Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes ANTH 3501
Popular in Anthropology of development
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 3501 at George Washington University taught by Robert shepherd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of development in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Week 3 Scott s is a fundamentalisttheoretical book and it asks about the nature of the state What if development is part of modern religion 0 Belief 9 religion 0 Subjective of what religion could be 0 Religion is a knowledge system 9 religion States are the first ones to attract development Conceptual ideas 0 Society as an object of transformation 0 Morality anti politics 0 High modernism Starts after WWI industrialization weakening of religion strengthening of secularism Order versus chaos distinguishes high modernisms vs grand modernism Obsession with order 0 Establishes order by depressing people and society 0 Industrialization 9 division of labor and to control all those people you have to control society 0 First way to control people is to make them legible to modern states and then high modern states will use to control production and labor 0 HighModernism is an ideology and faith I Industrialization I Science technology I Ideology I productivity 0 Metis local knowledge vs techne o Legibility How did they apply these high modernisms 0 Documentation reducing people into numbers to get birth certificate etc 0 Making people have last names unique identity9 families are seen as the smaller members of the state lower levels of the state I Simplifications I Standardization Problematic because it takes time and resources Limits creativity Mechanism working against civil society 0 You are ignoring the messiness of diversity and can create side effects that you cannot expect You are missing some points Losing local knowledge and local details 0 Idea of the state is concerned with life and not death of individuals I language 0 States First degree that applies to society I Authoritarianism Opposes politics because it arises different opinions about development Soviet Collectivization examples expect to use examples 0 High modernism 0 Wanted to structure agriculture just like factories to control the production and the profits Out of control because they did not attempt to control these in the early 20ths They implemented very authoritarian and strong projects on the rural population Created collective farms and forced people to move there and produce great amounts of certain products First they failed because they never reached the capacity they aimed for The problem was that the quotas were unattainable and since they did not sell these products there was no incentive to produce good productsquot It only continued because of authoritarianism 0 They had to produce certain amounts to the state and if they did not accomplish it they had to give it to the state 0 3 million to 4 million people died of starvation Tanzania case relevant because it is very close to today s understanding of development Less tragic than the Soviets because they were optional at first only people who wanted to move would I Civil society or lack of I utopia o Neoliberalism 0 Urban planning Le Corbusier I Schemes I Administrative order documents I maps 0 agency 0 history colonialism Conclusion 0 He is not romanticizing local knowledge It should be included because otherwise we cannot control the result His conclusion is to keep your plans exible take small steps rather than making radical change Keep these plans exible according to local knowledge it is how they acquire people otherwise these plans will fail Lecture Escobar Discourse 0 Development is a discourse that only became thinkable after poverty was discovered o Constructed as a side effect of this kind of development 0 When did poverty became something that was talked about and seen as a subject to itself I When did poverty became something the state was concerned After WWII I At what point did the state started thinking of poverty as something they were suppose to consider When the World bank declared that poverty rate was people living below 100 dollars Modernism late 19th century Only in the last century that people started thinking that poverty can be resolved 0 Rises the question of how Rapid transformation of technology widespread notion of what constitutes poverty Think of what 1 Growth of nationalism growth of socialism Look at the poor as something profoundly problematic John Stuart Mill on the subjection of women 0 as for charity it is a matter in which the immediate effect on the persons directly concerned and the ultimate consequence to the general good are apt to be at complete war with one another I Basically saying charity is dangerous and bad In progressive world there was no charityquot I Charity sabotages the very foundations of the selfrespect selfhelp and selfcontrol which are the essential conditions both of individual prosperity and of social virtuequot I Making people pay money is actually good for them charity ruins development Foucault o Governmentality It is not government Not the same as governance 0 What is governmentality I Governments are suppose to be doing things to increase the human system Colonial Era Happening at a time where a small groups of countries controlled the world The early years of colonialism The means did not exist to do this before the American civil war you need automatic weapons you have new forms of transportation cannon that can shoot at a great distance Continued with WWII People could say that there are not invincible they just have modern technology Governments were run by progressives who were also imperialists Follow people like Escobar it is more complicated I Notion that it won t conquer colonial people they were colonial children Most of the 19th century lots of people were racists ethnational racists Truman four points 0 00000 Continue to aid UN Control economy does not accept depression Official moment of development Very easily to be cynical about all that This is not when development begins but when discourse begins Completely failed project money going down the drain The empirical evidence doesn t matter Export knowledge Applied social sciencequot9Geertzs work in java to study agriculture Discourse Transnational network of powers that challenges the real world together we produce a regime of truth Danger for him is that these truths are Closes with 2 thoughts 0 What is it like to be always and forever a developing subject How do people stop being development subjects When do they reach a point were they are treated like Europeans What role does development play in the lives of people take as development Authoritarian High modernism Chapter 6 7 8 discourse of development when you put these things together what happens Undergrads takes this interest in development there are stuff in there that fits the anthropological evidence Economics tends to dominate development you want to think about the ways for the contributions that anthropology makes that are positive development His goal is not to simply criticize historical and cultural awareness where them economics makes the choices they makequot One of the things he doesn t bring us to is politics and the rest apart from econ They are remarkably holistic political economists Economics is the word we use to describe human lecture Gift and reciprocity but anthro doesn t believe where exchange is everything there is one way we think about this is through cultural productions not simply material objects but objects that carry some sort of meaning Culture is very much part of economics Why is it that sacred places for people are carried with capitalism 9 people in these situations see them as part of the real everyday life That is really the place where they begin cultural economics Simple definition of economic anthropology behavior of everyday life space and solving shortlongterm goals Humans need food and in most every society people get good in some sort of exchange process The questions of what counts as food is important ideological aspects connected to that Maybe because you believe is good for you Scott talks about a map they might wait in line for two hours and then go home Eastern Market The people cooperate with the other vendors of the market they will help the member of the community vendors that don t follow the informal rule are thrown out of the equation If theory tells us that market are places where autonomous get together when you are selling with people you know competing with people you know the idea changes courses a little bit culture matters when it comes to economic measurequot 0 if you accept and recognize that amenity is part of social action at some level there is a strong emphasizes in economic development of the world It seems logical to try to understand what cultural values Don t focus on the quality of social relations plenty economists who are saying numbers aren t everything 0 There is the concept of the evil eye not to fulfill the goal you have it carpens back to the whole notion that the rich are responsibly for We can t quantify social behavior 0 The market vs the free market they are not naturalj how we meet those goals is a construct 0 Let s put in practical terms how do you get them to I A free market needs labor How do you do that you create a surplus population in the country side They broke what was left of communism set special economic terms special zones to bring people in Inclusion of land privatization of land I China has an enormous amounts of labor protests It goes to show that these things point out that their focus has been all over the map In terms of industrialization modern nations state have industries Takes a lot of work historically I When was the first debt crisis 1982 Making loans to authoritarian states asking people and are following to the policies The thing you need to do is privatize everything shock therapy all the government entities got turned over to oligarchs same amount of corruption that was going on before Russian oligarchs are sitting in jail You are given vouchers you don t have money for food If the world bank creates the conditions of these people why isn t the world bank responsible for it Post Washington recessions different from the 1990s what are they doing that is different there is more social scientists in the world bank there are more people on ground and doing field work IMF plays a playing a bigger role it has to keep finding places to loan money to now is more complicated than that The Chinese government is taking as fiscal power In theory the post Washington concessions there is an intense focus on growth and equality Escobar says that you have social capital furnish your social capital and that can be turned into financial capital To what extent is this to interfere in people s lives
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