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Date Created: 09/08/14
STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM 1 Educational Psychology Fall 2013 Chapter 1 Ed Psych Types of research and characteristics A research design is the plan or structure of an investigation A hypothesis is a suggested explanation derived from theory that can be tested by further investigation Qualitative Research 0 Uses naturalistic settings observations 0 May use interviews with open ended questions focus groups etc o Subjective perspective of observer impacts results conclusions 0 Useful for exploring a new topic and beginning to formulate possible theories A case study is an in depth investigation of one person or a small group of individuals 0 Pro provides detailed information about one person may be starting place for future studies 0 Con May re ect observer bias may not generalize Quantitative Research 0 Uses data that can be quantified o Attempts to be objective and generalizable 0 Often relies on highly structured measurement tools 0 When an experimental design is used can offer information about cause and effect Types of Measurement Tools SelfReports 0 Young people can report on their own behavior their parents and teachers behavior or their peers behavior Rating Scale Data 0 Rate on a scale of 14 never sometimes usually frequently Performance Assessments 0 Seek to measure children39s ability to perform specific tasks correctly Descriptive Research Goal is to describe without altering the situation Can be basic statistics MCAS pass statistics gender race GPA etc For example how many schools have internet access and what is the average time that students spend on computers with internet access May be qualitative or quantitative Correlational studies Tell us what factors in uence or are associated in a positive or negative way and are perhaps the most widely used design in developmental research Home Environment School Achievement Sef Esteem A positive correlation does not meant that positive achievement causes children to have self esteem It is possible that positive selfesteem can lead to higher school achievement In addition a positive or negative home environment can affect both selfesteem and school achievement and explain their positive correlation Correlational Studies Pros can be used with large samples for testing associations between different variables Cons does not establish cause and effect relations CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION In a longitudinal study the development of one group of children is tracked over several years Pros provides detailed information on changes in individual behavior over time Can be used to demonstrate cause and effect relations Cons costly takes years to complete May lose study subjects or they may become test wise In a crosssectional study researchers select children of different ages and measure the factor under study Pros can be used with large samples shorter time period than longitudinal study useful for establishing age norms Cons does not provide information on stability of behavior does not establish cause and effect relations Experimental study participants are randomly assigned to either of two conditions 1 experimental group or 2 control group Experimental study Pros degree of control is highest can establish cause and effect Cons artificial conditions especially lab conditions may not generalize well to real life conditions Model of the Bobo Doll Experiment Bandura ross and Ross 1963 Experimental Group 9 view film w aggressive models 9 observe play behavior Control Group 9 no treatment 9 observe play behavior Research on Good Teaching Organized Engaging Compassionate and caring towards students Knowledgeable Patient Good communicator Outgoing Passionate Respectful Good time manager And don39t forget mentally stable Effective teachers based on research Professional knowledge Content knowledge Pedagogical knowledge Knowledge about learners Knowledge about curriculum OOOO Professional skills Planning Communication Motivation Classroom management Assessment OOOOOO Technology Expert Teachers Integrated professional knowledge and skills Recognize complexities in classrooms Automatized classroom procedures Regular re ection about own work Effective decision makers Increased focus on student Balance research knowledge with experience and persistence Chapter 2 Understanding Diversity in the Classroom Exceptional Group students differences Diversity Individual differences Group differences Culture the knowledge attitudes Values and behaviors that characterize a group of people Ethnicity common place of origin Race category of people who share biologically transmitted traits such as skin color or hair texture Moreno 0 race is a SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED concept Blumenfeld Mainstream culture Culture shock Group differences Language differences Communication differences Cooperation VS competition differences Time orientation Family and world Views Note on RACE Concept of Race is socially constructed It arose concurrently with the advent of European exploration as a justification and rationale for conquest and domination of the globe beginning in the 15th century of Common Era Race is a historical scientific and biological myth It is an idea Geneticists tell s that there is often more variability within a given so called race than between races and that there are no essential genetic markers linked specifically to race Note on Sex and Gender At birth or before people ASSIGN us to a specific sex category When this occurs we are mandated to perform a number of functions and express ourselves as members of this category whether we wish to or not This performance or expression mandated according to our sex assigned to us at birth is known as gender ruled by socially determined gender socialization through gender roles Performativity Gender is Lit a noun but rather an activity a repeated action a Eg The doctor who receives the child and pronounces it a girl It39s a girl begins the long string of interpolations by which the girl is transitively girled Iudith Butler Gender Trouble There is no gender identity behind the expression of gender Iudith Butler Performativityquot Butler not Moreno Gender is a construction that regularly conceals its origins Gender is a collective agreement to perform produce and sustain discrete and polar genders Punishments are doled out for those who do not agree with and perform them Gender is a tightly regulated cultural ction performed under duress Race Gender Sex and Sexual Orientation and other social identities do not really exist outside of language Blumenfeld Approaches to Teaching in the Culturally Diverse Classroom Cultural deficit model Achievement gap Self fulfilling prophecy Multicultural education Culturally relevant pedagogy Culturally responsive teaching Language diversity LEP ELL ESL Issues o Which language for instruction 0 ELL programs bilingual or immersion OOOOO 0 Evaluating ELL programs Socioeconomic Diversity Socioeconomic status SES Issues in SES Health care Resources Home support and stimulation Teacher expectations Student at risk OOOOO Gender and Sex Diversity Gender traits and behaviors that a particular culture believes to be appropriate for men and women Sex the biological differences of men and women Nature vs nurture Gender socialization Gender Differences in the Classroom Emotions and behavior Physical performance Technology use Cognitive abilities Achievement Gender bias effect on students Individual Differences Intelligence Single trait General spearman Multiple intelligences Gardner Triarchic Sternberg Ability Grouping Between class Within class Ioplin plan Multi age Differentiated instruction Cognitive Styles and Learning Preferences Cognitive styles 0 Impulse re ective Learning preferences 0 Environmental preferences 0 Sensory modality audio visual kinesthetic 0 Processing deep surface Temperament and Personality Exceptional Students 0 PL94 142 o IDEA 0 Free and appropriate education 0 Least restrictive environment 0 Individualized education program Classifying exceptional students Disturbances Disabilities and impairments Focus on students not on the disability Student with a learning disability not a learning disabled student Learning disabilities Speech or language impairments Mental retardation Emotional disturbance Sensory and physical impairments Multiple disabilities Autism spectrum disorder Traumatic brain injury Developmental delay Other health impairments Attention deficit disorder Giftedness and talent Instruction for gifted and talented students Unfunded at federal level Pull out programs Cluster groups Special magnet schools Acceleration Enrichment The ROLE of the TEACHER in INCLUSIVE CLASSROOMS Identifying exceptionalities Modifying instruction and collaborating Developing acceptance and belongingness SUMMARY Group differences SES culture race ethnicity gender Individual difference IQ learning preferences cognitive styles temperament and personality Exceptional students disabilities impairments disturbances categories giftedness Chapter 3 COGNITIE AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Brain mnemonic Hold up arm and make a fist Arm is spinal cord Wrist is brainstem survival functions Fist is limbic system emotions and memory Cover fist with other hand this is the cortex thinking brain deals with thought motor language sensory functions Brain Development Neurons Glia Glial Cells Axons Dendrites Myelin Synapses Plasticity Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Norepinephrine Etc Migration 39OOOO Pruning Lateralization Specialization The limbic system is the area of the brain that regulates emotion and memory It directly connects the lower and higher brain functions Cingulate gyrus Fornix Anterior thalamic nuclei Hypothalamus Amygdaloid nucleus Hippocampus 71 09 The Brainstem The brainstem is the most primitive part of the brain and controls the basic functions of life breathing heart rate swallowing reflexes to sight or sound sweating blood pressure sleep and balance The brainstem can be divided into three major sections Detailed brainstem anatomy Anatomy Menu Cerebellum The cerebellum is connected to the brainstem and is the center for body movement and balance cm image to play or noun viii Ciel image to play 1 Human Brain and Cognitive Development Cortex Largest brain component 80 Develops most slowly Frontal Lobe Responsible for reasoning planning controlling impulses may still develop into early 20s Multiple parts of brain are involved in most activities and work together Brain Lateralization Two hemispheres halves of the brain specialize Left motor cortex controls right side body movements amp vice versa Left brain right brain educational approaches are not supported by research Neuroplasticity People of all ages continue to form new synapses as they develop new experiences After injury brain can reorganize Phineas P Gage 182360 US Railroad Construction Profound personality and Supervisor behavioral changes 1848 Cavendish VT Survived 12 years Large iron rod propelled through Beginning of exploration of brain skull specialization Destroyed much of left frontal lobe Cognitive Development Development the orderly adaptive changes from conception to death Types of developmental change Physical body structures amp functions Personal personality Social ways we relate to others Cognitive mental processes S3 quot Cognitive Development Refers to changes in how people remember what they see and hear Think about problems they encounter Predict what might happen in the future Comprehend what they read Understand the similarities and differences between objects and ideas Create solution for problems lean Piaget Swiss Cognitive Developmental Psychologist Cognitive Development Stage Model Theory Major impact on the way we think about children s development Early Constructivist theorist o A student centered educational method emphasizing the active role of the learner whereby students Construct or build understanding making sense of the information and utilizing problem solving skills Piaget a Developmental Stage Theorist 4 major stages at each stage thinking is qualitatively different imagine a stairway cognitive development follows predictable sequence based on biological maturation and life experience useful for schools as predicts order of stages of learning Schemas Mental systems or categories of organized information Basic building block of intelligent behavior When faced with new information Assimilation mold new information to fit existing schemas Accommodation change existing schemas to fit new information PIAGET39S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Equilibrium or Equilibration search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment Disequilibrium or Disequilibration the out of balance state that occurs when people realize that their current ways of thinking are not working to solve a problem or understand a situation PIAGET S STEPS IN COGDEV Encounter new information Enrich or expand schemata with this new info and assimilate with present knowledge Upset cognitive balance disequilibrium or disequilibration Alter schemata to accommodate new info restore cognitive balance equilibrium or equilibration MECHANISM OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Equilibration process of restoring cognitive balance through assimilation and accommodation Experience seeing hearing touching testing and physically manipulating the environment Social Interaction conversing with observing and sharing experiences with others nurture famibcommunityculture specific Maturation inborn genetic attributes that enable an individual to attend to and to act on the environment Nature universal growth amp development PIAGET S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 5539 quotquot SENSORIMOTOR birth to 2 yrs PREOPERATIONAL 27 yrs CONCRETE OPERATIONAL 711 yrs FORMAL OPERATIONAL adolescence adulthood 1 Sensorimotor The Active Childquot Ages 02 Learn through 5 senses Move from re ex goal directed actions Imitate memorize think Recognize object permanence gt Object Permanence knowledge that objects continue to exist even when no longer seen or acted on gt Rules for toddlers mine 2 Preoperational Operations actions a person carries out by thinking them through rather than literally performing the actions Ages 27 Semiotic function using language and thinking symbolically Difficulty seeing another s point of view egocentrism Think operations through logically in one direction one way thinking and logic Thinking limited by 0 Centration o Rigidity 0 Understanding of conservation 0 Egocentrism Centration Seen in young children Tendency to focus attention on only one aspect of a stimulus Egocentrism Perceiving and interpreting the world in terms of self Ex 3 yr olds have collective monologues remarks to each other are unrelated Animism Young children don39t consistently distinguish between animate living and inanimate objects 3Concrete Operational The Practical Child Ages 711 Solve concrete hands on problems logically Thinking less rigid gt Identity Principle that a person or object remains the same over time gt Conservationinvolves the understanding that an entity remains the same despite superficial changes in its form or physical appearance Reversibility thinking backward in a process from end to beginning Classificationcategorization is a skill that begins to emerge in early childhood gt Matrix classification task VV ADI A I ADI What is the color and what is the shape of the missing object gt Seriation involves the ability to order objects in a logical progression Task put sticks in order from shortest to longest gt Collective Monologue children in a group talk but don t necessarily interact or communicate with one another V 4 Formal Operational The re exive Child Ages 1 1 Not all individuals reach this stage Egotism amp imaginary audience assumption that everyone shares one s thoughts feelings and concerns Abstract and hypothetical thinking Understand figurative language Concerns for social issues Solve abstract problems in logical way gt HypotheticalDeductive Thinking the ability to generate a logical and systematic manner gt Propositional Logic involves the ability to draw a logical inference based on the relationship between 2 statements or premises gt Combinatorial reasoning the ability to think about multiple causes Jean Piaget Implications Children will provide different explanations of reality at different stages of cog Dev Cog Dev Is facilitated by providing activities or situations that engage learners and require adaptation assimilations and accommodation Appropriate level of motor and mental operations Actively involve students and challenge them Limitations Questionable validity of tasks stages generalizability of cognitive skills Piaget disregarded cultural differences Environment Activities Cultural values Apprenticeship roles in some cultures LEV VYGOTSKY Russian Sociocultural theory Social interactions play important role in cognitive development Wrote over 100 books Died age 38 Sociocultural theory Knowledge is co constructed Irlpsychologicalz social level Irlpsychologicalz individual level Adult guidance and or peer collaboration will exceed what the child can attain alone Zone of proximal development Cognitive development limited to a certain range at any given age Development can be furthered by effective instruction Zone of Proximal Development Learns through scaffolding Current understanding Can work unassisted Children can be guided to higher cognitive levels if they are guided by more capable and competent adults and advanced peers Cultural Tools real and symbolic systems langs that allow people to communicate think solve probs and create knowledge e1s39siiiiiitima tltidls 8 cultural artefa ts if s I Figure 3Mg representation of cultural mediation showing the presence of develop mental depth in all organism society interactions Private speech self talk guides children39s thinking and action Eventually becomes silent inner speech Scaffolding supports for learning and prob Solving structure modeling reminders etc Assisted Learning strategic help in initial stages of learning Gradually taken away as child becomes more independent in learning task Implications Dev Needs to be understood in terms of cultural and social contexts in which it occurs Student39s past experiences affect cognitive dev in making meaning Limitations Fails to explain mechanisms of cog Dev such as thinking process that children of diff ages use to move from their zone of actual dev to zone of prox Dev Theory is general and difficult to test Language Development Basic Concepts o The sensitive child o language instinct Early Language Development Babbling First words Combining nouns with verbs OOO Complete sentences Understand more than they can say Semantics 0 Word meanings 0 Typical errs in early childhood o Undergeneralization restriction the meaning of a word to include fewer concepts than it should o Overgeneralization wrong extending the meaning of a word more concepts that it should 0 Syntax 0 Word order which develops through Listening Comprehension o Indirect and figurative language Oral Communication o Phonology correct pronounciation of words o Pragmatics social conventions used to communicate effectively with others To foster language dev Reading verbal and written comprehension checks group discussions students tell stories direct instruction Chapter 4 Personal Social and Moral Development Personal and Social Development Diversity in Personal Social Development and Moral of the Self Development Personal Social and Moral Development Moral Development Theories Personal and Social Development Nature in uences from heredity Nurture in uences from environment Family in uences o Attachment o Parenting styles I Authoritative authoritarian permissive uninvolved o Family structure Peer in uences o Peer pressure o Friendship 0 Peer status Temperament Diversity Sensory threshold Activity level Adaptability Mood Distractibility Rhythmicity Approach withdrawal Intensity The Development of Self A sense of self Who am I what are my strengths and weaknesses Am I a good person Do others like me Am I worthy of other s care What is my mission in life SelfConcept Realism Abstraction Differentiation Self concept and achievement piaget s cog Dev stage model as a guide in determining what meaning a person is making of their self concept SelfWorth aka self esteem individual s overall view of themselves as a person self handicapping self worth and achievement Collective Self ethnic identity supporting student39s collective self development heritage language and sense of self bilingual education in uences cooperative and community projects Erikson s Psychosocial Theory There is a genetic instinctual drive or quest for identity This propels personality development Development is contingent on how we handle identity crises or tasks at Various stages of life Psychosocial interaction between individual s emotional needs and the social environment Developmental crisis ERIKSON39S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Apprx Age Ego Quality to Develop 0 1 Basic Trust V Basic Mistrust 2 3 Autonomy V Shame Doubt 4 5 Initiative V Guilt 6 12 Industry V Inferiority 13 18 Identity V Role Confusion 19 25 Intimacy V Isolation 26 40 Generativity V Stagnation 40 Ego Integrity V Despair Erikson s Psychosocial Crises Preschool 0 Trust V mistrust o Autonomy V shame 0 Initiative V guilt Elementary and Middle School 0 Industry V inferiority High School 0 Identity V Role confusion Adulthood o Intimacy V Isolation 0 Generatitivy V Stagnation o Intgrity V Despair Erikson s Stage 5 Adolscence 1318 yrs Identity V Role Confusion Who am I now Who was I before who will I become Limitations Fails to consider role of culture Most adolescents fail to successfully find their identity Experts criticize the idea that the identity crisis precedes intimacy crisis lames Marcia Expanded on Erikson s work in the area of adolescent development Divided the identity crises into 4 states that adolescents go through Occupy one or more of these states at least temporarily Theory of Identity Development Identity Achievement Identity Diffusion Identity Foreclosure Moratorium Adolescents identity status alternatives 1 IDENTIY ACHIEVEMENT Strong sense of commitment to life choices after careful an free consideration of alternatives this commitment though may change at other points in life 2 IDENTITY FORECLOSURE Commitment without full and free exploration acceptance of parental or professionals life choices without consideration of options 3 IDENTITY DIFFUSION Little or no sense of commitment or exploration of life choices uncenteredness confusion about who you are and what you want 4 IDENTITY MORATORIUM Suspension of choices as a result of a struggle or crisis OR rather a gradual exploration of all options in a more complex society Cultural Differences in Identity Development Western cultures may consider moratorium amp identity achievement statuses to re ect greater developmental maturity than identity diffusion or foreclosure Non Western cultures parents elders or community leaders may be seen as the appropriate individuals to choose an adolescent s career or spouse foreclosure may be considered more positively than identity moratorium or a search for identity MORAL DEVELOPMENT Early Theory of Moral Development lean Piaget Swiss Cognitive Developmental Psychologist Cognitive Development Stage Model Piaget39s Theory of Moral Development Two stage theory of children39s moral development 0 Heteronomous morality I Piaget39s first stage of moral development obeying externally imposed rules only to avoid the consequences of not obeying the rules Autonomous morality 0 Piaget39s second stage of moral development a child starts perceiving rules as being exible and subject to negotiation Compared amp contrasted Moral development between boys and girls Observed children playing marbles Concl boys made up rules concerned with rules Concl girls bent rules avoided con ict less moral Piaget DISREGARDED girls playing process THEORIES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Lawrence Kohlberg amp Carol Gilligan Lawrence Kohlberg He applied Piaget39s cognitive development theory to moral development Beginning in 19505 for next 20 years Tested boys between 1016 years of age Scenario Woman near death husband couldn39t afford drug broke in and stole it should he have done that Was it right or wrong Findings Qualitative Stage Model Based on Piaget39s Cognitive Development Stage Model 6 distinct Stages on 3 Levels of Moral thought Each stage built upon previous stages Each stage is qualitatively different from previous stages Level 1 Preconventional Reasoning in terms of own needs Moral dilemma answers rest in what they can get away Moral values reside in good and bad acts not people or standards and good and bad are interpreted in terms of punishment power rewards favors STAGE 1 PUNISHMENT amp OBEDIENCE Worry about avoiding punishment by those with power and prestige Aware of rules and consequences for breaking them might makes right STAGE 2 INDIVIDUALISM amp EXCHANGE Want to satisfy own needs sometimes needs of others if they can get away with it Motivated by self interest Aware that relationships are dominated by reciprocity not loyalty or justice you scratch my back I39ll scratch yours Level 2 Conventional Moral value resides in performing good and right roles Concerned with meeting external and social expectations Value in conforming to expectations of significant others and the social order STAGE 3 INTERPERSONAL CONFORMITY Earn approval by being nice Live up to good boy or good girl stereotypes Good behavior pleases or helps others Cooperation in terms of The Golden Rule STAGE 4 LAW amp ORDER Motivated by sense of duty Obligation to socially defined roles Aware of larger social system See it as source of morality and behavior regulation Social laws maintained at personal expense LEVEL 3 POSTCONVENTIONAL AUTONOMOUS OR PRINCIPLED Morality defined apart from group or individual authority and apart from person39s own identification Concern for fidelity to self chosen moral principles Moral values resided in conformity to shared standards rights and duties STAGE 5 SOCIALCONTRACT LEGALISTIC Right action defined by general individual rights Standards examine and authorized by entire society Social utility may alter law if rational consideration deems it necessary Outside legal realm Free agreement and contract are binding elements of obligation STAGE 6 UNIVERSAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLE Person39s define right by decisions of conscience according to self chosen ethical principles that appeal to logical comprehensiveness and universality Principles are abstract and ethical Universal principles of justice equality and dignity Lawrence Kohlberg Universal principle of justice is highest form of morality Loyalty compassion and care are lower on his hierarchy EVALUATION OF KOHLBERG39S THEORY STRENGTHS Valuable insights into nature and dev of childs and adolescents moral reasoning Supported by research LIMITS Subjective scoring on moral dilemma tests Underestimates young children39s moral reasoning ability Moral development seems to follow trends rather than profressing systematically through stages Bias Kohlberg s research was conducted mainly with middle class American males under age 17 CAROL GILLIGAN 1967 She taught at Harvard with ErikErikson student of Kohlberg during Viet War she was to interview conscientious objectors on moral development However the Viet War ended when she was in the process of designing her study After 1973 supreme court ruling legalized abortion She interviewed women in their first trimester of pregnancy who were considering having an abortion Criticized Kohlberg He only interviewed males amp stages 56 reflect west Male value of individualism Females are uncomfortable responding to hypothetical dilemmas like the Heinz scenario Many may speak in a different voice than males in moral decisions but not in a lesser or lower voice FINDINGS QUALITATIVE STAGE MODEL 3 distinct levels of moral thought each stage built upon previous each qualitatively different from previous stages transitions between stages fueled by changes in the women39s sense of self not by changes in cognitive capability like in Kohlberg s mod LEVEL 1 Preconventional ORIENTATION TOWARD SELFINTEREST Moral Nihilism Doing what is best for oneself LEVEL 2 Conventional IDENTICATION OF GOODNESS WITH RESPONSIBILITY FOR OTHERS Considerations re ecting a sense of responsibility for others Capacity for self sacrifice Making choices depending on advice of others Level 3 Postconventional FOCUSING ON DYNAMICS OF SELF amp OTHERS Understanding that one s actions must re ect both concern for self and concern for others Choice and willingness to take responsibility for that choice extended to self and others CAROL GILLIGAN Females based their moral decisions more often on a orientation rather than on a framework of justice Explanation modified version of Freud39s views of ego development Gender differences from early childhood Girls discover they are like their mothers growing up means maintaining connectedness to preserve relationships Boys understand that they are not like their moms Maturity means renouncing relationships to protect freedom and self expression RESULT Adult men see themselves as separate from others Women think in terms of connectedness THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Challenged Kohlberg s work gender biased The ethic of care No significant differences in Gilligan39s findings IMPORTANT BOTH Males and Females can use either a care or justice orientation DIVERSITY IN PERSONAL SOCIAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT Diversity in student39s attachment Students with learning disabilities emotional disturbances and mild mental delays are less satisfies with their student teacher relationships Teachers also report feeling significantly less close to students with learning disabilities Diversity in parent child attachment Gender Differences in Friendship and Interpersonal Behaviors Younger agers Boys are more likely to play in groups be competitive Girls are more likely to engage in cooperative activities and play in pairs Later adolescence Female friendships emphasize emotional closeness and intimacy Male friendships emphasize achievement and autonomy Gender differences in SelfConcept and SelfEsteem Students perceived competence in math language arts and sports diminished over time Girls tend to perceive themselves as more competent than boys in reading and social activities Boys tend to perceive themselves as more competent than girls in math and athletics Self esteem decreased for both boys and girls during the transition to junior high High school boy39s self esteem increased dramatically until end of HS higher than girls THE END
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