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Soil Science

by: Winona King PhD

Soil Science AGRY 25500

Winona King PhD
GPA 3.77


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This 102 page Class Notes was uploaded by Winona King PhD on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGRY 25500 at Purdue University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see /class/208105/agry-25500-purdue-university in Agry Agronomy at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Announcements stoExam 1 is graded and in the return boxes stsExam 1 average was 79 with a range from 45 99 on his week s unit is Soil Water oszuiz today on Soil Erosion and Tillage and the Field Trip Why are We Concerned with Soil Erosion st Soil Productivity and World Food Supply oz Soil and Water Quality Deforestation and Erosion Erosion in Indiana gt Soil loss at the rate of5 tons per acre per year would result in 1 of soil being lost every 33 years 1 each generation gt 25 of crop land eroding above T Tolerable Loss 4 5 tonsacreyear gt 10 of land has an erosion greater than 2 x T Examples of Erosion in Afghanistan Sa x mpact of Erosion on Soil Productivity 39339 Reduces Soil Depth decreases root growth decreases water holding capacity 393 Reduces soil organic matter by removing the top soil decreases natural fertility lowers CEC nutrient holding capacity Impact of erosion Tall soybeans in uneroded field with fragipan at 30 Example of the impact of erosion on plant growth on a soil having a fragipan at 30 inches Same soil type but most of the topsoil is gone due to erosion fragipan at 899 All of the soil is eroded away down to the fragipan Impact of Erosion on Soil Productivity cont d 3 Increases clay from the exposure of subsoil B horizon leads to poor soil structure makes tillage more dif cult increases surface sealing reduces in ltration increases runoff 1 Can increase stoniness of surface Note rill erosion between rows and sediment accumulated on lower slope Galley Erosion Note the deep gully created in this field by water erosion The erosion has exposed a subsurface drainage tile Erosion and Water Quality DSediment clogs ditches streams rivers and lakes note the need to dredge local lakes DSediment from surface soil may carry nutrients and pesticides as these particles equilibrate with water they release adsorbed chemicals most P gets to surface water by erosion Flooding can destroy homes and add large amounts of sediment to streams and rivers Sediment runof39i39 into stream following heavy rainfall Steps in Erosion otoDetachment particles must be separated for easy movement silt and sand are easily detached oonransport water or Wind must be moving with enough force to keep particles suspended ner particles stay suspended longer Note the effect of surface protection Keep the soil covered Note how much cleaner the water is coming from the notill plot Universal Soil Loss Equation ARXKXLSXCXP rw fw 050quot a I W r Partial positive charges o39 Water Content in Soil Impacts Plant growth Movement of nutrients through soil and to Soil Water Calculation A soil sample is taken from a eld placed in a can weighed dried gtgt Moist soil plus can weight 159g gt Oven dried soil plus plant roots Soil temperature Mineral weathering Organic matter decay Partial negative charge Moist soil plus can weight 159g MOIStul e Oven dried soil plus can weight 134g calculation Empty can weight 41 g Bulk Density of Soil 14 glcm3 Moist Soil Can 159 g Empty Can 41 g Moist Soil 118 g 118 g 93 g Dry Soil Can 134 g Empty Can 41 g 25 g of Dry Soil 93 g water Practice Calculation Moist soil weighs 520 grams a Oven dry soil weighs 400 grams Volume of soil is 320 cm 3 What is the moisture by weight What is the moisture by volume in an oven at 105 C can weight 134g and reweighed gt Empty can weight The measurements 41 g were 5 fOHOWS gt Bulk Density of Soil 14 gcm3 What is the water content by volume in this soil Moist soil plus can weight 159g SOquot water Ovendried soil plus can weight 134g Calculation Empty can weight 41 g Bulk Density of Soil 14 gcm3 25 g 0f water X 100 00 93 g of dry soil by Wt 269 X BD 0o water by volume by wt 269 X 14 gcc 377 water by by wt volume Soil water Defimtins y H 0 h Vol As the negative 0 2 y potential increases 60 t o H20 decreases oAV ll 1120 40 15 50 25 quoto Ti91 Cami 40 EC 02 bars WP 15 bars dad39uf KO M V dub 20 4 E Avail 1120 FC WP 10 L 30 392 Negative potential Water Mimet 1n Soils Capillary Flow Water moves up hill or in any direction due to the forces of adhesion and cohesion movement under tension or negative pressure Smaller pores produce greater adhesive forces Water Movement in Soils Saturated Unsaturated pushed pulled Flow under pressure Flow under a tension Flow due to gravity Due to adhesion and Macropores COheSion Capillary ow Micropores What will happen when the wetting front reaches the sand layer A The water will enter the sand at the same rate that it is moving through the soil above B The water will stop and buildup in the upper layer until it is almost saturated and then enter the sand C The water will rapidly move into the sand layer as soon as it reaches it Water Movement 39to High Pressure gt Low Pressure oz Low Tension High Tension 4 Low Suction gt High Suction oz Iligh Potential gt Low Potential a High Free Energy gt Low Free Energy Wet Dry Movement of Water in Layered Soils Appearance of Wetting Fronts Over Time 1120 loam M 3 loam Movement of Water in Layered Soils Appearance of Wetting Fronts Over Time Movement of Water in Layered Soils Appearance of Wetting Fronts Over Time 1120 loam Water Management Techniques Installation of Tile Drainage To remove excess water from fields Installing clay tile very little used today Most tile used today is plastic Draining oils Land shaping Open ditches Tile drains Installation of plastic slotted tile drains Tile prior to lling the trench Trenches lled Tile lines every 30 Clay Tile Installation Mole Plow installing plastic drainage tile is more common today than open trenchers aser Sensor Mole Plow Installing Plastic Drain Tile 10 Announcements Week 4 7 339 Exam 1 in lecture on Tuesday February 15 39339 Topics covered Soil Differences Physical Properties New Exam Date Soil Formation Soil Classi cation Help Session Monday February 14 gNew Date 530 pm Lilly G126 Studying for Exam 1 0 Review lecture notes 339 Study the Obj ectivcs for each week 339 Review your Study Guide for each week 39339 Do Selftest Quizzes for each week 0 Review at least two old exams Available on Blackboard Vista Topics for the Day o9 Graphing Soil Properties 39339 Soil Classi cation Systems 393 Legal Land Descriptions oz Using a Soil Survey Report rte Quiz over Soil Formation and Field Trip 1 Was this sandy soil formed in A Alluvial parent material B Aeolian parent material C Glacial Outwash D Glacial Till Is this material A Glacial Outwash B Glacial Till What are the 2 horizons marked in this soil pro le Answer Choices AAIC BAIB CBIC DAIE EEIB Horizon 1 Horizon 2 Graphing Soil Properties Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Forest Soil OM OM Clay Fe d 1 e P 2 t i h 3 Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Forest Soil OM Clay d 1 e 2 p i t 3 h Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Forest Soil OM Clay Fe 39 1 2 d 1quot e 2 I t 3 h Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Forest Soil OM Clay Fe d A J e p 2 t h 3 Graphing Soil Properties OM Clay Fe d 1L e p 2 t h 3 1 Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Prairie Soil Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Prairie Soil QM F39U Q OM Clay 1t Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Prairie Soil d l e P 2 t h 3 Graphing Soil Properties Well Drained Prairie Soil OM Clay Fe d 1L e P 2 t h 3 0M Clay Fe V 1a Why Classify Soils 0 Organizes the knowledge about soils and soil resources 393 Aids in seeing relationships 6 Assists in transferring knowledge and applications Systems of Classi cation 1 Based on observable or measurable properties Soil Taxonomy 2 Based on usefulness Cropping Land Capability Classes Forests Woodland Suitability Groups Soil Taxonomy stsClassifying soils based on chemical and physical properties stoTop level of classi cation is the Soil Order stoThere are 12 soil orders Al sol Mature Forest Soil Good horizonation Light surface color Clay accumulation in the B horizon Soil Taxonomy Levels of Classification st Order eg Alfisol 3 Suborder eg Udalf 0239 Great Group eg Hapludalf 393 Subgroup eg Typic IIapludalf s Familyeg Fineloamy mixed mesic Typic IIapludalf st Soil Series eg Miami Aridisols from the Mojave Desert Land Capability Class System st Classi es soils on their potential for crop production 39339 There are 8 classes ranging from Class I to Class VIII Best I 39339 Classes I through IV can be used for agricultural crops Legal Land Descriptions Michigan Meridian a r r gt Principal Meridians Run North and South M BL gt Base Lines Run East and West i Legal Land Descriptions Most of Indiana is mapped from the 2nd PM and a Base Line located in the southern part of the state Townships 39239 Townships are 6 miles X 6 miles 39339 Townships are 36 square miles 393 Each Township contains 36 sections which are 1 mile X 1 mile in size quotT Principal Meridian 6 mi T4N R4W R3W R2W RIW RlE RZE R3E R4E T3N 6 mi 1A T2N l TIN Base T18 Line t TZS Sections 399 Each section is 1 mile X 1 mile 393 Each section contains 640 acres 393 Sections are divided into quarters and halves Subdividing Sections Name each of these areas A B C How many acres in each A B C acres 11 A B acres C acres A B Soil Surveys On Line from USDA Soil Survey Reports Who publishes them National Cooperative Soil Survey United States Dept of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service Purdue University Experiment Station Indiana Dept of Natural Resources Soil and Water Conservation Comm m 4mm aw WM M I mmms quot 39 W emu 4 bAltY v mm smock vm vmwm z 5 19 yeti Nt si Soil Survey Reports st What s in them Look at Table of Contents iii 39tsLook at Summary of Tables Vi Contains maps amp interpretive info A brief review Find the Following Information Wabash Co gt Soil Association on which Liberty Mills is located colored map at beginning of map section gt Township and Range and section in which Liberty Mills is located gt Map sheet number for the Liberty Mills area gt Speci c soils in the new NE development of Liberty Mills mm General Soils Colored map at the beginning of the map section in the back of the Soil Survey What is the General Soil Region for Liberty Mills Fur General Soils Map Wabash Co Index to Map Sheets N Liberty Mills Map 3 Located in T30N R7E Denotes the southern two of T30N R7W Tells us to go to sheet 3 T30N R7W gistaw 2 Portion of Ma 3 Wabash Count Indiana Section Number Find the Following Information Wabash Co Map units KsB Kosciusko sandy loam 2 to 6 slope FsCZ Fox 10am 6 to 12 slope eroded Look at Table 12 on pages 164 and 165 Soil Formation Announcements Toplcs for the Day I I Greatjob getting into the Soils Resource Center early this last week Rarely were we 0 Reading the Textural Triangle full keep it up 39239 Understandmg Sod Forming I Exam 1 is on Tuesday February 8 Old Processes exams are posted on the Blackboard course a De ning Soil Forming Factors website Begin reviewing them P 0 Impact of Glaciation on Soil Formation Soil T extural Triangle o Makmg a Textured Trlangle 3 Triangles 100 If 1 y Clay 1 r r I 17 7 5I 100 Silt 39 quot39 1 00 Mr 80 60 50 40 30 Formal iand Sand Reading a Textural Triangle 8011 F ormmg Processes 100 Clay 39139 Additions Organic Matter additions from Plants Forest or Prairie Creates A horizons 392 Translocations Movement of Iron and Clay of the Horizon Eluviation CI cates E llOl39iZOHS Iron and Clay m the Horizon Illuviation Creates B horizons 20 t Transformations Weathering of Rocks and 100 100 Minerals eg Clay Formation Sand 80 60 40 20 Silt 39339 Losses Removal of CaCO3 and other minerals from the pro le Leaching 391 o 8011 Forming Processes 801 F 0 quot 1mg P 1 0098598 gt Cause the Formation of Horizons gt Horizon Development Over Time Additions A A A A n rans oca 10118 C B t B H n Transformations C t C h Losses Parent Material Flve SOll Formlng FaCtorS Determines the starting mineral composition and particle size Parent VMaterial Miami quotiwi i i Nai i Failure Topographyr mamas oi u aief39 39MaPZE g cngr39i amp Climate Sl 9 5quot i 5quot 33 39le idquotquotfiquotquot39i quot39 quot Determine amount of water Biotic Factors Native Vegetation entering the profile Time lt maxim mine 09 Sequot Climate Determines the speed of weathering A bgghm a or mallet mid nliwnmss airSmi Wm My WWW leaching etc J d Biotic Factors In uences the amount and distribution of organic matter and Topography and Drainage in uences soil mixing and eww Drained 39 Eroded Soil s01 oros1t 1 u 32535 p y sloping areas 393 Moderately Well 0 Somewhat Poorly Time Drained Soil at areas The period over whlch the processes h t 00 Poorly Drained So have acted Determmes t e maturl y depressions and depth of the soil Topographic Effects Hill Slopes Depressions Well Drained Poo y Drained Effect of Native Vegetation Forest Prairie Influence of Climate and Time ylr Abundant moisture and warm temperatures enhance horizon development and increase soil depth over time A A A A BW E E C Bt Btl C H D C Which soil forming factor most in uences a soil s texture B Topography C Climate D Biotic Factors E Time Parent Materials 39t39Non Transported Residual I Limestone I Sandstone common To Southern Indiana I Shale I Basalt I Granite I and others Residuum Landscape Example Limestone Vegetation can be Parent Material 0 In wet environments slowly decomposing plants can serve as parent material 3 In cool moist climates or warm wet conditions organic soils may develop 439 Swamps bogs Ilistosols Parent Materials Transported Wind Aeolian Loess silt and Dunes sand Parent Materials Transported All except marine common in Midwest m Aeolian Loess silt and Dunes sand Water Salt Marine Coastal Plain Still Lacustrine Lakebed Moving Alluvial Floodplain Wabash River above Flood Stage July 2003 Colluvial Deposits Pyrenees Colluvial Deposits Southern France May 2007 Subsoil of a soil pro le developed in till Subsoil of a soil pro le developed in outwash T ransported Parent Materials cont Gravity Colluvial slippage on slopes Glacial Ice Till unsorted Glacial Meltwater Outwash sorted and strati ed Till and outwash common in Midwest Pyrenees Southern France May 2007 Water sorted material from snow melt Note the coarseness ofthe material and The rounded stones Glaciers and US Soils 39339 Much of North America was covered by continental ice sheets within the last million years Furthest Glacial Advance Most Recent Advance Glacial Coverage in Indiana POST WISCONSIN it 3 ilesidunl malesiwzigl sjy ILL 433 Mat 3 t KANSAlenI mxy39wquotw lt gy g39NJ Isee Integrating spacial educational experience I Use Isee this week to examine parent materials in the state I Isee Website httpiseepurdueedu I To help you orient yourself on the map you may want to click on Overlays and check Roads and Political Boundaries I For studying parent materials go to Soil Properties and check Dominate Soil Parent Materials I isee can be accessed anywhere you have an Internet connection Glaciation and Soil Formation it Smooths the landscape 6 Adds fresh parent material Grooves in the granite left by the glacier CrossSection of a Glacier es Snow and rn over glacial ice causes the ice to form sliding layers tie As the glacier moves debris is picked up under the ice Till lillp39vwvl1istlemetglacierhmvglhtml Glacier Formation 39239 As snow akes clump together they lose their pointed tips and become grains of ice 439 As the ice loses air from compaction it acts like a prism and you see more blue color hllpzllmrwwliislleiznetglacierllowglhlml Types of Glaciers oz Mountain Glaciers 39339 Continental Glaciers Glaciers which t avel in confined paths eg mountain valleys Glaciers that extend out in a continuous sheet such as Antarctica and Greenland H l WMWMMWM C A Aug4x zxW zZ w A My I v I 235 A 5250 23 158me 522 5gto 500 235 9 EC 535022 5 omegt 2 60 go oszog o SUEZ 05 was 2080 go 8 88 mm SBEU 2112 A 2550 2325 2 395 E 52 E 25 55 a 82 2 23 5 8132 SBEw E mlt oom sm BSEw so 8 Bo 1 ASHEx 86300 18 55 85 cm 5630 wit 7 hue 30 6350 go 38 388 2 50 Sim Bamoo 05 a 58 85 om Bog 563 220 5650 b8 38 295 amp3 ltmltz 125 3 98 nouug t E 3650 1325 50 GEE Oi umr 32 5189 332mg new Oa m z 7 In A v A 3559 35 Ma a 5 2 0 f 242 x w ME 3 1 w 1 w x 1 H97 f7 n w a y s vg yaw amp A7 awayO N AmH M x z w 7 H a c a a 27 45 mg I r r Ur11127 w M MW 6 y xx n ZE ltu a a n A a ZEEEMKL 2 3 z w magma o a mo 3de 995 398 E E 953 3 a mo Eda a mag 38 m lt 233 z 77 am7 m Select the correct letter for each question below Which area denotes the oldest soils in Indiana Which area denotes the most recent glaciated area of Indiana Kamcs Eskers Drumlins Outwash Valley Train Lacustrine Moraines Terminal Medial Ground Till Kame Mound of Outwash Glacial Terms Glacial Terms I h I Soil Science Announcements Come to the Soils Resource Center early in the week Plenty of room on Tuesday anytime and on Wednesday mornings This week when you do your selftest be sure to select the print box prior to the quiz so that you can bring a copy of your completed quiz to your discussion session on Friday or turn it in with your handin Topics for the Day do Soil Color as an Indicator of Soil Drainage Class 392 Soil Density amp Soil Weight do Soil Texture Determination 0 Taking Soil Monoliths 7 minutes httpwwwagrvpurdueelucoursesagry255 agry255htm Soil DrainageAeration Oxygen supply impacts plant growth and soil fauna and ora and soil colors Oxygen transport is limited if the soil pores are lled with water Therefore soil drainage is a good indicator of soil aeration Soil Drainage Classes extend above 30 but not above 18 above 18 in a brown background so Poorly Drained Mottles extend above 18 and color is mostly gray oz Well Drained No gray mottles above 30 39339 Moderately Well Drained Gray mottles 2 Somewhat Poorly Drained Gray mottles Mottling Determining Soil Drainage 0 Drainage is determined primarily by looking at the colors of the subsoil st We ignore blacks and grays that are due to organic matter accumulation or due to mineral grain color 439 It is true however that poorly drained soils tend to have more organic matter and therefore darker deeper A horizons Munsell Color Chrt ad Soil Drainage Grays Chroma s of2 or less in the Subsoil may indicate the presence of a high water table or poor drainage Chroma Munsell Color Chart Hue 10 YR 172M Lightness or Darkness Chroma Intensity of Color What is the drainage class of the pro le description given to you A B C Well Drained N 0 gray mottles above 30 Moderately W Drained Gray mottles extend above 30 but not above 18 Somewhat Poorly Drained Gray mottles above 18 in a brown background Poorly Drained Mottles extend above 18 and color is mostly gray Soil Pro le Descriptions oz To determine drainage class from reading soil pro le descriptions look at the colors 0 Chromas of less than 2 below the A and E horizons indicate drainage problems 439 Look at the depths at which chromas of less than 2 occur then determine drainage oz See example description given to you or on the overhead Landscapes and Drainage Moderately Well or Somewhat Poorly Drained Soil Poorly Drained Soil Well Drained Eroded Soil Silt loam surface soil in good condition contains about 50 solids 50 pores Pores contain air and 12 water Solids 5000 Mineral and Organic matter Air 25 Water 25 Compaction 0 High Bulk Density Slow Water Infiltration 0 Poor Root Growth This soil has been compacted from heavy tillage equipmen Fla ty Structure Distribution of Space in Soils Silt Loam in good condition Sands have less pore space has about 50 pore space BUT NIORE MACROPORES Relationship Between Texture and Pore space Texture Approx Pore space Sand 35 Loamy sand 40 537 Sandy loam 46 Loam 54 Silt loam 56 9 Clay loam 58 aquot Clay 60 lt Comparison of Coarse Textured and Fine Textured Pore Space Fine Textured Soil Coarse Textured Soil Less porespace but more macropores More total porespace Bulk Density vs Particle Density Particle Bulk DenSIty Density 11 to 19 glcm 3 26 glcm 3 Which of these soils has the higher bulk density A Coarse Textured Soil B Fine Textured Soil Clay loam Loamy sand Percent Porespace 339 The amount of air space in a dry soil 4 Assume Particle Density 26 gcc 4 If a soil has a Bulk Density of 13 gcc then it is half solids 13 26 50 or 50 solids Total space minus solids pore space Soil Density 1 Bulk Density Particle Density Weight Total olume Weight Solid Volume Bulk Density Density 1 9 3 HM glcm 26 glcm 3 Sample Cale Bulk Density Dry weight 50 grams Sci Volume 40 cc Bulk Density 50 g 40 cc 125 gcc Thus 50 porespace Calculate Percent Porespace 100 solids porespace 100 BDPD X 100 PS What if bulk density is 15gcc what is the PS A 423 B 500 C 577 D 624 This sandy loam soil has a BD of 16 gcc what is the weight of a cubic foot Soil Weight per cubic Vard What is the weight of 1 cubic yard of soil with a BD13 gcc 27 cu ftcu yd X 80 lbscu ft 21601b Thus 1 cu yd of soil weighs 2000 lb Soil Weight per cubic foot szoAssume Soil is 50 porespace BD 13 gcc o What does 1 cu ft of soil weigh if a cubic foot of water weighs 624 pounds 811 lb or Approx 80 pounds Soil Weight What is the weight of 1 acre of soil Acre Furrow Slice Assume an AFS is 43560 sq ft X 6 ft 26136 cu ft 26136 cu ft X 80 lbs cu ft 2090880 lb Thus 1 AFS of soil weighs 2000000 lb Density and Pore Space exerciSe Given a soil sample with Volume 400cc Dry weight 560 g Calculate Bulk Density and pore space Bulk Density Pore space A 14 gec 538 B 07 gcc 269 C 14 gcc 462 D 17 gcc 356 Soil Textural Triangle 1008080 70605040 3020a Dayan Qatari Soil Texture Determination IDetermining Texture by the Hydrometer Method more accurate than by feel ISeparates soil particles based on their rate of settling in water Allow soil samples to settle in a cylinder of water Stoke s Law gives Rate of Settling Factors in Stoke s Law gravity g size of the particle r2 density of solid dS density of liquid 11 viscosity of liquid 71 Boyoucous cylinder Particles settle at different rates WHY Hydrometer Method 0 After 40 seconds sand settles out 339 After 2 hours silt settles out oz Start With 50 gram sample of soil Shake the dispersed 50 gram soil sample in a Boyoucous Cylinder After mixing the sample in a blender pour the suspension into a Boyoucous cylinder take to 1 liter volume and invert and shake before obtaining hydrometer readings Then Take Hydrometer and Temperature Readings After shaking the sample in the inverted Boyoucous cylinder place it on a flat surface and carefully insert the hydrometer into the cylinder Hydrometer readings are taken on the hydrometer stem at the surface of the suspension Texture by Hydrometer Method Example Problem 50 gram sample 40 sec Reading 35 grams liter 2 hr Reading 5 grams liter Recall that sands settle out in 40 sec silts in 2 hr 40 sec silt and clay remain in suspension 2hr only clay is in suspension Therefore 40 sec reading is g of silt clay 2 hour reading is g clay Texture by Hydrometer Method Soil Textural Triangle Example Problem a 50 gram sample of soil 40 sec reading 35 gl 2 hr reading 5 gl Recall that sands settle out in 40 sec silts in 2 hr 50 g soil 35 g siltclay 15 g ofsand or 30 2 hr reading 5 g of clayl 5g50g 01 or 10 clay Thus 50g 15g 5g 30g silt or 60 Total sand clay this Soil 50 gram soil sample 40 second reading is 30 gl 2 hour reading is 18 gl Calculate the Textural Class of 30 sand 60 silt 10 clay Silt Loam 2 tr 1 a W x 53 4 u i x g x walla x V v 2g 3 39 J 5 K I 395lt quot 31 37 r 41gwmxs fd dms y Welcome So s r AGRY 251 Intro to Soils AGRY l NRES 255 Soil Science Spring 2011 wymwaHLHL v r Pronounced Van Scoy K George Van Scoyoc Office Lilly Hall Room 3440E Office Phone 4945115 Office email gevpurdueedu Home Phone 7433141 Learning Comes From INVOLVEMENT INVOIVement With Other Instructors F instructors tutors i and fellow students 39 Dr M GraVee39 l gt in the Soils Resource lAnna Verseman 39 Center I Peter Kovacs IJohn Trappe Learning is an active I Branly Eugene process you must I Sherry be engaged in the FquBringman process Topics for the Day 7 I 3 What is Soil 0 Why do Soils Differ 393 What is a Monolith 39139 Looking at Soils What can we see 439 Intro to Texturing Soils 39139 Course Organization amp Getting Started Soil Patterns and Pro les What is Soil Unconsolidated material subject to weathering 3 On the surface of the earth Alive with organisms Resulting from and influenced by 1 parentmaterial 4 topography 2 climate 5 time 3 organismsplants rg aph l Soil Monoliths i What is the most obvious difference that you see in these soil monoliths COLOR Common Coloring Components 39 of Soil IOrganic Matter and Iron Oxides If It I v Absence of E 7 f v Organic Matter i 1 7 and Iron Oxides Organic Matter Iron Oxides What Can We See in a Pro le gtOrganic Matter gtHorizons gtron Oxides i gtndicators of Drainage Let s Look at Some Monoliths DSurface soil is darker due to organic matter DSubsoii has brighter browns and tans due to iron oxides Sometimes unique minerals dominate Soil Color Green Soils Green color is due to the mineral Glauconite Soil Organic i Causes soils to be dark in color a Light Brown Soils 1 90 A I Dark Brown Soils 34 Black Soils gt 6 i Soil Horizons SOilDl ainage Red Brown Tan Yellow Oxidized Iron Few Well Drained 1 Layers of different color andor texture Grays and Mixtures of Grays 239 Formed from amp Browns Mottles the top down Reduced Iron Fe Poorly Drained Soil Patterns and Pro les Drainage Well oorl Soil Texture l The proportion of sand silt and clay in a soil I There are 12 textural class names Textural Triangle 8011 Texwral Classes Determining Soil Texture by Feel 12 Textural m Classes Extremely sticky CLAYS and stiff T a Sticky and stiff WiAVi v39ATAVAV39 LOAMS 10 w MA 3 LOAM S0ft easy to squeeze nonsticky to lt2 27 1 3me 395 4 395 quot slightly sticky First Feel for StiffnessStickiness I Clay Content Is it loam or clay loam Loam Clay Loam Determining Soil Texture The soil The soil feels feels very very smooth very gritty Use the U tl Siemgvc adjective SILT SANDY 0R SILTY SandyLoam Loam LSlltLoam Y J The soil feels somewhat gritty NO ADJECTIVE l Course Organization 1 Lecture Tuesday morning quot at 830 am Lilly G126 2 Soils Resource Center Lilly 3419 Tuesday to Friday Thurs eve 3 Small Group Discussions Friday Lilly 3409 or 3427 Student Schedule smacourse mun Campusr credluuvemtartnatc indoate Dayallma 11 39Loc atlon 10522116801700 Etonomts West 3000 UG M924 Dacia MWF3300mt3920mehyslcsauldmllt 003 Lafayette 200 2009 tonemm 25500 A Sol some west l2300m 120 LI HattolUteSdinCeS 3409 Lay Hal of Life some Gl26 TBA 39 1 0an 5m 341 0Ils Ctr 39 9 111301111 1220 0ft Cam TRVLTlllE 10735 AGRV 25500 sol some West Lila lO7ltAGRY 25500 Sol Scam Wes 019 Lala 10753AGRY 25500 Sol some West 031 aayatt 2 9 pm 14017004 11 100 General cnemstry west 0000 U0 Aug 24 Dec 19 M 1030 am 1120 watherll L00 olcnam stry 421 025 Lafayette 2009 2009 am HMO til it 103 General hemb West 3000 06 Aug 24 Dec l9 TR 330 pm 420 pm Velherit Lab otCham39ery 72 MB Latayette 200 2009 11055 CHM it 100 General Chemistry West 0000 U0 Aug 24 Dec l9 T 130am t0120 Brown LaboratoryotChemlslry 073 Lafayette 2009 2009 am ll 24 2317 MA 22300 00 Intro M01525 1 West 000 US Aug 24 Dec 19 MWF 730 am 520 am Reclaim Buldng 309 Lalayetta 2009 2009 24240 MES 29000 Intro Enmon West 3000 U6 Aug 24 Oct 19 IR 1230 pm 245 pm Jrithlte Hat ofalomnital Eng 001 Salem Lafayette 2009 2009 1001 Total 15000 Credits Student Schedule V r flunun Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Frldny tanm 39 V gt 3 I V m 9am 39 AGRV 15500000 10725 Class 930 am 10nm 1020 am LILY 3427 39 AGEC 20400 f AGEC 20400 AGRV a l 10550 Class E 10550 Class 1030 am 39 1030 am 1145 am 7 3 1145 am 11quot V RAWL 1071 RAWL 1071 4 Attendance is assumed Lecture 1 Introduction to the week s 2 Supplements text and study guides 3 Three quizzes and three exams dates on syllabus 5 Response System used in lecture for clarification of concepts Response System for Soil Science during Lectures I Copies of Lectures are available on l Purchase clicker if you do not already have one from a previous class Approx 25 I Register clicker on the Blackboard Vista Soil Science site Required by Monday August 30 this web site on the Sunday prior to the lecture class meeting httplwwwitgppurdueedutltbackboardI L t J Soils Resource Center 3939One topic each week 39t39Multimedia presentations displays experiments computer programs One handin exercise each week 0Bring text and study guide topic outline 3930neonone tutoring Soils Resource Center Take Card from CheckIn Box place it in slot to reserve a booth Then go to booth number listed Which soil shows mottles that indicate poor drainage SoilA Soil B A Great Place to Learn About Soils e booth V i4 Each unit has a Study Guide 1 with a list of objectives to i ii 39 v x i quot ELEMENTS CF study Guide page 1 Physical Properties Objectives To be able to Name and write the chemical formula for the oxidation states of iron in soil and identify the soil colors associated with each oxidation state List and explain the four steps in preparing a soil for texture analysis by the sedimentation hydromeber method 3 Determine bulk density and explain the relationship it has to pore space and why it is an important soil property 4 m 39THE NATURE 39 AND PROPERTIES 39 OFSOIILS Bring Textbook to Resource Center page 2 Soil Color Soil Aeration A Oxidation states of iron Fe V Metallic iron F00 Iron oxides rusty iron F320 Oxides submerged without air To log on Purdue user name amp password Practice Quizzes in the Soils Resource Center Prior to Coming to Discussion Session on Friday do a SELFTEST on the Week s Material Computers Study Guides and Tutors Direct Your Learning 3 a q a as r y i f I 39 i l Discussion Sessions on Friday A time for re ection and interactive learning Three tables each with 45 students Reflecting and Writing Discussing and Sharing Teaching and Learning Getting Startedw ElStart work in Soils Resource Center early in the week It s open now ROOM 3419 CIAllow 34 hours to complete the work in the Resource Center this first week EIFriday we meet for only one hour in Discussion Session Check Bulletin Board in Resource Center to find the location and the name of your instructor this may or may not match your schedule for classes Three 2hour Field Trips Replace Three Discussion Sessions ENJOY THE COURSE WE REGLAD 39 YOU RE HERE Objectives 10 11 12 13 Reading Assignment E OUR SOIL OUR STRENGTH E Nmne AGRONOMY 255 251 270 EROSION AND WATER QUALITY To be able to Discuss the problems associated with soil erosion in l agriculture 2 urban development 3 recreation sites and 4 explain the general environmental concerns in all cases Describe the two mechanisms detachment and transport recognized in accelerated erosion by water and wind USLE and explain what each symbol Define the universal soil loss equation represents Describe Particulate Matter PMm and PMZ5 problems and its affects on humans and the environment Utilizing the appropriate graphs and tables calculate the predicted soil loss in tonsacre year for field situations by hand calculating and using the computer quotSOILLOSSquot program Explain what determines the magnitude of the T value rainfall factor R and the soil erodibility factor K Describe how length of slope and steepness of slope is related to the amount of soil erosion by water Explain the reasons for tilling the soil Describe each of the four tillage systems listed in the study guide Explain how each tillage system affects the amount of erosion occurring ie the size of the cropping management factor C List three common conservation practices used to reduce the conservation practices factor P and explain how each is effective in reducing erosion and how effective it is and activities of the Soil Conservation Restate the purposes organization Service NRCS Recall the approximate magnitude of the values of R K LS C P and T for Indiana conditions on tilled land Brady and Weil Chapter 14 pp 498 532 ARS Special Report quotA Universal Equation for Predicting Rainfall Erosion Lossesquot and quotMarion County Residential Guide Drainage amp Erosion Controlquot for Soils l Spring 2011 STUDY GUIDE I Soil Erosion from quotequot meaning quotout ofquot and quotroderequot meaning quotto gnaw awayquot A Background and general discussion on soil erosion if a x quota FHsfi7ain ainrfinmw iwh i c hw W i r LM3 TmM a fampl hmlf wi w39 quot r a ka o 39 w ldk a aw b iM Q34n mjw k rk mham sf B The two steps recognized in the mechanics of accelerated erosion l 1 behdmm t o smi md mg gr 3 1 2 turnsfacic h l 9rnn fair 6 fr lab C Erosion measurements and erosion control Nani rii yfii fiaf zii 616 ME c 1439 xv quot739 vquot 12 1 r i use rm nia quotVarMi I Mf 5 Vm ri t d g f awuwnlabi I dwit 4fFEJiuW mei held t 5 erii a n a Mwntrwsupcrw wiie nnu II The Universal Soil Loss Equation text pp 507 513 A Definition of USLE ARKLSCP A is J h ciannum J k tonsacreyear i I 39 39 9 R 3amp1fo refusalv 4 x K 30 euftigziz39LL2u iu m LS EMMA macDEVIL 0r SF if5 lr35 s 339 as J quot C COVE V IA Il lziw kft v i b i in p C a f c v MG153i garau iw r ifi What is T Maximum amount of soil that can be lost annually by the combination of water and wind erosion on a particular soil without degrading that soil s long term productivity quotAquot should be equal to or less than quotTquot BU See Handout in booth quotMarion County Residential Guide for Soils Erosion and Sediment Control on Construction Sites p 521 524 BMXDK nwrmuhmmd Lni kg phi b y 4 mu r 1 239 r I 7 T 012 PLquot 40 6Ll5gtI SIM r quot7quot2n 2oggz ltf 4h u L i 2lt quot 39 ks I x m Aquot x 11 1345565390i 524 0113 4530 i dz it k ex135 93 1 Principles of erosion control from construction sites I v 399 I I dlrtaevia is erasingnlfrswa nuti t ViiHes gar lam minim L N i H s m mid V divfdccl Bream quot7amp0 ile Pliny752 k9 it39duz39ga My VIicky 0 wogf ampfg aquizjks mtg39 W5 MMMI 3r 392 r 9 r1 W WW 1331 quot575 v 3 it CDHv gai like 7 egljg w i l l 39la gaa fx Q Windblown Sand and Dust Brady and Weil p 504 1 What is the definition for PM gmrlhmidexweuer er m wvi mmd A1124 What is PMm POWWKUkhzrnm kr wak Jmuphyg awake 25 cumJ CD v P39H rri39 vglg an Mawp winA emsi aw am crasgtaIcr7 3 mnarlmA my eramfvumv w 53946 39 39 K quot What is PML5 P n m vnm r mwaampr hmp 35 nmhmmg w l hkcfmh m and Sirmd39m Gem giz mgg any r fwiraiszwa b 5851141 I a udmks anquthwprw J Health Hazards from PMm and PMz5 5mm gha w Jheaivwli 5 32 Etmgg aw I m aggr39c z ar Can 6022 m lo immineq a izrrqg9nz g Mr E u 1 3 Information needed when purchasing a lot or existing home P a v 9 gigEm F39E iab gj39 d umwwggg gala gnula amtfa V c r 15 41 va Vglc 395 j 39139 1 Jf r 0quot 39 390 79quot IL 1 3 5 I 1 J 79quotquot Amati1 me g 190 on ciil39 a ff iv it 393 7 iquot M w M f 550 m Nb J J Drainage amp Erosion Controlquot last page Review of Soil Weight computer About how many US tons of soil are there per acre furrow slice LGOD wag acre furrow slice 5 7 inches over an entire acre 1 An Acre Furrow Slice lbs AFS of soil weighs approximately 2000000 If a soil lost 5 T soilAyr how many years would it take to erode away the equivalent of an acre furrow slice a an s Kw About how many cubic yards is 5 Ton of soil 2 Remember From lecture you learned that one cubic foot of soil weighs approximately 80 lbs if the soil has a bulk density of 13 gcc 1 39quot J A C V v k In 7 1 5 J39Wtf Em aibw n k Haj wank lings m g dwd 72m hasstl ogol 3agt55 cje III Detailed look at the Universal Soil Loss Equation 39 inquot If if I 1 A R is QMH WW m imb ww ARS Report p 3 para 3 amp 4 Brady and Weil p 508 Factors that are used to assess numerical values for R l Rainfall energy quantity x velocity Rain drops fall at about ZKD mileshr 6111K Furnyj p Z HY 39y f ufii39ii h t x a 2 Maximum 30 minute intensity k x V a mm 15 lt0 in 2d 91 13317 3 Values for R a Rainfall erosion index the fancy name for the R value b Use of map and isoerodent lines Estimate R at Eort Wayne I5C9 R at Indianapolis r25 R at yincennes 7Z 3 UZmQ Rainfall Factor 39 Zma gnqgg R at Evansv1lle 4461 Compare the erosiveness of the rain in Fort Wayne IN with that in New Orleans Louisiana see map of isoerodent lines on front bench and page 509 of the text 0 Fort Wayne R 3E0 New Orleans R QOC Thus rains are 7 times as erosive in New Orleans as in Fort Wayne Why do you think this is true B Universal Soil Loss Equation A R K LS C P K is an whfvl hiu v n13 Effects of a Infiltration capacity X m r 1quot x 5 bic x Mi chum 5quot Mirquotn 39lclifm v39lifle ii i xh 9quota2s39cquotir hamLug Iquot quotquotquot k b Structural stability 0 M v labnfjh a Tugi111 1quotle330 qC hAge i625 h n N K 5 Clay gum 71 Hydrous oxides Minibar 3 b c91 a 39 3333an man 39I r V c Texture Y39Vr fly so 5 continued ARS Rpt p 4 amp 5 Brady a 4 Sq 27fij 03 59 My 4quot V k L w 5mm q g u39 bi c 39m mi 1 1gtE Iifii iw fs n quotf vim a In H 55 moat8 g a rlfmd 39b rin lugq it e sxd im Notes on quotKquot factors of three low OM Coarse Sand 05QCWW Ms 5 Loam Z 2gtG R E kmhgq s i 1 t 2quot Z am 3 It QC Notes from quotKquot factors display on front bench Martinsville fsl Alfisol Rensselaer IN Morley sil Alfisol Fort Wayne IN Miami sil Alfisol Lafayette IN Molokai sicl Andisol Hawaii Frederick sil Ultisol Bloomington IN Dunmore sil Ultisol Knorville TN Bloomfield lfs Alfisol Vincennes IN soils from display 1 and Weil p 508 front bench K factor T value 9 Ll T 1 ag quot 3377M W a7 ESTAl Vii J5 not available tingxii l7 517M W2 33 A W2 II lkUniversal Soil Loss Equation A R 39 K LS C P continued C LS is has ml 3 irf xltg i39h39f53 0 We slam Notes from reading Brady and Weil pp 508 510 Effect of velocity of water on erosiveness Effect of doubling a 10 200 ft slope to 20 200 ft slope is to change LS factor from j to g g m a V m m 5 gs z 12 MW 00 gag Too n 200 300 S400 3 LENGTH P 39139 NOW VISIT THE FRONT BENCH TO COMPLETE YOUR STUDY GUIDE UP TO HERE AND TO DO PARTS I l 2 3 AND 4 OF YOUR HANDIN THEN RETURN TO THE COMPUTER rUniversal Soil Loss Equation A R o K LS C P continued D C is woFPMa pwummynw u ARS Rpt pp 6 9 Brady and Weil v 44 w pp 510 511 and Bench 1 CROP MANAGEMENT FACTOR C FOR SEVERAL ROTATIONS AND FOUR TILLAGE SYSTEMS Crop Sequence Tillage System Fall Plow spring Plow Chisel Plant Conventional Till Conventional Till Minimum Tillage No Till Plant Cont Sb 55 49 t 35 28 C Sb 47 43 32 24 Cont C 40 37 24 19 C Sb W 33 30 095 077 C Sb W M 18 16 093 053 C W M M 063 053 036 032 C Corn Sb Soybeans W Wheat M Meadow or Hay Crop Fhe above figures assume high yields with residues left on the fields K The C value is the ratio of soil loss under the cropping system to the loss under continuous fallow 1 Why till the soil a Seed bed preparation b Fertilizer incorporation c Crusting seedling emergence aeration water infiltration d Weed control 2 Tillage Implements computer A a w 4 5 NO till planter ffW3 FELI WJ39 g39 TWA quot531 j 0quot f E v 5 in mi Plow Mwwt msaJWT39Hyi quot 4 n1 MJ 2 104 49quotquot F 3 Flow 6390quot g l ggm and Mexicans in ict 23 War 1 ans D l S k i 39w if 9 31m 4299 MCquot 1quot Chi S e l quot A 5471139125 M7435 W Fall strip tillage Will a 7 3 4 A 04 quot quotfinV 1quot 533 7425132 7 x Subsoiler Emi f imm ih75 w d39 Field CUltiVatOf h s4k w Interrow Cultivation wwd awwmiawi mi L w 234 iii 4542342 44 me l 39i 3 i I A maxim145W 39 quot50 ms aUniversal Soil Loss Equation A R K LS C P continued 3 Tillage Systems Notes from display on bench l a Conventional tillage fall plow b Conventional tillage spring plow c Conservation tillage 1 Minimum tillage 2 No till E P is Con WV M wh ARS Rpt p 9 Brady and Weil pp 511 513 1 This factor is the ratio of soil loss from a specified conservation practice j to the soil loss occurring from up and down hill tillage operations when other conditions remain constant f 2 Values have been developed for contour farming contour strip cropping and terracing in combination with contouring The values in the table are compared to straight row up and down hill operations which has a quotPquot factor value of l Contour Slope Contour P factor Stripcropping P factor Terrace interval m ft Terracing 12 060 030 33108 05 8 050 025 3444U12444 06 912 060 030 4554 148177 07 1316 070 035 5568 180223 08 g 1120 080 040 6989226292 09 225 090 045 90295 10 g When terrac quotLSquot value soil loss since the h 3 es are constructed not only is the P factor reduced but so is the Terraces are the most effective mechanical practice reducing The benefits of terracing are accounted for in the LS factor orizontal terrace interval becomes the slope length Notes from the computer on conservation practices a Contouring 48 Mm r cm r New in slope so Jr rrzi celeb a Meier b Contour Strip Cropping M cmemVTmewmemdMmowwdw tww c Terracing qgtcrfgtaml tvicxr la arkm m Wreatepi r IV Other erosion problems and control practices J A Notes 1 Water 2 Wind also see Bench 3 t 3m hmind mm L2Alvaon d u 5 jinfr B Principles of erosion control 1 Keep soil covered to decrease raindrop impact energy 2 Start erosion control at top of slope not at the bottom or in the gully 3 Decrease runoff velocity 4 Diversion divert runoff from eroding or erodible areas V The US Department of AgricultureNatural Resource Conservation Service USDANRCS A service organization for land owners 1 Who are the personnel 39 libi 39i39i f 53quot13 3iff i339f lquotC3iSEMUE J F 567 fi l cfft lquot33quotf 1 I Ibvf l ti JE 2 Who does the research quot WED Fanaczd ti39 f2e riWE3z igt ia and Ui liv zrgier5 3 Who pays for the work done i We lax2 mug17M bdF LL30 can 2M ism 5 Soil erosion pans displayed on bench 2 show erosion in process and practices used to VI This is a good summary for application of this week39s work in correct the problem the study center 1 Pan A a What type of erosion is in process in pan A b From your observations and the information provided from the USLE what caused this erosion 2 Pan B a How has the erosion process been altered b What other types of residues might have a similar effect VII VIII lO 3 Pan C a What conservation practice has been used b How does this practice compare or contrast to Pan B 4 How does erosion effect quotEROSIONquot Murdock amp Frye article bench 2 a plant water availability b water quality c soil productivity d cost to producer and community Conservation plan mulches and aggregate stability demonstration Bench 3 1 Conservation plan 2 Mulches 3 Slaking demonstration a What affect does polyacrylamide PAM have on aggregate stability Practice doing soil loss calculations on your computer in the Study Center This exercise will allow you to review the factors in the soil loss equation and aid you in understanding how each affects soil loss The program you want is entitled quotSOILLOSSquot It is also needed for this week39s handin Name AGRONOMY 255251270 WATER IN SOILS Abundant water is one of Indiana s natural blessings Objectives To be able to 1 Explain the polarity and hydrogen bonding properties of water 2 Explain why we have cohesive and adhesive forces in soil water systems 3 Discuss the concept of soil water potential its various components and the method of expressing their magnitudes in units of bars andor kilopascals kPa 39 4 Explain the difference between the quotamountquot of soil moisture and its potential how tightly it is held in the soil 5 Calculate moisture by weight and by volume 6 Explain how to measure the amount of soil water gravimetrically by neutron scattering with the neutron probe with water potentiometers tensiometers by time domain reflectrometry TDR and by electrical conductivity 7 Define saturated gravitational and unsaturated capillary flow of water i soils 8 Use the concepts of water content at quotsaturationquot quotfield capacityquot and the quotpermanent wilting pointquot and know how they are related to plant quotavailablequot and quotunavailablequot water Calculate quotavailablequot water in soils 9 Recall the approximate amount of rain water a sandy loam and a clay loam soil can store as available water in cmmeter of inchesfoot 10 Describe the capillary rise of water from a water table and how it differs for sand silt and clay Study Center demonstration 39 11 Explain with a sketch the functioning of the Prescription Athletic Turf PAT system 12 Discuss the fate of rain water evaporation transpiration runoff and percolation 13 Discuss the effects of mulches on water intake infiltration and water loss 14 Explain how fallowing accumulates water in dry region soils 15 Describe the kinds of soils best suited for irrigation and discuss several of the practices important for making irrigation profitable 16 Describe the various surface subsurface sprinkler and drip methods for applying irrigation water 17 Explain how systems of surface drainage and tile drainage work and be able to discuss at least 3 benefits from improved drainage l8 Solve water related problems like those I XU g on this week s HAND IN 2 1 f Reading Assignment Q Text Chapter 5 pages 132 163 Spring 2011 Chapter 6 pages 185 198 RA CL0UDS c1ouo FORMATIO 7 I l PRECIPITATION f STUDY GUIDE I INTRODUCTION Water is such a good solvent that pure water is impossible to find or make Thus we cannot expect cities agriculture or industry to return quotpurequot water to our streams We determine what levels of impurities are acceptable and attainable Worldwide the supply of MAMW is frequently a limiting factor in plant growth Indiana receives about im annual precipitation is k 1 v Natural rain is slightly acid due to iwamm Ndmwwm OmWEMMAMNMmez euKhmk acid and 1U mh acid Air pollution results in rain containing II The water Molecule Computer amp Bench 1 A Its geometry 53 B Its polarity l l M IC39f Cvquot a i a ls ltgt if Charakg CM 0 25 43 L quot65 mlquot Wu Ev quot u as C Attraction to salt cations Na K etc ximstvlza i 7 5 3 dimJ23 I h IA5 quot r D Attraction to soil surface adhesion heat of wetting F133 wiper A r klquot Ti3 iglfhg 39L afflir39 eWQVf L L 39 girl SuiIrvingng513 v 563316 imtf thmm E Hydrogen bonding 1 cohesion 4KL G Iquot 3 quotJV a 663 IE0125 if wa 2 adhesion F waifquot galIlia ht senmJN nggt r aw i 3 monkey analogy Go to Bench 1 for the following F Ball models of H20 G Demonstrations of effect of length of water column 1 The screen holds more water when it is horizontal Why k 0 QMJ39QF Crayquot xijj3nr j gggrt lgg 53Mij 1363500163 was ptfn39Ls gftz jQ 8191943th gngggig 5 2 Sponge demonstration Explain what39s happening in this demo Horizontally the sponges are about 5 cm thick a 5 cm water column Vertically the sponges are about 60 cm long a 60 cm water column Are the sponges drier at the top than the bottom of the equilibrated column How wet are they at the bottom of the column I 5 Ra 1quot n I 9 1 A 5 0391 x I A I 1678 23 Fifi f Q 6153 1 35 5239 quot Qquot quot7 i quot i If PU 4 gal ff quot v quotJ quot 4 WX 3 From the sponge demonstration explain why house plants in pots are easily over watered a male Jays5hr it 39riv immii vr rn in Hm Mai 03 3 mg 3 j H A saturated flow model Note the pattern of flow to the drain We will come back to this demo later III Measuring and Expressing Soil Water Potential and Flow return to the computer for this A Expressing how tightly water is held tension or negative pressure 1 The pressure idea pp 137 139 text Positive pressure exists when i a Zero pressure exists wi w39 mmnqdw mww edit1 l i l L OQMI I ISIIN an Lbfg zdi39l a 2 Water Potential the units used to express itpp 139 140 text 1 bar E 1 atmosphere about 14 lbssqin 1 bar pressure exerted by 1020 cm of water H 1 bar 100 Kilopascals kPa At the free water surface the potential is g p At quotfield capacityquot axlw LBywmewm thH Exaummrkagdmm ls km I o 39 fquot At quotwilting pointquot 5 Ems f Pvimzigg czkfafzrmai f i 942 er 9m arid manag l g Eli6 2 Water Potential examples 6 9 13341 2 14 39 quotmaria ximt t 403 weEriixzmiah l 1623 a PM 3 v i walrutim Ox 515956 was 66131 P hi39ffb zi limp 739 l no 395 r L 9 ri e 391 n quot353 4393 5AU39r 1 Va PEA K nl 439 wcw 0amp3 Ham t ftiv w w C J B Water flow in soils the terms 1 S a t urat e d f l OW a l S O C a l 1 ed 3 mwa 512mm i 103 f Clem 02136 lingerie c 39 t 1i r 1 39 a 3 Unsaturated flow also called zpqmWLMthjhmuC wifggimpgkm mmw w 5 n l 39 2 Summary slide saturated 15M 7wgtgon l a F n 3 I Won 45 s m unsaturated 7 Iquot n4 a f 3 n r vrs39h A V39it v if infra k9quot quot 7 I v V trim 39 4 I 21quotquot 4v 3 23955quot r n Cream 11 if 05quot 0 L J 0 RUquot quot a L a L 391quot 39 I quot zt 5139 MR 39 o What controls saturated or gravitational flow r A 4 V n V 3 gt639 30 3314571 Amiimam v5 3 62045 hiya gjg4kgx 78 9r In 555 u f I a Gravitational flow will occur for short periods of time during or following a heavy rain or when there are high water tables within x the soil All or almost all pores are filled with water Saturation IV RETENTION OF WATER 4 A Field capacity B Wilting point quot o 52411 vax g m a maxim aimfgtigtstquot1l MM 939 a I 196 j w I some big pores all the pores are open have drained particles surrounded by Field capacity WWW point 113 C Available water additional info in text pp 154 162 Available water Easily available water Slowly available water quotField Capacityquot minus quotWilting Pointquot Which textures can hold the most available water p 158 Fig 524 CD ax if on I 631 V CwW w In a silt loam soil similar to many in this area about what percentage of the soil volume contains available water when the soil is at field capacity 2152 p 158 Fig 524 How much rain will a soil store in an available form Express it in cm of rain per 100 cm of soil or in inches of rain per foot of soil p 158 Fig 524 Multiply cm rain per 100 cm soil by 012 to get inches of rain per foot of soil Water held Water held at Field Cap at WiltPt Available Water Stored cms water100 cm soil inchesfoot texture K Clay loam or x 12 Sandy loam v 39 or x 12 3 V Expressing and calculating the amount of water in soil Density of water is 1gcc ii water by weight Wi39mg 3 x 100 V bra 1133 hf lm 3 bulk density of soil density of waters 0 water by volume a by weight x 10139 l angel M The dry weight idea You will calculate water percentages and stored water on your hand inThe material below will provide reference for those calculations Skip to the next page to continue on the computer AN AID TO UNDERSTANDING PART IIB OF THE HAND IN CALCULATIONS By definition we have Wt of Water in the soil 1 Water by Weight x 100 Wt of Dry Soil Wt of Dry Soil 2 Bulk Density compactness Volume of Soil BD 3 water by Volume water by Wt x Density of Water BD Thus water by weight times the O l bulk density gives us the 6 water by volume water by Wt x or alternatively Wt of Water in soil 4 water by Volume h x 100 Volume of Soil The quotwt of waterquot the quotvolume of waterquot because 1 cm of water weighs 1 gram Thus this really is the volume of water X 100 volume of soil NOTE quotDry soil Weightquot means after oven drying to remove essentially all water VI Methods of Measuring Soil Water work this out on bench 2 A For Part 1 of Hand In do the gravimetric measurement of soil moisture content Calculate moisture by weight 6 HZOwt at field capacity B Neutron scattering measurement of soil moisture content there are blanks in the sketch you should fill in Portable shield for radioactive materials quot w 39 Aluminum access tube To an amplifier and sealer that monitors 1 slow neutron collisions l 739 f 39 39 42 x Siam mu m 3 A quota quot W 2quot 339quot i i x 39 r a r n quotI 391 I n lmr l x W 39l rdac5ilnu m 39 Slow neutron counterm w t u b 39 u I 7 Fast neu rron source 39 quot 39 n m 39 u a v c x l I In 39 quotquot3 x 139 I w I Aa J u quot m I u 4 n quot1quot quot w M 0quot n i39 39 39 um u N I M quot 39 warm 74 quota State the prinCiple of the neutron method 5 I we a w a 42 i I K l V i 5 quot v39f iia 39uD HQQE fragile042 millis airtigiir aqwai V Ifi 4315150 CW li iilvr39yfgg mg m N i 39 g m quot51 I O l l l l l i r39 l a will a i Fed m l hwy 633333 minim 3 1 owmk Lew Vital i900 figui l lim bl 3f251rfW34 a C Resistance blocks used for measuring soil water potential Label the parts and their function Center of bench 2 molarm ivlrgjinnf 3551 39 50 5 9 LEE 53353339 if i 30 quotHQ Lioiiligil in net I 3 h quot39 1 u r n r r Ccln ilcmiil i aivJ NiCEA iquot III R REC fquot 5quot AFT 4 3 J l a a 0 AK C R N 1 r39 57 Parrm 5325quot 9 in aznluu i D Tensiometer is used to measure water potential negative pressure or tension on the water Label the parts and their functionbench 2 7 35k iwa q dUQQV Ramvds seal Mn hue Eels fl 9 F F 39139 t 5kg 39 x 39 3 1 Whitgirl soler E 6le mlm lim39v l wl wls zlmr SW l 1 a l quot V l n rm g y39 39 quotI h ar 39 39 i a l 171 m39 raga 39 c 72quot 39 34x r ilk33 E Time domain reflectometry How does it measure moisture content I W M l r a x ml 4quot if H lyrd w qf rq Mfg lGCCquotl1Ya T g v it l bk PU SC V WQ39TUUff39 a link amp 5 I V 39 quot39 g 1quot o warm lbwL f ik39l391 3 h 5 A l J p quot5 hnpmctlhnaebhmhs Vu m lm al kgt4n Mcd f VII DRAINAGE THROUGH SATURATED SOIL GRAVITATIONAL OR SATURATED FLOW Use the tile flow model on the end of bench l Inject the red dye through the ponded water into the sand at the four points shown Observe the flow pattern of the colored water39as it moves into There the drain tile located in the bottom corner of the sand is a section of regular field tile to the back left of the model to remind you that the tile has slits in it to allow the water to flow into the tile The diagram below depicts a vertical slice through a soil with tile lines Sketch the flow of the water into a tile line Water level Soil surface Tile outlet 39 The text Fig 624b page 188 shows what effect the water moving into the tile has on the water tableThe free water surface throughout the field Sketch the predicted water table on the diagram below for this cross section of soil where the tiles have been active for a couple days or more and water is still moving into r the tiles A g p IF orlglnal water level soil surface I y inns E3 5 2 gimww WW5 40531 I a Jgjrinm K W alwWX r J tlle 111165 in l l 20 30 meters Drainage tiles are usually placed l 2 meters below the surface Note and 20 30 meters apart Water rise above a water table by capillarity VIII A How high will it rise in 4 days Exp on bench 3 Sand 3 3 cm fi lt I Sand Silt 33 cm u Silt Clay cm39 illillf Clay lrwrrl Mini 2 3 4 Time days Why isn39t capillary rise greatest in clay QCEM39MW MW S suu i g 5 5 41quotquot 503quot EDW JWVEE gt Mei MAM Lamaquot My suitcase 23 mm 396 53119 1 32 IX water Management A B Explain how the Prescription Athletic Turf PAT system works when it rains heavily just before a big gamebench 3 t h 2 may Lauriequot gf39ata g tiffjwi l Inva l f c gang s New f fz rv39ifvi j Vtva t t V K MWJ Explain how it works when there has been a long period without much rain quot Uii cow inn fhj f u LW CL 3 ilw l g Nihin wf Bin salsa lg F x v dl l r a back to the computer Precipitation in Indiana33 inchesyearuw gtmmyr MXgtcmyr The fate of the rain water 1 Runoff and percolation 93m inchesyear 2 Transpiration losses versus losses by evaporation from the soil V2 53 outlier n mn39l 3 Transpiration Ratio Conserving rain water 1 Mulches their effects on moisture and temperature a paper and plastic b stubble mulches residue mulches etc 0 gravel mulches 2 Use of Fallow to conserve moisture 39 x 1 F 7 3335 New wash 6 10 Irrigation Listen to the 5 minute tape on Bench 3 amp pp 193 198 text 1 water use efficiency POSSBLE PRODUCHQN NSECTS AND DISEASES quot 39 a V IMPROPER WEEDS m POOR CROP V39 3 422 50H VAmETY g STRUCTURE v V K quotJ 2 Low STAND g LACK FERTHJTY 41 x OF v L MOBTURE 39 3 1 V L 2 Management practices After the lack of moisture is eliminated by irrigation a great number of other things may limit yield Careful attention is needed to get the most return out of the water and fertilizer 3 The systems of application from text and slide set on bench 3 Surface basin or furrow e rmer 35 11993 am 6Hquot FoHf39e Uquot N Prerynb ans E1 Sprinkler systems 39 KNEW 150317 tzsaia eiquotieltz s h a m Q 39 r m quot 5ltgtfhlt392 1c136 f39rrm fr 1534 t Micro irrigation Drip Spitters and bubblers WangiC fr WYQq 111 I 5783quot1 373 4 Salinity buildup ll X Drainage systems text pp 185 189 and Front Bench A Open ditches i u p a when 39 1 f7 j C9 f6hf gear Lidia1 3 554 memmruml flaLh B Tile drains p 526530 of Brady39s book on the front bench 1 Patterns used 2 Grade inches100 feet 3 Depth 4 Interval spacing between lines C Land forming or surface drainage 1 1 t J 51quot i Clf x Iii3 42 5 O l 5 LJOJ OF faM 3339 30 L39k L UZB 2111 D Benefits of drainage 1 Reduces frost heaving 2 Increases root zone 3 Increases rate of soil temperature changes 4 Improves aeration E Drain types placement From the front bench 1 How does water get into the plastic tile 2 Where does water enter the clay and concrete tile 3 Why place a drain tile around a foundation footing 4 What is the depth of the plastic drains in the PAT system F Home on site waste disposal systemsFrom your text pl89 193 1 What is the purpose of a septic system x 2 What soil properties limit on site disposal systems 2 Sketch the components of a septic system XI Soil of the week What are its unique characteristics Your handin is a computer created problem set Ask the tutor for help 12 Tianie AGRONOMY 255 251 270 SOIL COLLOIDS AND CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY quotIf it were not for the ion exchange character of soil colloids then natural soils would be leached of their critical nutrient ions and incapable of supporting plant growthquot Objectives To be able to 1 List the two types of soil colloids which are responsible for the negative 39 charge exhibited by soils 2 Demonstrate soil colloid negativity using the DC current dye ion leaching and ammonium nitrate leaching experiments 3 Define cation exchange capacity and write the units used in expressing it 4 Explain what we mean by a mole and a centimole of charge and be able to calculate the centimole weight for simple ions complex ions and compounds 5 Identify the origin of the negative charge on clay minerals boththat resulting from exposed crystal edges and that from isomorphic substitution 6 Diagram and label the various structural features of the following clay minerals a Kaolinite 11 nonexpanding b Hydrous Mica Illite 21 nonexpanding c Montmorillonite 21 expanding 7 Compare and contrast how each of the clay minerals affect the soil properties of water holding capacity shrink swell nutrient holding capacity 8 List two sources of negative charge on soil humus 9 Recall the approximate cation exchange capacity CEO for humus montmorillonite illite and kaolinite 10 Calculate the cation exchange capacity CBC and the base saturation BS of a soil given the quantity of cations distributed on the soil exchange sites 11 Calculate approximate values for the CEO of mineral and organic soils given the clay and humus content 12 Assess the relative importance of cation exchange for fertilizer and lime retention and waste product purification 13 Explain how K Na Mg Ca H and Al compete for cation exchange sites on soil colloids lecture and pp 230 of text Reading Assignment Brady and Weil pp 235 244 246 254 256 257 263 265 and optional 247248 Spring 2011 STUDY GUI DE Soil Colloids p 235 236 A Definition of colloid avad 5 Wm fiaurv evalz 4 41 Wii39mmm r lawyer tf 115553 a lth Pas 1k 3lquotamp k 1 Types of colloids in soil 1 arrx quot quot Ll WW5 mnw FEWquotW Etruezher a quotW i i alimq w P D Lew 39i 2 ramifi lz t yzr uv7 ylkgi 063 L 2 3 ilxd li g Charge on colloids in soil Bench 1 1 DC current experiment The soil colloids moved to the Eg dk i pole thus the colloids have a VWQ EW charge 3 2 Dye ion leaching in soil Blue dye charge organic ion Red dye charge organic ion Which dye was adsorbed by the soil bLai Why 13 53 awg LD39UC0 games AERQIFD Le ft 533kgifc5u clxo lt219 1114 sz r392 fwfixn mm 25 yp fadleei h 1153 n mthi g i u 3 NH4NO3 leaching in soil Did the ammonium ion NH4 come through the soil ANS Did the nitrate ion NO3 come through the soil i Explain 2 MW c 7 63 Q i lxcxv er 9 c i bnf c k 3w the miiqux m n cthSC J wmo K RETURN TO COMPUTER Units for expressing negative charge p 254 l Cation Exchange Capacity CEC apm w a Kdi m cmolCkg of clay humus or soil For example CEC of a Miami silt loam soil 18 cmolCkg 2 Mole weights and centimole weights defined a A mole weight often simply called a mole of a substance gives 6023 x 1023 items molecules ions or atoms b One atomic weight or one formula weight of a substance will give 6023 x 1023 molecules ions or atoms so the mole weight of the atom K is 39 H is 1 Ca is 40 etc right off your periodic table For the compound KCl it is 39 for K plus 35 for Cl 74 ie 74 grams of it contains 6023 x 1023 molecules of KCl c But we39re interested in the number of charges that a colloid a soil can hold ie how many charges the soil has How many moles kg of soil can be held d But moles kg soil gives small numbers requiring decimals eg 024 moles kg so we have adOpted the centimole llOOth of a mole as our unit eg 24 cmoleskg soil 1 cmol llOOth mole 6023 x 1021 charges note that this is 1021 for cmol not 1023 like it was for mole 3 Determining the charge weight required for one cmole of charge a Measure amount of each common ion per kg of soil b Calculate the number of centimoles of charge it gives you 0 Examples Ion or Wt of Wt needed to give Wt for one compound one mole one mole of charges cmole of charge H lg lg 001g NH4 18g 18g 018g Na 23g 23g 023g 0339 40g L0 20g 020g 2 caco3 100g 100 509 050g 2 Thus If my soil had 06 g of Ca per kg of soil and the above table says 020 g gives 1 cmol then I would have 06 g Ca 020 g Cacmol or 3 cmolkg on my soil in the form of Ca and it is occupying 3 cmol of negative charge sites on my soil If I added to this the amount of coming from K Mg Na H and AIH then I39d have most of the attached to that soil and the sum would give me the approximate Cation Exchange Capacity of that soil we39d miss only a few sites occupied by micro elements like Zn Cu Mn Fe and by NH4 RETURN TO COMPUTER II Clay Minerals p 240 245 A quotclay mineralquot vs quotclay size fractionquot Computer 33 quot mincaml i135 H Veils A 0ka MW 0 ola CAW PNmf I k y l wrx myquot CW3 quot fk t W z yla quot7 2 00 fwfi m L39 vW aul nal I 05 quotan Z autismt 941 re fquotquotr quot39 quot f B Size Shape and Origin Computer and Bench 3 H quot MW Plai cil39il Whig 23 lt 9 1 1 C 32 46 quot51196 2 9 ocl39wl sezsw dgcfilj ef mr 13314 cm ut r M717 Twang C Structure of clay minerals Aluminosilicates models amp computer 1 Si tetrahedrons 4 sided configuration shared oxygen a Shape model in booth b Formation of tetrahedral sheets Essentially has a neutral charge Yarn1 hr cx53 ml ft at39f6vquot i Emmasehho awMToumh bqlljdyjQQ H a x e r 39 5i l0f z 7 3340 r 6990 2 Al octahedron 8 sided configuration a Shape model in booth b Formation of octahedral sheet Essentially has a neutral charge l r h rquot r m 7 z r 7 u 1 l V m 1 9 A a 01335132 R jigbh 4 3 15 l 9 n 1219x036 Q as i ll quot E lquot 051quot C cw fitA 531 l U l 3 f mquot k 39t 393 Si tetrahedral sheet and Al octahedral sheet charge balanced by sharing of oxygen as sheet is formed Tetrahedral Sheet Ootahedral Sheet oxygen hydroxyl silicon Alumina aluminum oxygen hy roxyl 4 Origin of negative charge on clay minerals 1 Exposed Crystal Edges ME I w no Ci wchj 1quotng v on raga 6159811 U i ne Mi c iiia minm I 5 L cwne Mquot Jr lvh w 2 Isomorphous substitution n 391 5b f1v 1 efw if Cai iC2Vquot 04697129 l ahmquot m omm ripquot1 VAJQ quot i 397 a i P Hoidea or mi napeEve Cl mi39f az Earning m iii v 6quot 04 iii 71quot Chang bulIPa 9ct 327121 IE subv fa39l39dl W A 3 vacancies M a k n xi W 4 u39 w M mafiaqmrirai U ua39migj39r EhAE WWH Q MM ltfrltlt9F 39 quot quotw quot f3 iffy ch 179M mfg egkfnazfijin 60179 5 11 and 21 clay mineral structures pages 241 245 and computer a 11 1 Sitetrahedron 1 Aloctahedron 39 e oxygen 39 1 Silica J lt silicon g 1 4 1 oxygen shared and hydroxyl 39 Alumina i lt aluminum 39 hydroxyl Example Kaolinite b 21 2 Sitetrahedrons lel octahedron 6 oxygen quot E Silica g silicon 39 e oxygen and hydroxyl 39 i Alumina aluminum 39 5 p oxygen and hydroxyl g Silica 1F lt silicon oxygen Example Smectites Montmorillonite and Hydrous Mica Illite D Three clay minerals Computer Bench 3 and Handout r u u 43 1 KaOllm te ltimh 253a fliawf 39 unfai 7456 375 a StruCture l I CElrnhcvfln 0 admin 6km Imago b CEC 545 who 3 c Source of Eharge rd b H swing is jigf 5 r331 37 w Luigi 1 43431 d Properties lix quot2quot32 W IV Y x a39i quot 3 m 3 i3 mt x t Mm m5 90136 Niquot Q k 5 l n h o Li imndkmgL mh wrfs v fquot I n 39 g 393 i D v XFeifm Ma malar wm If Baguilg I39rzvnwzufagls 7 iquot mmWWW DC 50 LJ L z 2 Montmorillonite Smectites wk 54 562115 mm Mfg1e 3 M A rmx m lme a Structure memw i Z ldeWMMw dwgg my w5kPMk w b CEC l 8390 lax CYNLal l c c Source of char e a la 45 395 55 HormrIr39m submz m 39 f Mg let39st N i39 IA 6 d Pro erties V ma ava molequot nixrweg Ewan U Illite Hydrous Mica W W if 433 01m 3535 5651 11f 2 a Structure ZL C m nm rmr39rtu39 b CEC 39 IE4 6391 c Source of charge 3 Isa 51313 V MOSLLS Jeiurmirzsshzccr 3 Sassquot 5quot I Inc sl IN o i 5w M d Properties x w i3clt awn Ice3 fathom BMW 0003 quot1 Hire nex z xmwil nbikgk mjiv rie 5 Isirhiqingg Cagedquot grow Me quotquot l x A b 54 5q wl ampz lw n may Vimi n Mai95 Kppalgkr OFQWIW E S 39 o 59 TQM18 413 C mug m 3 ww 39 Cr megs 39 Remember each clay 39 4 has a CEO range use values supplied for calculations E Montmorillonite and Kaolinite Water Holding Capacity Demonstration Bench 2 J Which one has the greater water holding capacity JJ IWMWWW g hG 639 Why the difference Aha L GNQ Egt2 l 39tn NO R K m Eviwz a SVV F 517213 Jim3ft Mrf f39Q W461 a 0 MWL quotiron atquotc39a 5 Kl I F Uses of clays Bench 2 i a f a 56mg an Godlfo Aii QEUifa i k ZJ 391039Ittzl39rfrarailtV a 5 GasBk gt gt3 ka quot1 990quotL q a zwwlLu3 i 9 SCcM39CJ T3 135301 313 43 7 135313 l 39 i l rarllhf III Organic A Siz l 2 3 B Ori l C pH 1 llroia i IQWw Colloids Humus Computer rigquot min A 1 66 e and Structure kaom Marni10V quotI mquot 55 Elements fink CQJ L39UJII jityiwfgtuvhf ngev Shape HuWh a 3 w L 1quot 1 Molecular Weight f f i CW W M39s tjzip f fzwixsa gin of negative charge on humus O O II R C OH R C Oquot H carboxylic acid phenol v PlleVEOL e gquot 5321 dependent chargedon organic matter humus Computer and pg H0 single4 I K6153 C90 aims1 ZCXE J 25 Computer and pg quot 39 w 392 W Biraizfc z 5quot 3 gemH i 3332 gal mw amgm 1 135 so mm 9 l39Zts MS3quot 4139quot lt3quot 5 J darlwmw c f f 39 ami Wang21 liteje39xi f D tgfci f 171 i 246 247 248 249 CAQCICWW 0 H I diggf tvasf io 134 0 113 Prgafrcsmilv cm 533 53 111533333 i D Amount of charge ZCXQ cmol kg of humus Physical properties of humus will be covered in several weeks IV A Cal 1 k CEC Cation Exchange Capacity CEC of Soils culations of CEC g of Soil A contains 9 cmolC as Ca 4 cmolC as Mg 1 cmolC as K 1 cmolC as Na 4 cmolC as H l cmolC as Al Z D cmolCkg soil B Percent base saturation Computer 1 Basic Cations C a 3 I fla l 4 Alike We 7 2 Acidic Cations 9 H I l J 3 BS cmol of charge from Basic Cations x 100 Total CEC L5 BS of Soil A Wm 7543 C Typical values for CEC in soil Computer and Front Bench m nm i 435370 at it 5 45 l quotrni 1 kn AMHW quotNHL5 quot mg m 39 Qquot I llquot ZCDC39 cmwl Ill c D CEC in SOils depends on 1 g CXZL mhmmd Pl f f ifl g l gsimiemrl c ziM fil k ga fll39i iiz39 5 2 anywayW a lam I 3 Cta l iacc fwm le CM 3n11539 PI C S n39 E Ways to determine CEC 391 Summation of cations on exchange sites 2 Estimate CEC from knowing clay and OM content Do Assignment and then return to computer F Importance of CEC Front Bench and Lecture 1 Ion exchange 2 Nutrient holding sink 3 Reduce contamination of groundwater 4 Buffer against acidity pH changes V Notes on Soil of the week Front Bench VI I Summary Table of Colloids fill in for review Typical Colloid Sheet value used Expanding Origin of arrangement in Nonexpanding charge 21 or 11 calculation CEC Kaolinite Hydrous Mica Illite Montmorillonite Humus NA NA VII 1 Basic Chemistry Review Practice Problems A mole mol is a unit of measure representing a specific quantity of atoms molecules ions or charges This quantity is Avogadro39s number 602 x 1023 mole of hydrogen ions 1 mol H contains H ions mol of positive charges mol Ca2 ions A b 1 mole H contains 1 mol Ca2 contains 1 d mol Ca2 mol The atomic or molecular weight of a substance is the weight of 1 mole of that substance Using a periodic table as a reference for atomic weight fill in the following blanks a 1 mol H g b 1 mol Ca39 g c 5 g H mol H d 80 g Ca mol Ca2 e 20 g Ca2 mol Ca2 a 1 mol H mol b 1 mol Ca mol c 60g Ca mol d 39 mg K cmol K In the stoichiometric reaction of one substance with another or replacement of one ion by another on a soil colloid surface the number of positive and negative charges remains balanced a 1 mol H will react with mol Cl b 1 mol Hwill replace mol K c 1 mol H will replace mol Ca2 d 40 g CazJr will replace g H e 2 Ca 39ions will replace K ions Colloids and Ion Exchange Key to Practice Problems 6023 x 1023i ions 1 mol of positive charges mol 6023 x 1023 Ca2 ions 2 mol l g 40 g 5 moi H 2 mol Ca2 12 moi Ca39 1 mol 2 mol 3 mol 01 cmol K 1 ol Clquot 1 moi K 12 mol Ca n 2 g H39 4 K ions 10 Objectives To be able 1 10 11 12 13 Reading Assignment n quot a 3f i39i5 S Mt hm Name AGRONOMY 255 251 270 SOIL pH and LIMING Explain the concept of quotpHquot When given the pH be able to calculate H concentration in terms of molarity M and vice versa Explain why soils are acid or alkaline Be able to show by chemical equations how H AlHi CaH and Na in conjunction with soil particles and water produce alkalinity or acidity ie Differentiate between quotreserVequot ie associated and quotactivequot dissociated acidity Describe how soils quotbufferquot the effect of liming on acidification Describe the relationship that exists between pH and percent base saturation and diagram this relationship for a typical soil Determine soil pH by indicator dyes and by the glass electrode pH meter and give a brief explanation of the technique used in each Explain the typical pH profile as seen in the soil displayed on Bench 1 and especially how nutrient cycling contributes to the pH profile Using the table in the Study Guide predict the approximate quotlime requirementquot of a soil Calculate given the centimoles of acid per kg soil the amount of CaCO3 needed per kg soil and per acre or hectare to neutralize it Explain how soils become acid from weathering and cropping Explain why pH affects crop growth and assess the effect of pH on the solubility of aluminum iron and manganese and similar metal ions availability of calcium and magnesium availability of phosphate and molybdate activity of soil microorganisms Q0 U51 List the materials used to acidify a soil and describe how they work List which of the compounds CaO CaOH2 CaCO3 CaClg CaSO4 MgCOw Marl are good liming materials and explain why each is or is not a good liming material Explain the importance of each of the following in determining the quality of a liming material a its neutralizing value calcium carbonate equivalent b its Ca and Mg content c its fineness Brady and Weil pp 252 254 269 298 Spring 2011 REVIEW OF pH Text pages 269275 and discussion on computer From Chemistry 6 pH ranges from 0 to 14 pIIScak l I l 0 Addm 7 Ba c gt14 Nmnm More H A More OH39 r quot15 Equal number of H and OH39 1011S ions in solution 9 In soil pH normally ranges from 3 to 8 SYMBOLS USED IN EXPRESSING pH molar concentration H hydrogen ion H hydrogen ion concentration expressed in M which is molesliter or mmolesml p negative log pH defined The log of a number is the power to which 10 is raised in order to give that number pH the log of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration 1 10 g H pH log l log tq or one can say H Range of pH in Soils pH range in soil is usually from 3 t0 8 pH Range in Soil l l 3 8 00011nokn g 000000001nu ar or 10393 M or 10398 M As pH changes from 3 to 8 the H decreases by a factor of 100000 not a linear scale pH is expressed on a logrithomic seal REVIEW OF pH CONTINUED This will be answered on the next slide De ning pH basic or alkaline acidic mm 8 neutral gt 7 6 5 4 3 PH 10gH HJr Cone molesliter 000000001 M 10398 00000001 M 10397 0000001 M 10 6 000001 M 10quot5 00001 M 10 4 0001 M 10393 PRACTICE PROBLEMS ON LOGARITHMS Keep the answers covered with a sheet of scratch paper until you have answered the question Question 1 What is the log of 10 2 What is the log of 1000 3 What is the log of 0001 4 What is the log of 106 5 What is the log of 10quot 6 If the hydrogen concentration is 39 01 M then what is the pH 7 Is the pH of a solution of H 39 of 0003 M equal to 3 gt3 or lt3 8 What is the pH of a soil solution 39 which has a H 0000001M What would be the hydrogen ion 9 concentration of 0001M solution of HCl Hydrochloric acid 10 What would be the pH of a 001 M solution of HCl 11 Define pH in equation form What is the hydrogen ion 12 concentration of a soil solution with a pH of 3 Then expose the answer to verify your accuracy EEEEEE 1 one 3 three 3 39 6 5 pH log l log l log 10 1 H 01 H of 001 pH 3 H of 01 pH 2 so H of 003 is between pH 2 and pH 3 which is lt3 1 1 6 pH log log log 10 6 H 10 6 0001 M or 10a M We assume that HCl completely dissociates 2 two 1 pH log U H or log log l 3 so l 103 or H H H 1 103 M 103 A purist would say quothydrogen ion activityquot but for all practical purposes in our systems quotactivityquot quotconcentrationquot A 1 Chemistry of Soil Acidity a b Always note what happens to them when they dissolve in water or when they react with water We will depict water as HOH Acids l Strong Acid HOH gt H2804 lt 2 m s04 2 Weak Acid HOH H2CO3 4 w 2 H CO 3 Soil Acid HOH 2H clay or humus quotgt 2 H clay or humus 4 Reserve 1 Active Acidity Acidity Salts 1 Acid Salts A12so43 6 HOH gt2 Al OH3 3 H2804 I weak base strong acid gt Al2clay or humus 6 HOH lt 2 Al OH3 6 H clay or humus weak base moderate strength acid Thus exchangeable Al and H causes a soil to be acidic 2 Basic Salts CaCO3 2 HOH I CaOH2 H2C03 strong weak base acid Caclay or humus 2 HOH gt CaOH2 2 H clay or humus strong moderate base strength acid Na2CO3 2 HOH 2 NaOH H2C03 4 very weak strong acid base Therefore a NaSoil is more basic than a Ca Soil Note that the main acidic cations are H and Al and the main basic cations are Ca Mg K and Na Mixed Acid salt Systems Typical soils have all the above ions H Al Ca Mg K as some other less common ones on their exchange sites a mixture of acids and salts soil Na as well Therefore they are What then will determine the pH of any one i at quot ye iv quot3973 ii m xY IQWWquot J Hquot Lg5 n 59w Mini tame L a K Reserve vs active acidity K Mg K H l C a Na H H A1OH Na ACTIVE A M quot E This solution phase has a small number of dissociated ions in it active Only 1 out of 10000 to 100000 exchangeable cations are found in the active solution phase RESERVE This solid phase holds most of the cations on its exchange sites reserve Buffering Capacity of soils p 279 281 and computer images 14 16 As CEC increases the buffering capacity of a soil fnmtmf LilI 17quot c 2 gm O M U scam pH vs Base SaturatiOn a General Case 8 A w w 7 a A i r 6 39 n O p p Note pH 7 comes at about 80 906 pH 5 w Base Saturation7 not at 100 39 1 quotj l I 4 4 i i i 0 25 50 75 100 Base Saturation Depth feet Depth in Feet Warsaw soil Bench 1 pH 4 6 8 I J I 0 2 I H k 4 Base Saturation 40 6O 80 100 I I I I I I l 0 2 4 Leaching and Nutrient Recycling Bench 1 pH profiles of a soil from calcareous parent material after 20000 years of weathering with deciduous forest vegetation RETIH H TO without vegetation pH 5 6 7 8 01 39 39 39 39 1 2 3 439 k al THE COMPUTER 5 Determining soil pH a By Indicator Dyes Bench 1 notes on how to do it and how they work l L SC 6 H199 Vitquot x dy Ww diva 3 hwy briwi mg 39zj39gt39 963 CL 4 m a w QQimhw a jello 5 g 929 73 Hue 5AM I39E39 Eff 4393 try 53 c P n 5 39 w 131313 b By Glass Electrode pH Meter Bench 2 notes on how to do it c Measure pH on the soils on Bench 1 and 2 Record results on Hand in RETURN TO THE COMPUTER 6 Optimum pH for plant growth depends on the plant 7 Steps to determining the lime needs of a soil 8 Determining Limestone Requirement Computer Approximate Tons Per Acre of Limestone Required to Raise the pH of Various Types of Soil to 65 Soil pH Before Liming d T t Color an ex ure 45 50 5 5 60 65 Light Colored not much humus Sand loamy sand sandy loam 4 3 2 05 O Silt silt loam loam 6 5 3 l 0 All clay loams and clays 8 7 5 2 0 Dark Colored much humus Sand loamy sand sandy loam 10 8 5 2 O SEE giltl9amrloam 8 6 4 2 0 All clay loams and clays 10 8 6 3 o Ihe dark colored sands in Indiana are those in the Kankakee river area of NW Indiana They are very high in humus and have a very high cation exchange capacity so they require much lime to raise pH RETURN TO THE COMPUTER 9 Why Soils Become Acid p270275 283 287 and computer Note that each 1 lb of N added as fertilizer requires about 18 lbs Of CaCO3 2 lbs of typical ag limestone to neutralize the acidity produced Thus 200 lbs of N added to corn could produce acidity requiring 3604OO lbs of limestone This is a real world situation It can be compared to the Hand in pg 28B 10 Soil pH Affects Plant Growth p 287 291 and computer photos images 28 34 and discussion 0 o o o ll Summarizing effects of pH on Computer discussion and p 287 291 a Solubility of metal ions Calcium and Magnesium Phosphate and Molybdate Microorganisms 12 13 14 Adjusting the pH of Acid Soils a How lime works Be sure to study the demonstrations found on Bench 3 for item 10 quotHow lime worksquot p 29l295 a Good liming materials which are seldom used because of handling problems and high cost Ca0 H20 2 CaOH2 Ca OH 2 b Good limes normally used because of low cost and handling ease caco3 2H20 2 H2C03 CaOH2 calcitic limestone T gt CO2 H2O CaMgCO32 dolomitic limestone Marl c Non limes because they do not produce basic systems and non acidifiers because they do not produce acid systems 18804 H2O gt CaClg 120 Quality of Limestone Be sure to study the demonstrations on Bench 2 for items 13 and 14 quotQuality of Limestonequot a Neutralizing value or calcium carbonate equivalent Notes from computer lecture or discuss with tutor b Ca vs Mg content AY publication c Fineness regulation of amount passing which sieve 15 Acidifying Soil Computer and Bench 3 a Why b How F8804 2H20 FeOH2 H2304 weak base strong acid 12804 gt 2H 304 2 NH4ZSO4 ZHZO 39gt 2NH4OH H2804 weak base strong acid S 15 02 H20 microorganism gt H2804 strong acid 16 Effect of Acidity on Plants and Soils Front Bench a Soil of the Week b Effect of pH on root growth 0 Acid rain 10 Nmne AGRONOMY 255 251 270 ORGANISMS OF THE SOIL Objectives To be able to 1 Name several types of soil animals give a brief description and explain their importance 2 Describe the methods used for extracting animals from the soil eg Berlese funnel and the nematode extracting system 3 Explain how we measure microorganism activity by 002 evolution and the serial dilution plating techniques 4 Name a parasitic or pathogenic soil organism and describe how it causes plant disease or injury 5 Describe mycorrhizae and explain their importance to higher plants 6 Diagram the Nitrogen cycle including its pathways and the soil organism involved 7 Differentiate between aerobic anaerobic autotrophic chemolithotrophs and heterotrophic chemoorganotrophs 8 Explain symbiotic and nonsymbiotic N fixation and its importance quot 39 to both cultivated and natural ecosystems 9 Name the soil bacteria responsible for N fixation and y nitrification and be able to describe the conditions that 39 favor each 10 Explain why one would use a nitrification inhibitor and how a commonly used one functions 11 Describe the influence of pesticides and fertilizers on soil organisms 12 Explain how one sterilizes soil the effects of soil sterilization and when it is used 13 Discuss bioremediation and how it can be used to cleanup environmentsltxmtaminated with hazardous organic waste V In lecture Reading 1 3 Assignments 1 Brady and Weil 235 1 pp 322 359 I and 396 412 Spring 2011 Cryptosphere 0 Horizon STUDY GUIDE Introduction and notes Ad Producers Consumers and Decomposers p 325 329 B Earthworms v XIV1 ko e M Hues524 muf n 3 gr392 mi pi34M WME a quotnme x rp i ii fwschzizzm for 0 16quot gnr f iktilmf Jam3 L g in rm C Other soil dwellers Centipede Pill or Sow Bug Um 18 H u Beetle Grub Iranian WWI15 Natal5 Termite D Micro organisms Protozoa Nematodes Algae Fungi Mycorrhizae 5 3mg quot6196 r3 27211 Bacteria Nitrogen Fixers VkvEch QrV 39 imk f 5 rcn M M l f h 1 SM anemia k3 plan cxyn8 iuizn Pratmes Ffka E Important functions of soil organisms l Decomposition of organic residues with release of nutrient element constituents 2 Formation of soil humus 3 Improvement of soil physical properties 4 Release of plant nutrient elements from insoluble inorganic soil minerals 5 Fixation of nitrogen 6 Improved plant nutrition through mycorrhizal relationships 7 Antagonistic action against plant pathogens 8 Conversion of hazardous materials to non toxic forms II Animals of the Soil A B Computer amp Bench 2 Kinds and numbers 1 391 mul 6Q 062 WICDl L Mike 2 I m yAgtE 3 Other phylla Large Animals 1 5 finquotw ugh Saul w3L L L pjl39ig ghwilquot Pa rquot1 i quot Arth opoda phylum Relative Abundance Insecta class EC 0 AV 5 15 in 1 at p f M 391 Arachnida class 1 I diam I an 3393 Chilopoda class ka spw rwamp i Myriapods q Diplopoda class Crustacea class 5L5 Platyhelminthes flatworms 7 Nematoda nematodes Mollusca Annelida earthworms Importance of earthworms and termites P 330 335 4 C Notes from display Benches 2 and 3 and from discussion on the computer 1 IIIN croorganisms in the soil Role of earthworms Bench 3 and p 332 333 a Burrows y curdsiving am k hf39twmlnuu bWi tvh4 iimvi b Casts 3 ram4 fvquotg merit CWquot MNfLivyHashim waw miEnuu au Huck Pm f mfn 9 i z ehfvt Mm V c Nutrients x i I 39 M V LVM EEL H1 5quot k vg W J 7 Kkkgg r at tl k w quotI m Soil monoliths showing organism activity Bench 3 quot1513 CV mia Tim W15 be w Chami v39l rgfgvisiy 503x 000 quotMS I 339 I 395 1 QM I ovr OHMquotquot53 Crayfish casts Bench 3 Extraction of soil animals Bench 3 a The Berlese funnel for larger soil animals aura1 153m Marya olmnmux 523 n35 am even at dul vf 3 95quot 533 iii m g iau a JI b Nematode extraction Bench 2 2 lo quotWit A armnquot m7 PN l39i Euruni Ra 3 L NA 558 0A 5 91 39VE OHF acid024quot r W1G lt main lt n Ez Wi Hm xi bg CW Pathogenic or parasitic organisms Bench 2 K 39 r In x K 39 l 1 737 4 gr quot A a y 0 3quotquot h 7 quot J39I 6 7 We 91 i Pm ll ham 4 c I Mevent is M W MW wag he A Measuring Soil Organism Activity see display on Bench 2 l 2 i famous 04V in ow5 5109 Qb MhMs i mk WMquot kiwi ifssiz39xomz Cenum 5 mi Often measured by C02 evolution dia ram amp ex lain gy q k Aw g pi nanem K lill Wm 439quot 2quot Soil quotg C39 pi re 6 W196 Vi o mr u d CO 2 Dix 3 Organism activity greatest in surface horizons O and A horizons cryptosphere u 1 139 w RETURN TO THE COMPUTER imminwa B Algae and N Fixation p 349 Front Bench 6pr ziiz x ITEJQYHEVM fibulaAw Civibftz vw395 H LN an quot53 MM dome NWkxl fi din wins57 ifc w p kx A L 39r C Fungi and Actinomycetes computer 1 General fungi characteristics p 340 343 under bacteria section iivhlrs Mn 463539 mi quot 1 39 2 v n a i LAY th iH39fJ j H 39 563 my g39rigu1 cj igggh gn lthy 1amp3 f ilbw qmim wn arx m x 0023 fkgwwu c aAig Hm quot an hoif i f69 7quot gt i DFVW Lquot r i D Eb 2 Mycorrhizae p 343 345 Mid Bench 1 x Vr quot t 4 v r 391 imam viima aan lt9quot Virgil trunk L MMquot I i W L t in iii36494 mi gyugi 435212 eK1Hzi m9 3 Actinomycetes p 347 348 5871 guru 3 V f 5 Hide quot39 Cf nag P39f39lh39ifgi K N can in 43 will I o Hm D Bacteria computer l General Notes I m w p P UiKai g39i gixiHew M nutdim 1 and 5 PMquot MGIE3F Z 6 10ch itk f39 fcir l v 391 W3 5 gtjukiwl htb ni ir 2 Energy and carbon source classification p 325 326 a Aoiofwfxiquot w Law gmmu Cot 04 quot QV R VEW 51mm wheels113 3quot 6 90 m xv Kr b Leherol quot59 B Sfiify C IidC quottugs ewelgg 37 up I Liaghfw 0 Q 0163mm all b39vmi wwiMy 1235 39 AZ W 3 Oxygen requirement classification p 349 r a reder C32 3 we cen ea Smif b Lilies754213 quotWe in 3 39 036 WW Makerw ala accepting C Q ampc39iim yi g u iv ve n we mnm m ryiaamzm 4 Plating Organisms Counts and Identification Bench 1 lamsii 39WHLisx 363 ctulrssrli qg Qt Hwy 5 3 P k 5 53quot 0n 3m Tm39n waywat alt 914E1 Lla e4 i loqrfji e Len Law lm 5 Microbial reduction Bench 1 n 391 x h M 1 V g L R l39l llfi ig if lquot5Xgal555651 1 3 A QwJMEAB ul n h I 7 l swfty gn FglkA 234 ch Q l L 3393 1 NJ I t n m 506quot mil 7 5 VA 5 in Bench 1 6 Sludge Septic Systems k a g 1 u x b J 6 ifg i39df39g an 6 Elm lajma I 563ul c Messiah g 7 Pathogenic organism slide set Bench 1 optional Bench 2 p 350 8 Bioremediation RETURN TO THE COMPUTER IV The role of organisms in the N cycle A MAIN POOLS AND PATHWAYS IN THE Computer N CYCLE ATMOSPHERIC POOL A V11 m x39 V 5 Nwswaal N2 gas 1 l SOIL ORGANIC N xation quotmineralization D T Plant SOIL INORGANIC N Uptake NoglNH leaching losses denitri cation PROCESS B NITROGEN CYCLE quot ORGANISMS Front Bench tape Brady and Neil pp 396 412 Including atmosphere soil plant and animal nitrogen MM ATMOSPHERIC N POOL N2 Gas 2 B 5 E 5 g ANIMALS H O t3 N 9 21 i 5 ORGANHENPOOL U E g 5imim nh c M gui mhiiiv Plani and animal residues 8 n U humus eic in various 5 Q siaies of decay B j 0 I ifquot 7 N 53 7 R4 0 E E39 3 39 39 xampNORGANH3NPOOL ifipisiiv I NH4 gt N02 gt N03quot N l d n Lm jx f i ff fiquot11 is V 2 Q N M f a i fit g 3W leaching losses Study the N cycle displays on the Front Bench perform the process SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT SOIL ORGANISMS Fill in the diagram using the solid line for the process and the dotted line for the organisms required to ROLE ORGANISMS CHARACTERISTICS l Mineralization ammonification Many bact fungi etc Mostly heter aerobic 2 Nitrification to NO39 Nitrosomonas Nitrosolobus Autotrophic aerobic Nitrification to NO Nitrobacter Autotrophic aerobic 3 Denitrification Several bacteria Heterotrophic anaerobic 4 N fixation symbiotic Rhizobium Heterotrophic aerobic r Some algae Autotrophic aerobic nonsymbiotic Azotobacter Heterotrophic aerobic Clostridium Heterotrophic anaerobic quotJ r C Inoculation of legumes coating seed with spores of Rhizobium Front Bench 1 How one inoculates 2 Effect of soil pH on nodule formation r a s I 5 gtui cue lax achin g naduloFarm c553g a 73jign a i 19 f like 1 a mlwf39z mi wixft39i G i z D Use of nitrification inhibitors in agriculture NH4 gt N0239 gt N03 NServe 53 LR IHm mint CNS 51943 W3 M39H39Chm d W quot keep 9 quot VVmugn vmab aw1 H 133 taffi ni JV39W Pkf lmNai Silas mm imf Emma39swk 8 w 100 Mm SHE 93quot Hmquot V Higher Plants quotRoot Powerquot right end of Front bench Prairie vs Forest N w m isma 9qamwki Jafy lm hvh 39mmkg r Q x i ain e manuals quot w car1 Cori 39 nqs is My 6 0 7 S quotWquot f ecuaim wi 9 73 mg Kiml 9 SMCMCQ om ail32533 RETURN TO THE COMPUTER I I A u n I n 2 VI 3011 Sterilization Cb km gw E C4911 itquot 0quot i i c Hint M Cu K arcs am 039 m 2 1 Heat N LNLR f h gufa inl c id fe m39 ukmiaurf CS 3 k b e wha36mw km x 2 Methyl Bromide lms fmw mwsSMN OWAkMk wnkwm a quotm quot C20 f 23 39C quot39 AX 3 Radioactive Cobalt quot CmIVW at a ewit a i w l K f A w 333223 i i auvomofzmg 8R5 m 61 393 no cum 64 a canic6 3 3 Name AGRONOMY 255 251 270 ORGANIC SOILS AND ORGANIC MATTER Objectives To be able to l 2 10 ll l2 l3 14 15 16 Explain how muck and peat soils develop List the criteria which distinguishes a mineral soil from an organic soil Distinguish between a peat and a muck soil List the characteristics of sedimentary fibrous and woody peats List two commercial uses of peats and mucks List and explain the soil order and suborder classification for organic soils List at least five management problems which occur with organic soils List and explain four economic factors which must be considered before starting to farm organic soils Explain the effects of native vegetation and drainage on organic matter accumulation Describe the method shown in the study center of extracting soil organic matter based on solubility Know the approximate CN ratio of soil humus soil organisms and common residues such as alfalfa manure corn stalks wheat straw and sawdust Explain how the addition of residues with different CN ratios affects decomposition rate and N availability as related to mineralization and immobilization List and explain ways to compensate for wide CN ratios in residues and avoid N deficiencies Explain the importance of organic matter to the physical and chemical properties of soils Explain in detail the ways of measuring soil organic matter content as illustrated in the Study Center 0 Use the Munsell chart and the Illinois chart to estimate 6 organic matter in a soil Reading Assignment Brady and Weil pp Supplemental xerox material in booth 7374 361 394 Fall 2010 STUDY GUIDE I Organic Soils Bench 1 computer amp supplemental material A How they form p 353 356 of the xerox material in your booth 1 To 0 ra hic osition p g p p 39w h r I 1d H 3gtM 1iEh6 Jamarquot iguxm f39ab s 34 mcal39ae erqamc mm 39 23 w W 13 6 I J 2 Vegetation changes H e V catquot DiSank hk39flgnnptb Rim 6 ham iF mm with grifmtsx mm MlHm Phat gt0 m LG 3quot6 3 Climate Factors causing accumulation of OM Ch39ha fj JPquotvampire wla 391j 39cfquot J39I ofquotr u39quotr39l aulptm mfg 030M W1 g l lcd u vn to pli l9ri L w a cam b83I2quot7 gt B Mineral VS organic soils All soils with greater than 30 organic matter are organic soils and all soils with less than 20 50 39 Mineral II I organic matter are mineral rgani Soils Clay 25 I Sojsf SOils The classification of a soil with 2030 OM as being Oi I 39 p organic or mineral depends 3 0 239 1 39N on both the Clay and organic matter content 74 Organic matter SEE GRAPH C Peat vs muck u mmves ampmglngm 0 Fermi J i ffli39n 1 4 iquotfef 3 r 1 w quotWalk x Em d2ec yrnfslitnmr g V10 Smilimv r fa Fulfill I39YIQL Q W 6LE D Types of Peats l Sedimentary Peat 9 MHMwHE 9 L mower 930 itHimdw U f JV Mm MariPf dugngni kqi l h 2 Fibrous Peat a quotVU M QUS raw eg 39 7055635 ram 9 15 r3 1 353925 V m COF I EA 1W5 I 3 Woody Peat f F 391 Becnhmakgs an cm emu5 H eeg am My Ul d1 qmrnwa w L v I x S E Commercial uses of peats and mucks 1 mf kw as l maf km lb de cum5 v2 t3 6 I7 10 5 2 Fit cgrf A M Enrich 3 FHA 5935 f W55 ng pmluch on F Classification of organic soils Comprehensive classification system 1 Soil Order Iliabwg 2 Soil Suborders Based on a Fibrist umbwmfbmtk 003 Miami is 2qu 9 law Luil densfm a gtI v 1xmdn5yLMU ybk b Hemist K quot nlul w ge JJE iWIUmJ 7 a 39 m 2 N cE AInecLaif 0ch c Saprist habits Q czampase j Bi 7 Z 651mb res 13 Aimk G Notes on pictures presented on the computer M Media 5 15 ElmBF M g W w a erf cm feJ Mazfea Emechh c1 We d Gk hm 1 73 Wagfrank II Management of Organic Soils Computer A Physical and chemical properties 1 Subsidence quot amersz c n depljn w i6wea 5 qu walk1F 2 Burnin v bum Mien ab Reai when ocular mugs lawyer Jam ELU macaw UAJem VLJ Mae Surgt e 3 Water Control MCJN CJV Msz e fabric subsidence tiicL bum Ms Lu 5 Ma line pumpa nj 539m I Ambnc g Gin CL 4 Frost dama e w I a WM 55M Jr bwnkt 510 60335 Mas wwac 08 kqu karts NFLht 0a I hide cijs Claus 05 whammy42m 5 Wind erosion bulk density 5311 003quot routsh MILCL ow EN ve f Maven An a 6 CEC and buffering capacity quot CEL cmekhfjk Lu 39czfau lj A Wags 69939 h CjYxr a ht cva N5 399 I quot R r i g 1 v GO BACK TO THE COMPUTER 7 Nutrient problems a Nitrogen quotT98 I H Jail1 00 is km 008 b Potassium WAD L e al J J w dr i200 flair l m i C PhOShoru s u bu 3w 5 d Trace elements bu buds I my cu gm e pH quot an all7 S n in c L l CL 1313 quot 0906 3 S Vc39Hj 860 ch Me 351ch 19 IIIReview of Effect of Native Vegetation and Drainage on Organic matter Front Bench 39 A Soil of the Week Why is this sand soil so high in OM gag m a Lispregsi o lowech w ange MEL jaws What is its drainage class Va Why isn t this sand better drained ioCchzck iA 5L 555 on B What39s a catena who oil 0315 oa Sufi Arming Fire game v QX CcP39Iquot Wm kwe GilWane lagkumphs cml MAHMS T J 39 x List the 4 drainage classes E g gL gomchJ At 39Vk t39qeiZLiEt we C Forest vs Prairie derived soils How do the two catenas differ Montgomery Celina Miami catena v K 39 h Parr Raub Drummer catena WaW1egtOA kc Mme cwW excumukdqu cat i D I Explain Fig 222 p 50 of your text Notes from magazine and bulletins on organic matter or from Jim Ahlrichs39 slide set on Peats GO BACK TO THE COMPUTER IV Soil Organic Matter A Humus defined 39Pk has Aeccmmai mews CW 9 b e microbes B Plant material gt humus time C Type structure for humic acid bench 2 and lecture quot f Sugar He0H4 C5 QEgtHo Hike 21 0 RCH l otPep de J D Characteristics of components of Organic Matter Bench 2 r S0il Add Base Soluble Left in soil Humic and Humin Fulvic Acids AM Acid Soluble Insoluble precipitate Fulvic Humic Acid Acid E Read pages 372 374 in textbook Genesis and Nature of Soil Organic Matter and Humus RETURN TO THE COMPUTER V CarbonzNitrogen Ratios Computer Bench 2 and p 369372 A CN ratios in plant material 1 Age I a 43506 255 A tatwk McgtQ2aLc jgt quot Lighter Md1 0 2 Grasses vs legumes m 17 low30433 Mor U i39hwf 989M253 stef with C 3 Typical CN ratios CINCN 39 N a Humus 20 I b Microorganisms 5 1 c Residues Bench 2 Brady and Weil pg 369 alfalfa 192 manure Z0 3 corn stalks So I wheat straw Ei9il sawdust Liam 4 WideCN ratio vs Narrow CN ratio 4213313 B Effect of CN ratio on N Availability Residue added here 0 39 quot 39 Narrow CN Ratio Available x 39 Inorganic 39 Wide CN Ratio y in 50139 139 z quotr time ltgt Mineralization dotted line indicates where mineralization occurs laidwax nwgmm c 10 my wal nj meLiagkose ul Immobilization thin solid line indicates where immobilization occurs gold163 SolHZ M csz billings 3F in 342 N3 Omw v F9 Hoffa1 This is not explained in your reading assignment so if this concept is not clear to you talk to a tutor C Cures for wide CN ratios 1 Add nitrogen fertilizer aqumaraka winact SHINU miquot lt13quot n 13quot 65 2 Burning x K M Exams 0 c 05 10 392 name H18 WHO 3 Composting Brady and Weil pp 391 393 Microorganisms gt ReSidue C02 ReSidue Wide CN Ratio Loss of C Narrow CN Ratio gmanisms 05c he carter as 951ng I39m 6quot c eieasla it 6 53 3 GO BACK TO THE COMPUTER VI Importance of Soil Organic Matter A Organic matter and nitrogen availability liskw yz qv lwia Cabral WAS Legit n B Organic matter and pesticide rates more DVl o pasp ca oqa mics mag Mz GQW L Q C39 Influence Of SOil39S physical and chemical properties 1 Structure 3013A 8 ma ch givmdu rag Ease of tillage 3 Porosity Mara156 4 Water holding capacity 39 in 60361541 5 Nutrient holding capacity 11 Cams VII Soil organic Matter Determination Bench 3 A Determination by color Moraith 00 911939 Gm A harder wiser 0M 5 quot7 792 B Determination by ashing 013 WK bum 3912 jcunpleamai Most 995 jmioi sFM1umF5 l C Chemicalcolorimetric method w m w exact W quot39 Tyian chi aw dagm 69 0 V q 39 bhune AGRONOMY 255 251 270 ORGANIC SOILS AND ORGANIC MATTER Objectives To be able to 1 2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Explain how muck and peat soils develop List the criteria which distinguishes a mineral soil from an organic soil Distinguish between a peat and a muck soil List the characteristics of sedimentary fibrous and woody peats List two commercial uses of peats and mucks List and explain the soil order and suborder classification for organic soils List at least five management problems which occur with organic soils List and explain four economic factors which must be considered before starting to farm organic soils Explain the effects of native vegetation and drainage on organic matter accumulation Describe the method shown in the study center of extracting soil organic matter based on solubility Know the approximate CN ratio of soil humus soil organisms and common residues such as alfalfa manure corn stalks wheat straw and sawdust Explain how the addition of residues with different CN ratios affects decomposition rate and N availability as related to mineralization and immobilization List and explain ways to compensate for wide CN ratios in residues and avoid N deficiencies Explain the importance of organic matter to the physical and chemical properties of soils 39 Explain in detail the ways of measuring soil organic matter content as illustrated in the Study Center 0 Use the Munsell chart and the Illinois chart to estimate 6 organic matter in a soil Reading Assignment Brady and Weil pp 73 74 361 394 Supplemental xerox material in booth Spring 2011


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