040 minutes Stage 2 Degassing Atmosphere i Earth cooled and the crust formed Stage 3 Precipitation Period i Clouds formed ii Helped form the oceans iii Formation of limestone allowed for C02 Stage 4 First Free Oxygen Period i About 3 billion years ago ii Ozone layer formed 0 Helped reflect UV radiation I Plants were able to grow and sustain life on Earth Write down 1415 minutes First 4 gases to know 0 Nitrogen V VI XII Ion a 0 Oxygen o Argon 0 Carbon dioxide Layers of the atmosphere Earth Troposphere I Tropopause Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Exosphere Atmospheric profile a Many layer that can be classified based on b Temperature c Function d Chemical Composition Atmospheric Pressure a 10132 millibars b Air pressure 0 Pressure produced by motion size an number of gas molecules in the air and exerted on surfaces in contact with the air At sea level average air pressure is 10132 millibars or 2992 inches of mercury Measure using a barometer Know metric system it will suffice Temperature profile of the atmosphere Series of temp inversions There are also transitional layers in the atmosphere known as 39pauses39 Thickness of layers vary with latitude Mesopause is the coldest in the atmosphere 39 Above mesosphere Temperature Profile Chemical Profile of the Atmosphere made up mostly of hydrogen helium oxygen and nitrogen Gases sorted by gravity Gases are evenly mixed and uniform except for the ozone layer Functional Profile of the atmosphere Ionosphere Absorbs xrays gamma rays changes atoms to positively charged ions Ozonosphere Highly reactive oxygen absorbs harmful UVA and UVB radiation 35 minutesisten for the chemical symbol Protective Atmosphere Layers protect us from deadly radiation i What is Ozone osphere Phenomena Northern Lights The Solar System ltltThe Solar Systemwmagtgt Audio recording started 1214 PM Thursday September 4 2014 Thursday Septemloer 4 Z 14 12 6 PM I Our Sun a 93 million miles b Center of the solar system c Sunspots i Less sunspots less active the son more spots more active the sun d Solar flares or prominences e Solar wind f Solar constant II Planet Earth a Satellite of the Sun b Earth has a satellite too we call it the moon c Earth revolves around the sun d It rotates about an axis e Orbit of Earth i Average distance from the sun 93 million miles ii Furthest distance from the sun 945 million miles July 4th APHELION iii Closest distance from the sun 915 million miles Jan 3 PERIHELION We are closest to the sun during winter and farthest away from the sun during summer III Rotation of Earth a b c d Ecliptic Circle of Illumination Subsolar point Declination i 235 North ii 235 South IV Wavelength and Frequency V The Electromagnetic Spectrum a b c d Radio waves have the longest waves Gamma rays have the shortest waves High energy er low energy Short wavelength long wavelength comingar rad or VI What is the Solar Constant a The amount of that is received outside the earth39s atmosphere on a surface normal to the incident radiation and at the earth39s mean distance from the sun b 1372 Watts metre2 or Wm2 VII What causes the solar constant to vary a Distance from the sun Very small percentage about 50 Wm2 or less b Sunspots Very small percentage less than 3 Wm2 c Prominences Very small percentage VIII Solar radiation to the Earth is shortwave radiation a INPUT i Solar radiation to Earth ii Concentrated in shorter wavelengths and ultraviolet visible and shortwave infrared b Output i Earth39s infrared emission to space ii Longer wavelengths thermal infrared IX What happens to the insolation when it enters our atmosphere and makes its way to the surface a It is dissipated energy is lost along the way by the following processes look in book for picture i Scattering ii Reflection iii Absorption X Variances in Insolation a Sun Angle or Sun Altitude i It varies over the course of a day ii It varies over the course of the year iii 2 main effects of low Sun Angles a Same amount of energy or isolation is spread over a greater area b Same amount of energy needs to travel through more atmosphere to reach the surface c Sun angle changes with the season look for diagrams on the powerpoint II Day Length a Longer days allow for a longer period of surface heating Longer nights leave less time for surface heating This varies over the course of the year XI Annual March of the seasons look for an earth chart a i Declination of subsolar point is 235 degrees North latitude ii Equinox 12 hour day 12 hour night 24 hours a Equiequa b Noxnight iii Atominol equinox ltltThe Solar Systemwmagtgt


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