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Date Created: 09/08/14
Human and Animal Interrelationships From Domestication to Present Nik s Notes for 08252014 amp 08272014 Intro Immensity of the time dimension 3 billion years is a long time for biological evolution Stockmanagriculturalist over a relatively minute time 10000 years using the same selection process as nature has produced directional genetic change of considerable proportions in livestock 0 Over 200 different dog breeds Cows of 20000 yrs ago probably produced barely enough milk for her calf today s Holstein produces 20000 lbs of milk per lactation 0 Man and livestock came together during domesticationprobably because we have to consider that man is himself an animal 0 1 million animal species only about 33 have been domesticated History of Evolutionary Thought 0 Xenophanes 576480 BC o First person to have recognized that fossils were remnants of organisms o Aristotle 3 84322 BC 0 Vitalist Believed that living things were animated by a vital force different from anything found in nonliving matter 0 The Great Chain of Being O God gtangels gtdemons gtman gtanimals gtplants gtminerals gtnonbeings 0 Early classification of animals was incredibly close to what we use today 0 Work would be rediscovered in Middle Ages Decline of Science 0 Decline of science at the end of the Roman Empire was NOT caused by the rise in Christianity 0 Middle Ages 0 All scholarly activity was centered in the church and it is not surprising that science continued to be neglected Early Theologians O Augustine 354430 and Thomas Aquinas 12251275 rejected a literal interpretation of the story of special creation 0 Suggested a naturalistic interpretation patterned after Aristotle 0 These interpretations were denounced in the 13th century I Diversity of opinion was considered as heresy I Free discussion carried with it the risk of reprimand and excommunication The Renaissance 0 15th and 16th centuries during the revival of Greek and Roman art and leaming did not extend much to natural history 0 Leonardo da Vinci 0 Artist 0 Great scienti c mind of his time 0 Geology architecture civil engineering astronomy anatomy zoology geography and paleontology The Natural Philosophers 0 Francis Bacon 15611626 0 Urged abandonment of Aristoltelean philosophy and instead rely on experiment observation and inductive reasoning o He suggested that variations in nature were important and indicated that change was possible in species 0 Descartes 15961650 0 Wrote about the possibility of changes in the universe and species by implication 0 His writings were not published until after his death to avoid offending the church 0 Linnaeus 17071778 o Developed the modern system biological nomenclature O GeorgesLouis Leclerc Comte de Buffon 17071788 0 Perhaps the most in uential of the 18th century natural philosophers O Wrote extensively O Hedged on evolution but was stimulus to later thinking about it 0 Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck O Each discussed the evidence for evolution and proposed similar processes to account for it Process has come to be called inheritance of acquired characteristics according to which changes caused to organisms by the environment were thought to be transmissible to offspring what a mouthful Birth of Earth amp Sky Egypt 0 Pyramid Texts written by Heliopolis 24802137 BC O talked about the god Atum a mysterious deity who was often associated with the sun god Re Heliopolis believed there had been a primordial waste of water called Nun Atum began creation from this Nun but he needed firm ground to work onthis was the primordial hill where creation of the world began and is the site of Atum39s Temple at Heliopolis The texts continue to describe the creation of various things air moisture etc Summer Enke 0 Enke the god associated with fresh waters figures most as the creator in early Sumerian texts O O O Enke arrives by sea and impregnates Ninhursag the mother off the land This fertilizing produces plants and necessary food He also invents the pick axe and brick mould the essential implements of Mesopotamia economy Enke goes further and causes humans to be fashioned out of clay to act as servants so the gods do not have to toil Sumer Marduk 0 Most famous creation myth is the Babylonian Enuma elish O O Tiamat was a great monster that the god Marduk slays The god Marduk creates heaven and earth from her body Genesis 0 The Bible and the book of Genesis O God creates the world in 6 days and rests on the 7th 0 Also the story of Adam and Eve follow along Evolution 0 1020 Billion yrs ago the universe began 0 Big Bang Theory 0 Primeval explosion that brought all space and time all matter and energy into being For several hundred thousand year immediately after that the universe was too hot for elements to form so it consisted of a mix of subatomic particles and radiation As universe cooled the rst hydrogen and helium atoms began to form 5 Billion years Ago 0 Sun and planet formed 0 First 2 billion years one continent Pangaea broke up and formed the continental configuration of today O At the Dawn of the Paleozoic era Gondwanaland land mass was formed late in the Precambrian era It sat in what is now the South Pacific and extended as far down as the South Pole On the opposite side of the globe Laurentia a small continent sat straddling the Equator and later grew to become North America Baltica now most of Europe lay to the East of Laurentia Various other continental masses most now form section of Asia were scattered in places as yet unknown to us Second 3 billion years life was initiated Biological populations evolve by natural selection survival of the fittest 50 Million years ago Age of mammals began 25 Million years ago climate cooled extensive grasslands appeared 20 Million years ago common ancestors of man and other primates appeared Theories of Evolution 0 1800 s three individuals proposed explanations for biological evolution O O O Jean Lamarck 17441829 Charles Darwin 18091882 Alfred Russel Wallace 18231913 Jean Baptiste Lamarck 39gt 9 Environment affects the shape and organization of animals Frequent use of any organ when con rmed by habit increases the functions of that organ Alfred Russel Wallace Struggle for Existence Weakest and least perfectly organized must always succumb Came to almost the same conclusion as Darwin which Darwin acknowledged Charles Darwin Naturalist HMS Beagle 5 yrs Natural Selection 0 convinced that species are not immutable but that those belonging to what are called the same genera are lineal descendants of some other and generally extinct species in the same manner as the acknowledged Varieties of any on species I Taken from Darwin s abstract on his Theory of Natural Selection 4 Classi cations Man and his interrelationship with animals can be broken down into 4 classi cations Hunter Agriculturalist Industrialist Informationist Scientist
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