Intro To Methods in Psychology
Intro To Methods in Psychology PSYC 2301
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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samson Zulauf on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2301 at University of Houston taught by Bruno Breitmeyer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/208146/psyc-2301-university-of-houston in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Alternative Explanations Part of causal inference a potential alternative cause of an observed relationship between variables Covariation 0F Cause amp EFFect Part of causal inference observing tnat a cnange in one variable is accompanied by a cnange in a second variable E mp We is wx Use oF objective observations to answer a question about the nature of behavior Fa l siFia bil itg The principle that a good scientific idea or theory should be capable oF being Shown to be False when tested using scientific methods Peer Review The process onaoigihg the scientific merit of research through review by other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research Program Evaluation Researcn designed to assess procedures eg social reforms innovations tnat are designed to produce certain changes or outcomes in a target population Pseudoseiemce Claims that are made on the basis 0F evidence that despite appearances is not based on the principles of the scientific method Temporal Precedence Part of causal inference tne cause occurs before tne effect H glootnesis An assertion about wnat is true in a particular situation oFten a statement asserting tnat two or more variables are related to one anotner Prediction An assertion concerning what will occur in a particular researcn investigation Tneo rg A systematic conerent and logical set of ioleas about a particular topic or pnenovnenon tnat serves to organize and explain olata and generate new knowledge Autonomy Belmont Report Principle that individuals in research investigations are capable of making a decision of wnetner to participate Beneflcemce Belmont Report Principle that research should have beneficial effects while mlmlmlzlmg any harmful effects Debrie 39ng Explanation of the purposes oF tne researcn tnat is given to participants Following tneir participation in tne researcn Deception MisimFormatiom that a participant receives during a research investigation I nFo rmed Consent In research ethics the principle that participants in an experiment be informed in advance of all aspects of the researcn tnat rniglnt influence their decision to participate Institutional Review Board 1213 An ethich review committee established to review research proposals The RB is composed oF scientists nonscientists anal legal experts Justice Belmont Report 6 Principle that all individuals and groups should have Fair and equal access to the benefits of research participation as well as potential risks oF research participation Minirnal Risk Research Research in which participants are exposeal to risks that are no greater than those encountered in daily liFe or in routine physical or psychological tests Plagiarism Presentation of anotner person s work as your own instead 0F properly citing the actual source Risk BeneFit Anal ysis Evaluation of the ethical implications of a research procedure by considering the bene ts of the research in relation to the potential risks to participants Role Playing An alternative to deception in which individuals indicate how they or others would respond to an independent variable ConFoanding Variable A variable that is not controlled in a research investigation In an experiment the experimental groups diFFer on both the independent variable and the confounding variable Construct Validity The degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure Correlation CoeFFicient An inolex of now strongly two variables are relateol to eacn otner Carvlllnear Relationship A relationship in which cnanges in tne values of tbe First variable are accompanied by both increases anal decreases ln the values of another variable Dependent Variable The variable tnat is tne subject s response to and dependent on the level of tne manipulated independent variable Experimental Control Eliminating the influence of an extraneous varialole on tne outcome of an experiment by keeping tne variable constant in the experimental and control groups Experimental Method A method of determining whether variables are related in which the researcher manipulates the independent variable and controls all other variables either by randomization or by direct experimental control External Val id ltg The degree to which the results 0F an experiment may be generalized Field Experiment An experiment that is conducted in a natural setting ratner tnan in a laboratory setting I nte rnal Val id itg The certainty with which results oF an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation oF the independent variable rather than to some other confounding variable Negative Linear Relationship A relationship in which increases in the values of the First variable are accompanied by olecreases in the values oF the seconol variable Nonexperimental Metnod Use of measurement 0F variables to determine wnetner variables are related to one anotner Also called correlational metnod Operationai DeFinition Definition of a concept that specifies tine Vnetnooi useoi to measure or manipulate the concept Positive Linear Relationship A relationship in which increases in the values of the First variable are accompanied by increases in the values of the seconol variable Randomization Controlling For the effects of extraneous variables by ensuring that the variables operate in a manner determined entirely by chance Tnirol ariable Problena In descriptions of the relationship between two variables a third variable is any other variable that is extraneous to the two variables of interest True experiments control For the possible influence of third variables Va riabie Ahg cvcht situation behavior or individual characteristic that varies that is has at least two vaiacs C omcarremt Validity The camstract validity 0F a measure is assessed by examining whether groups of people differ on the measure in expected ways
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