Chapter Four: The Integument System
Chapter Four: The Integument System BIOL 237 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter Four The Integument 1 Functions of the Integumentary System a Protection Skin outer layer largely dead and releases cell components fatty acids and forms an acidic environment pH 5 which kills bacteria Also it is highly keratinized forming a water proof layer skin mantle preventing loss of uid Heavy metals inhibit enzymes b Regulates Temperature perspiration because water molecules release heat which gets pulled off of the skin Humans can sweat up to three gallons a day In cold temperatures vessels constrict saving heat c Cutaneous Sensation pain sensory amp pressure receptors first line of defense d Metabolic Function i Anabolic vitamin D precursor UV ips isomer and activates it e Excretion in sweat we excrete salt and nitrogenous wastes 2 Skin a Proper epidermis and dermis Hypodermis is not part of the skin but is a fat reservoir as a cushion and thickens as we age i Epidermis squamous epithelial that is keratinized w distinct cell types 45 layers thick or thin 1 Cells a Keratinocytes produce keratin protein forming primary initial barrier Protects from UV radiation and water loss Held together by desmosomes anchor junctions b Melanocytes produce melanin protein and protects from UV s Albinism is a deficiency in tyrosine which makes up melanin Melanin Granules sit around nucleus to protect from DNA damage More melanin the darker the skin tone c Dendritic langer han arise from bone marrow They ingest foreign materials and lets the immune system know Projects itself into processes d Tactile merkel sits in a cup like structure on a sensory nerve and sends to a receptor Pressure between skin and nerves 2 Layers Thin is 4 layers Thick is 5 layers and subject to abrasion a Stratum Basale stratum germinitivum deepest layer one layer Actively dividing and pushes up mitotic stem cells can be different epidermis cells b Stratum Spinosum prickly due to protein in desmosomes Region with the most dendritic cells Melanin is also seen here c Stratum Granulosum keratinization is occurring here Cells become at Keratotyline granules help form keratin in upper levels Lamellar granules are glycolipids that help create waterproof skin d Stratum Lucidum a clear layer that protects from abrasion e Stratum Corneum cells start to die because blood vessels don t penetrate so they don t get nutrients Some of the membranes rupture and fatty acids release rising to an acidic environment and kills bacteria ii Dermis Connective tissue of various types Highly vascularized and innervated Penetrated by lymph system cleans debris from blood Hair follicles and glands are found here Arrector pilli muscle make hair stand 1 Papillary Superficial joins dermis and epidermis composed of loose connective tissue areolar allows phagocytes to move dermal papillae Chapter Four The Integument increase surface area and more absorption exchange in tissue Friction ridges with sweat ducts collecting dirt found in thick skin allows grasping ability and amplifies sense of touch 2 Reticular Dense connective tissue contains pockets of adipose tissue composed of collagen fibers for strength and binds with water for hydration and elastic fibers allow recoil a Cleavage lines the way collagen lines run useful in surgery b Flexure lines allow hands and feet to move 3 Skin Color a Melanin composed of tyrosine protects from UV radiation i UV Radiation is bad because it creates thymine dimers which can break DNA and make it unstable which activates oncogenes It causes elastic fibers to get loose and stick together Cold sores can erupt after exposure destroys folic acid ii Light 1 UVA 400320mm 90 hits the earth most common is associated with aging penetrates clouds and glass generates tan in skin 2 UVB 320290mm more intense with season and location and time of day associated with burns and cancer formation and activation of vitamin D penetrates just the epidermis iii Skin Cancer caused by unprotected exposure to UV 1 NonMelanoma Basal Cell Carcinoma most common 80 of skin cancer diagnoses very treatable some don t get treated tissue will be scraped off and then you would need to get annual screenings 2 Squamos Cell Carcinoma associated to NonMelanoma 16 of skin cancer diagnoses is more aggressive but does not grow fast 3 Melanoma 4 of skin cancer diagnoses responsible for 80 of deaths from skin cancer UVB associated is aggressive and will invade surrounding tissue targets melanocytes which causing and under or over production of melanin b Carotene pigment for orange veggies involved with the formation of vitamin A eye healthvision helps cells with collecting light gives some UV protection bone health and immune system health c Hemoglobin protein portion of RBC s transports 02 to the blood has four binding sites for O has increasing affinity for O heme group makes hemoglobin bright pink with 02 blue in veins is hemoglobin breaking down hemocyadine is the blood in arthropods binds with copper instead of iron i Cyanosis when blood is having trouble picking up 02 4 Appendages of the Skin a Hair and Follicles keeps body warm protection from environment particulates eyelashes nose hairs Hair are hard keratinized cells dead tougher than epidermal cells shaft projects out at the root under the skin keratinization is taking place cells are in follicle are rapidly growing so they are killed with chemo alongside rapidly growing cancer cells i Shaft is at ribbon hair and kinky ii Shaft is oval silky and waivy iii Shaft is straight straight and course b Hair Root i Medulla only place where soft keratin formed keratin but is packaged is found ii Cortex mostly structure amp support hair attened cells Chapter Four The Integument iii Cuticle heavily keratinized and provides hair strength It contains layered overlapping cells c Follicle Wall starts ate edge of cuticle moving to outside i Ble serves to anchor hair in place ii Follicle Receptor holds nerves in place iii Arrector Pilli Muscle smooth muscle that is involuntary the reason why hair stands up d Types of Hair i Vellus baby hair fine hair line temporary more common in women then men ii Terminal eyebrows head hair grows to a certain point usually thicker e Hair Color different pigment types everybody to some degree has both types i Eumelanin black or brown ii Pheomelanin red or yellow 5 More Appendages a Nails scale like appendage has keratin and disulfide bridges holds proteins together i Matrix is responsible for growth ii Lunule if there is damage there is going to be permanent damage amp structure change iii Body really pink due to vascularity can see hypoxic lack of oxygen in nails iv Diagnoses 1 Yellow tint can be thyroid respiratory or liver issue 2 Iron Deficiency clubbing not long but thick and grows at an odd angle 3 White spots due to calcium or zinc deficiency 4 Mee s or Muehrcke s line heavy metal deficiency thick and deeper nail 6 Glands a Sweat Sudoriferous Glands found all over the body except nipple amp external genitalia area i Endocrine merocrine palms feet forehead tubular duct opens at a pore at skin surface They release sweat hypotonic filtrate of blood water salt vitamin C antibodies nitrogenous wastes and dermacitin a polypeptide that is toxic for bacteria Under control of autonomic nervous system out of control ii Apocrine has duct associate with hair follicle and releases product confined to axillary and anogenital area sweat is aqueous based with fatty acids has yellow tint odorless until interaction with bacteria does not become active until puberty iii Modified 1 Ceraminous produces ceramin ear wax 2 Mammory milk secretion b Oil Sebaceous don t see them on palms or soles of feet associated with hair follicles inactive until puberty secrete sebum oil with fatty materials which is a food source for bacteria and is exclusive to humans Associated with acneserves to lubricate skin and pliability softens hair 7 Burns result of function chemicals and heat a 1St Degree red skin superficial tightening of the skin sunburn b 2nd Degree penetrates more underlying tissues clear blisters c 3rd Degree penetrates all layers skin will be whitebrown high chance of infection great treatment is honey d 4th Degree effects muscle and bone amputation is usually needed to suppress likelihood of infection tissue is nonfunctional
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