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Chapter Three: Histology Note

by: Kayla Notetaker

Chapter Three: Histology Note BIOL 237 001

Marketplace > University of New Mexico > Biology > BIOL 237 001 > Chapter Three Histology Note
Kayla Notetaker
GPA 3.65
Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences

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Here is notes from Shaner's lecture over histology. Have each main category with subcategories so you can see what tissue is part of what down to function and location with some extra information.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 3 Histology 1 Types of Tissue a Epithelial covers forms boundaries lines digestive tract organs and skin surfaces b Connective supports protects amp binds bones tendons fat c Muscle movement skeletal cardiac smooth hollow organs d Nerve controls brain spinal cord nerves 2 Epithelial Tissue sheet of cells forms secretory portion of glandular tissues a Functions i Protection lining skin respiratory tract ciliated ii Absorption digestive system due to large at cells Villi amp microvilli help iii Filtration kidneys filter blood and produce urine iv Excretion shipment of product v Secretion synthesis and shipment of products glands hormones vi Sensory reception skin receptors b Key Characteristics i Polarity two sides of the cell Apical surface top and basale bottom Basale attaches to basal lamina adhesive amp is used as a quothighwayquot amp filters out materials ii Microvilli Brushed Border 1 Absorptive cells intestine 2 Secreting out material iii Specialized contacts 1 Tight junctions nothing can pass through stomach 2 Anchoring junctions allow exibility heart 3 Communicating gap allow interactions and movement of ions H20 iv Supported by Connective Tissue 1 Basement Membrane basal lamina reticular lamina is between connective amp epithelial tissue Resists stretchingtearing v Avascular but innervated no blood supply but has nerves vi Regeneration readilyhighly regenerates c Classifications i Layers 1 Simple Single layer 2 Stratified strata or more than one layer ii Appearance 1 Cuboidal box like 2 Squamos scales 3 Columnar tall amp skinny 4 Pseudostratified Columnar mixture 5 Transitional nothing but everything d Types of Epithelial Tissue i Simple Squamos single layer of attened cells with disc shape central nuclei amp sparse cytoplasm simplest of epithelia 1 Function allows materials to pass by diffusion amp filtration in sites where protection is not important secretes lubricating substances in serosae 2 Location kidney glomeruli air sacs of lungs alveoli lining of heart blood vessels lymphatic vessels and lining of ventral body cavities ii Simple Cuboidal single layer of cubelike cells with large spherical central nuclei 1 Function secretion and absorption 2 Location kidney tubules ducts secretory portions of small glands ovary surface Chapter 3 Histology iii Simple Columnar single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei some cells have cilia layer my contain mucussecreting unicellular glands goblet cells 1 Function absorption secretion of mucous enzymes amp other substances ciliated type propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action 2 Location nonciliated types line most of the digestive system tract stomach to rectum gallbladder amp excretory ducts of some glands ciliated variety lines small bronchi uterine tubes amp some regions of the uterus iv Stratified Squamos thick membrane composed of several cell layers basal cells are cuboidal or columnar amp metabolically active surface cells are attened in the keratinized type the surface cells are full of keratin amp dead cells basal cells are active in mitosis amp produce the cells of more superficial layers 1 Function protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion 2 Location Nonkeratinized forms the moist linings of the esophagus mouth amp vagina keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin a dry membrane v Stratified Cuboidal Generally two layers of cuboidal cells 1 Function protection 2 Location largest ducts of sweat mammary and salivary glands vi Stratified Columnar several cell layers basal cells usually cuboidal superficial cells elongated and columnar 1 Function Protection and secretion 2 Location rare in the body small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of certain glands pharynx vii Pseudostratified Columnar single layer of cells of differing heights some not reaching the free surface nuclei seen at different levels may contain mucus secreting cells amp bear cilia 1 Function secrete substances particularly mucus propulsion of mucus by ciliary action 2 Location Nonciliated type in male s sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands ciliated variety lines the trachea and most of the respiratory tract viii Transitional resembles both stratified squamous amp stratified cuboidal basal cells cuboidal or columnar surface cells are dome shaped or squamous like depending on degree of organs stretch 1 Function stretches readily permits stored urine to distend urinary organ 2 Location lines the ureters bladder amp part of the urethra e EXTRA i Endothelium lines blood and lymphatic vessels and heart with simple squamous ii Mesothelium lines serous membranes with simple squamous 3 Glands structure of one or more cells to secrete substances a Exocrine specializes in secreting onto surfaces amp in cavities Excretes with epithelium duct mucus oil sweat i Unicellular goblet cells release mucous Secretes mucin glycoprotein that combines with water forming mucous ii Multicellular 1 Branching a Simple does not branch b Compound does branch 2 Structure a Tubular straight tube b Alveolar has a round structure Chapter 3 Histology iii Modes of Secretion 1 Merocrine secretes in exocytosis and as soon as product is made sweat amp salivary 2 Holocrine cell damage is the result Product accumulates and then ruptures in the gland There is cellular debris in shipment sebaceous oil gland 3 Apocrine collects product but there is budding off so there is no cellular debris autocrin signaling b Endocrine really diverse multi or unicellular Synthesize hormones and excrete in exocytosis Ductless because it goes straight into blood and to target organs which respond accordingly pancreas gets hormone and releases glucagon 4 Connective Tissue most abundantwidely distributed a Funcdons i Bind support ii Protection bone amp cartilage ribs for lungs amp heart iii Insulation fat iv Storage fat and bone for calcium and ions v Transport blood for nutrients and waste b Key Characteristics i Common Origin mesenchyme partially differentiated from embryo cells ii Variable vascularity some highlow cartilage is low iii Extracellular Matrix Collection of materials secreted by connective tissue itself Withstands trauma and abrasion c Structural Elements i Ground Substance unstructured material composed of interstitial uid and proteins 1 Collagen biggest strongest and most abundant Crosslinks with each other for strength and they won t break 2 Elastic branch to prevent tearing and microfibrils can stretch and snap back into place 3 Reticular smallest made up of collagen but is less dense In transition regions basement membrane d Cell Types Blast is immature actively dividing and forms found substance Cyte is fully differentiate mature cell bone no longer living i Fat Cell adipose stores energy being the most efficient way and insulates ii WBC s Defensive 1 Neutrophil most abundant first on the site of infection 2 Lymphocyte secretes antibodies plasma cells 3 Macrophage first line of defense against invading microorganisms iii Mast Cell in ammation in response to pathogen Used to interact with WBC s for parasitic worms but now plants etc and create allergies They release heparin blood thinner histamine and protease iv Fibroblast produces fibers for CT matrix e Types of CT i Proper 1 Loose a Areolar gellike matrix with all three fiber types cell types are fibroblast macrophage mast cells and some WBC s Chapter 3 Histology i Function wraps and cushions organs its macrophages phagocytize bacteria plays an important roll in in ammation holds conveys tissue uid ii Location widely distributed under epithelia of body and forms lamina propria of mucous membranes packages organs surrounds capillaries b Adipose matrix as in areolar but very sparse closely packed adipocytes have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet i Function Provides reserve food for fuel insulates against heat loss support and protects organs ii Location under skin in subcutaneous tissue around kidneys amp eyeballs within abdomen breasts iii Extra White fat is used for food in the body Brown fat is in newborns and hibernating animals Newborns don t have the shivering mechanism so brown fat keeps them warm c Reticular network of reticular fibers in a typical loos ground substance reticular cells lie on the network i Function fibers form a soft internal skeleton stroma that supports other types including WBC s mast cells amp macrophages ii Location lymphoid organs nodes bone marrow spleen 2 Dense a Regular primarily parallel collagen fibers a few elastic fibers major cell type is fibroblast i Function attaches muscles to bones or to muscles attaches bones to bones withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction ii Location tendons most ligaments aponeurons at tendon iii Extra collagen fibers run in same direction Poorly vascularized so fibroblasts will create new fibers when damaged b Irregular irregularly arranged fibers collagen some elastic fibroblast is the major cell type i Function withstands tension exerted in many directions provides structural strength ii Location fibrous capsules of organs and joints dermis of the skin submucosa of digestive tract iii Extra collagen are more thick and allow movement c Elastic dense regular CT containing a high proportion of elastic fibers i Function allows tissue to recoil after stretching maintains pulsatile ow of blood through arteries aides passive recoil of lungs following aspiration ii Location walls of large arteries within certain ligaments associated with vertebral column within bronchial tube walls ii Cartilage intermediate to dense CT and bone withstands tension and compression Avascular dependent of diffusion of nutrients Up to 60 water Begins to ossify 1 Hyaline amorphous but firm matrix collagen fibers from and imperceptible network chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature chondrocytes they lay in the lacunae Chapter 3 Histology a Function supports and reinforces serves as resilient cushions resists compressive stress b Location forms most of the embryonic skeleton covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities forms costal cartilage of ribs cartilages of the nose trachea and larynx c Extra Precursor to the skeleton chondrocytes don t get nutrients and die in the epiphyseal plate 2 Elastic similar to hyaline but more elastic fibers in matrix a Function maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great exibility b Location supports external ear pinna epiglottis 3 Fibrocartilage matrix similar but less firm than hyaline thick collagen fibers predominate a Function tensile strength allows it to absorb compressive shock b Location intervertebral disc pubic symphisis discs of knee joint iii Bone osseous tissue hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers osteocytes lie in lacunae Very well vascularized 1 Function supports and protects provides layers for muscles to act on stores calcium minerals and fat marrow inside is the site for blood cell formation hematopoiesis iv Blood Red and white blood cells in a uid matrix plasma 1 Function transport respiratory gases nutrients wastes amp other substances 2 Location within blood vessels 5 Muscle a Skeletal long cylindrical multinucleate cells obvious striations i Function voluntary movement locomotion manipulation of the environment facial expression ii Location skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally skin iii Extra Provides heat for our body requires nerve impulse There are striations due to protein actinmyosin organization b Cardiac branching striated inderdigitate at specialize junctions intercalated disks i Function as it contracts it propels blood into circulation involuntary ii Location walls of heart iii Extra Striated but not regular branch off from one another not uninucleate has autorythmicity selfexcitatory c Smooth spindleshaped cells with central nuclei no striations cells arranged closely to form sheets i Function propels substances or objects foodstuffs urine baby along internal passageways involuntary ii Location mostly in walls of hollow organs 6 Nervous Tissue neurons are branching cells cells processes that may be quite long extended from the nucleus containing cell body contributing to nervous tissue are nonexcitable supporting cells a Function Neurons transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors muscles and glands which control their activity supporting cells support and protect neurons Location Brain spinal cord nerves c m Dendrites receive impulse Excitatory act on it Chapter 3 Histology 7 Membranes continuous sheet of epithelial bound to basement structure It lines or covers the body a Cutaneous skin covers the body s epidermis stratified squamous keratinized or non superficial to dermis thick layers of CT Serves as first line of defense b Mucus Mucosae lines body cavities and opens to exterior nasal cavity mouth lungs bronchi esophagus Typically moist involved in the lubrication absorption and secretion composed of epithelium on top of lamina propria c Serous serosa closed to exterior parietal pleurae Can be stratified epithelium on top of alveolar CT or stratified then visceral and then cavity 8 Regenerative Capacity based on function of tissue a High epithelial bone areolar dense irregular blood b Moderate smooth dense regular c Lownone cardiac nervous 9 Tissue Repair need when barriers that protect us become damaged a In ammation after release of in ammatory chemicals histamines in response to bleeding vessels become permeable allowing macrophages to come in with proteins allowing clotting to occur b Organization clot is replaced by granulation tissue restoring vascular supply making a capillary bed Epithelial cells cover up granulation tissue which becomes scar Collagen fibers knit over and pull together c Regeneration Fibrosis knit together by fibers Epithelium becomes thick regenerating and gets underlying scar tissues There is a genetic component along with location and depth Scars have collagen fibers laying in different ways 10 Scar Tissue goes back to embryonic development with three layers endoderm ectoderm and mesoderm These three make a developmental commitment at the very beginning but epithelium comes from all three 11 Tissue and Aging As we age epithelia gets thin becoming more penetrable Tissue repair is slower and bone muscle and nervous tissue being to atrophy The likelihood of cancer increases due to number of mutations piling up on each other


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