Foundations of Chem
Foundations of Chem CHEM 1301
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHEM 1301 SECOND TEST REVIEW Lewis Structures Covalent bonds are sharing of electrons ALWAYS valence electrons Use Lewis structures to show this sharing Rules OCTET RULE an atom would like to have 8 valence electrons except H which wants 2 COMMON SENSE an atom forms the number of bonds equivalent to the number of electrons wanted Most molecules obey both octet and common sense Can use Single bonds 2 electrons one from each atom Double bonds 4 electrons two from each atom Triple bonds 6 electrons three from each atom OCTET and NO COMMON SENSE Atoms obey octet rule but form fewer or more bonds than expected a use DATIVE bonds one atom puts both electrons into a bond b POLYATOMIC IONS extra electrons reduce number of bonds wanted fewer electrons increase number of bonds wanted Simplest approach is to use The Bott Method 1 Determine number of valence electrons group no of each atom include chargecation take away electrons anions add electrons 2 Set up connectivity a hydrogen only ever has one bond b apply common sense c try to put atom furthest from F in middle d however no rings unless carbon no atoms bonded to same type except carbon N20 or when absolutely necessary e can ONLY have more than four bonds to atoms bigger than Ne 3 Add in dots 2 for each bond then add more IN PAIRS around each atom until it has 8 except H 4 Compare numbers from 1 electrons available to 3 number of dots a l 3 done b 3 gt 1 reduce number of dots by i multiple bonds two atoms with lone pairs that are already bonded remove lone pair from each and add extra bond pair ii if have to erase lone pairs from central atom ELECTRON DEFICIENT c l gt 3 increase number of dots by putting extra lone pairs on central atom if bigger than Ne NO OCTET and NO COMMON SENSE screwedup structures 1 Odd number of electrons 2 not enough electrons 3 too many electrons or atoms 7 atoms higher than NEON can have more than 8 Example questions are 1 Which molecule contains one unsharedpair of valence electrons A H20 B NH3 C CH4 D C12 2 How many electrons should be shown in the Lewis dot structure for carbon monoxide A 8 B 14 C 10 D 28 3 Which molecule contains only two unshared pairs of electrons A H20 B NH3 C SC12 D C02 4 Select the best Lewis structure for ClCN assume enough lone pairs to make every atom happy A ClCEN B ClECN C ClCN D C1CN 5 Which of the following Lewis dot structures is correct A B 39N C OO D E 6 Select the correct Lewis structure for TeBrz 1 I39 at p A Te B 39lll e C 39ll39e D 39I e Br Br Br 13 7 Select the correct Lewis structure for nitrogen tri uoride NF3 A B FNF F N F o o o A B F O F F Select the best Lewis structure for P214 o o o o O O O O A I 1 B I 1 I I 39 39 I I I P P I 1 P P I I I I 39 O 0 I I o 0 0 1 1 1 1 I I I 0 0 I I 39I PP 1 z 1 PEP I z O Q j 0 O U I 10 Which one of the following Lewis structures is de nitely incorrect A NO B HCN C N02quot D C2H4 E PF5 H C H I39F39 F O I C N P I I f H I quot 11 Which one of the following Lewis structures is de nitely incorrect A N02 B 003239 C CH4 D BH3 E 302 H II I II N T O H T H H ll3 I H OI 12 A 139 B quot ifgt 030 The Lewis structure of N024r is best drawn as N oo o 00 D 29 N 9gt EltIl 02gt 13 A The Lewis structure of which of the following molecules cannot obey the octet rule N2 B 02 C CO D NO E 1 O HCN 14 Which of the following molecules does not have an ideal Lewis structure that is all atoms happy A CH4 B H20 C BH3 D NH3 E HF 15 In which one of the following species is the central atom the first atom in the formula an exception to the octet rule A NH3 B NH4 C 12 D BH439 E SF 16 In which one of the following species is the central atom the first atom in the formula likely to Violate the octet rule A BF439 B Xe03 C SiCl4 D NH3 E CHzClz 17 Which of the following atoms can have more than 8 valence electrons when bonding A N B C C 0 D P 18 Which has a Lewis dot structure with the greatest number of unshared pairs on the central atom A NH3 B IF3 C SeC12 D IC1239 Naming Compounds Ionic cation first then anion Formula 7 use subscripts to show how many of each type of ion In cation is from an atom same name as atom If anion is from an atom take atom name remove end add IDE Polyatomic ions Table 5539 LEARN THESEHH Covalent Binary compounds 7 less electronegative first one to left and lower More nonmetallic second change end to IDE Use prefixes Table 53 to describe how many Formula 7 use subscripts to show how many of each type of atom 19 All ofthe following have a 2 charge except A sulfate B sulfide C carbonate D nitrate E sulfite 20 NaBr is the correct formula of A sodium bromate B sodium bromide C sodium bromite D sodium bromine 21 Which is the correct formulaname combination A A12SO43 aluminum sulfate B KZPO3 potassium phosphate C C2H3O acetate D PCl3 phosphorus chlorite 22 A compound with the formula CaHz is called A cadmium hydride C calcium hydride B hydrogen carbide D calcium hydrate 23 The correct name of N203 is A nitrogen oxide B nitrogen11 oxide C nitrous oxide D dinitrogen trioxide 24 The formula of calcium nitrite is A C33N2 B CaN02z C CaN0z D CaN03z 25 Tetrasulfur dinitride decomposes explosively when heated What is its formula A s4N4 B sZN4 C S4Nz D 4SN2 E SNS ElectronegatiVity and Polar Bonds Closer an atom to F 7 the more electronegative it is likes electrons Causes POLAR BONDS More electronegative is a bit negative 5as it gets bigger share of electrons 26 Which would be expected to be the most electronegative A P B As C Si D Al 27 The element with the greatest tendency to gain electrons is A F B At C O D N E Bi 28 Which atom has the highest electronegatiVity A Br B Mg C C D 0 29 In which bond are the partial charges on the atoms correct A 5Si 0539 B MCI13939 C BtN BB39 D CI 01539 30 Which of the following compounds contains the LEAST polar bonds Atoms H S P As Cl Si Sb ElectronegatiVity 21 25 21 21 30 18 19 A PH3 B AsC13 C SiH4 D SbC13 E HzS 31 Which set of bonds is arranged in order of increasing polarity A SiS lt SiO lt SiP lt SiF B SiO lt SiF lt SiS lt SiP C SiF lt SiS lt SiO lt SiP D SiP lt SiS lt SiO lt SiF 32 The BrCl molecule may be represented by the formula BrCl The polarity is best represented as A Br5C15 B BrfrCl v C BrampClamp D Brf tc Structures shapes of molecules Draw the Lewis structure Look at the CENTRAL atom and count how many electron groups it has These try to get as far apart from each other as possible Number of groups GeometrV Angle Linear 180 3 Trigonal planar 120 4 Tetrahedral l 0 9 5 5 Trigonal bipyrarnid 90 and 120 6 Octahedral 90 When looking at a molecule the central atom thinks it has the geometry de ned as above However we cannot see lonepair groups only the atoms So Number of groups Number of bond Number of lone pairs Structure 0 trigonal planar 3 2 l bent 4 4 0 tetrahedral 4 3 l trigonal pyramid 4 2 2 bent 33 What is the molecular shape of N20 N A linear B bent C angular D trigonal 34 What is the molecular shape of the thiocyanate anion SCN39 A linear B bent C angular D trigonal 35 What is the molecular shape of ClCN A linear B bent C angular D trigonal 36 What is the molecular shape of Ber A linear B bent C angular D trigonal 37 What is the molecular shape of NOCl A linear B trigonal planar C bent D tetrahedral What is the molecular shape of BClg linear B trigonal planar C bent D tetrahedral What is the molecular shape of N02 linear B trigonal planar C bent D tetrahedral What is the molecular symmetry around the carbons in CClzCHZ linear B trigonal planar C Vshaped D tetrahedral What is the molecular shape of C103F trigonal pyramidal B square planar C square pyramidal D tetrahedral What is the molecular shape of HOF trigonal pyramidal B trigonal C tetrahedral D bent What is the molecular shape of NHzCl trigonal pyramidal B tetrahedral C bent D trigonal planar What is the molecular shape of SiFSZ39 i5 13 239 F7 trigonal bipyramidal B hexagonal C tetrahedral D octahedral Which one of the following Will have a trigonal pyramidal shape PC13 B BF C so3 D soZ E C03 Which one of the following molecules and ions Will de nitely have at least one 90 bond angle in it AlCl439 B NH3 C PC15 D C0Z E H20 Predict the ideal bond angles in ASC137 90 B 1095 C 120 D 180 Predict the ideal bond angles in FNO A 90 B 109 C 120 D 180 49 Predict the ideal bond angles around nitrogen in Nze A 90 B 109 C 120 D 180 50 Predict the ideal bond angles around carbon in Csz A 90 B 109 C 120 D 180 Dipole Moments Add polar bonds up 7 molecular DIPOLE MOMENT Can cancel a Are there polar bonds 7 NO no dipole moment b Are all the atoms attached to a central atom the same NO 7 dipole moment c If YES 7 are there lone pairs on the central atom NO 7 no dipole moment 51 Which of the following has no net dipole moment A N20 B NF3 C HzSe D Te03 52 Which one of the following molecules does not have a dipole moment A CS2 B HzS C CHzClz D PH3 E CHZO ANSWERS BCAADlDCDBBlECDCElBDDDBlACDBClAADAAl DDAAAlAC BCBlDD ADAlCBCCDlDA CHEM 1301 POSSIBLE EXTRAS REVIEW Chapter Ten Stu Differences between solids liquids and gases Intermolecular Forces 7 important in solid state Stronger they are higher the melting and boiling points 1 IONIC all ionic compounds have IONIC intermolecular forces 2 METALLIC all metals have METALLIC intermolecular forces Both of these are infinite networks 7 go on and on and on COVALENT molecules have 3 HYDROGEN BONDS for H attached to F O N or Cl 4 DIPOLE DIPOLE if the molecule is polar has a dipole 7 opposite ends 5 LONDON DISPERSON ifthe molecule is not polar i e has no polar bonds or the polar bonds cancel out Typical questions For each of the following solids assign whether the intermolecular forces are A ionic B metallic C hydrogen bonding D dipoledipole E London dispersion 1 NaCl 2 C12 3 Hg 4 Fe 5 H20 6 NH3 7 FBr 8 C02 9 KBr 10 CH4 11 Which of the following would be expected to have the highest boiling point A NaCl B Na C Clz D all the same E can t tell 12 Which substance has the highest boiling point A CH4 B He C HF D C12 13 Which group of substances is arranged in order from the highest to the lowest melting point A HFgtH2gtNaF B NaFgtH2gtHF C HFgtNaFgtH2 D NaFgtHFgtH2 14 Arrange KCl NH3 and CH4 in order of increasing boiling point A CH4ltKC1ltNH3 B NH3ltKC1ltCH4 C CH4ltNH3ltKC1 D NH3ltCH4ltKC1 15 Which has the highest melting point A ss B H20 C Ar D 13an 16 Which of the following molecules will not form hydrogen bonds A H3C CH2 C OH B HF fl H C H3C CH2 C CH3 D H3C CH2 N CH3 17 In hydrogen iodide are the most important intermolecular forces A dipoledipole forces B London dispersion forces C hydrogen bonding D ionic GASES Pressure measured in atmospheres or mmHg 1 atm 760 mm Hg Temperature measured in Kelvin K C 273 Volume measured in liters n moles Pressure is proportional to temperature and number of moles and inversely proportional to volume Put together the relationships using the correct units A C PV nRT R 0082 1 atm mol K When the temperature in Kelvin of a fixed quantity of an ideal gas is quadrupled and the pressure is doubled what is the net effect on the volume of the gas The volume increases twoifold The volume increases eightifold The volume remains constant B The volume increases fourifold D A D 20 A D 21 A 22 A 23 A 24 A Air is sealed in a vessel at 273 OC and then cooled to 0 OC Ifthe vessel itself does not contract the pressure inside the vessel will become twice its original value B none of these C zero onefourth of its original value E onehalf of its original value Both the pressure and the absolute temperature of a certain gas sample are doubled In the absence of dissociation the volume of the gas is quadrupled B doubled decreased by oneihalf E decreased by oneifourth C unchanged Ifa gas at 1 atm and 273 K occupies 336 L how many moles does it contain 015 B 081 C 34 D 67 A gas sample occupies a volume of 164 L at 27 OC and 0300 atm How many moles of gas are present 0200 B 0450 C 350 D 100 What is the volume of 200 mol ofhelium gas at 27 OC and 300 atm 61x10 2L B 164L C 148L D 448L How many moles of gas are in a sample with a volume of 500 mL at 25 OC and 0460 atm 00094lmol B 102mol C 0160mol D l34mol This can be combined into the Roadmap grams of A grams of B g g n g MM N 602 102311 N 602 102311 Moles of A Moles I1A I1B nB banA Volume of Gas i Volume of Gas V at Temp T and V at Temp T and Pressure P PV nRT PV RT Pressure P M n L l V Volume of Volume of Solution L Solution L 25 A 26 A 27 A 0056L B 112L What is the number of molecules in 100 mL of an ideal gas at 1 atm and 273 K 269x1022 B 269x1019 C 602x1020 D 224x1019 How many grams of C02 would occupy an 88 L ask at 300 K and 11 atm 14g B 17g C 22g D 32g What volume will 510 g of sulfuryl uoride SOze occupy at 1 atm and 273 K C 224 L D 112 L E 224 L 28 What volume does 1600 g of oxygen gas 02 occupy at 546 OC and 200 atm A 56 L B 112 L C 224L D 672 L E 168 L 29 When 180 g of water is heated to steam at 100 0C the volume at 1 atm pressure is approximately A 132 mL B 186 L C 1800 mL D 11 L E 306 L 30 Benzene C5H5 can be burned in oxygen according to the equation 2C6H5l 1502g gt 12COzg 6H20g If 50 L of oxygen measured at 1 atm and 273 K were required to burn a given amount of benzene the 1 atm and 273 K volume of C02 formed would be A 179 L B 4 L C 334 D 55 L 31 What mass of CaCO3 will produce 80 L of C02 measured at 1 atm and 273 K in the reaction CaC03s gt CaO C02g A 446 g B 125 g C 357 g D 280 g 32 How many liters of C02 gas at 1 atm and 273 K can be obtained by completely burning one H1019 0f C3Hs C3H8g 02g gt C02g H20g A 112 B 44 8 C 672 D 112 33 What volume of pure N20 at 1 atm and 273 K could be prepared by the controlled decomposition of 800 g of ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 gt N20g 2HZO1 A 112 L B 224 L C 336 L D 448 L A How many liters of hydrogen gas with an excess of nitrogen at 1 atm and 273 K are required to prepare 450 g of ammonia 3 Hzg Nzg gt 2 NH3g 395 B 300 C 593 D 889 How many liters of hydrogen at 1 atm and 273 K can be produced by the reaction of 900 g of A1 with excess dilute H2804 2AM 3stO4aq gt Alzs043aq 3H2g 561 L B 672 L 112 L C 336 L D More Reactions We started talking about REDOX equations You need to be able to a b 40 A E 41 A assign oxidation numbers look at an equation and say whether it is a redox equation by change in charge or oxidation number if redox which atom is reduced and which is oxidized Calculate the oxidation number of the chlorine in perchloric acid HClO4 a strong acid 1 B 4 C 5 D 7 Calculate the oxidation number of sulfur in sodium metabisulf1te NazSzos 2 B 2 C 4 D 5 Sodium tripolyphosphate is used in detergents to make them effective in hard water Calculate the oxidation number of phosphorus in Na5P3010 3 B 5 C 10 D 15 Calculate the oxidation number of iodine in 12 1 B 0 C 1 D 7 The oxidation numbers of P S and C1 in HzPOZ39 H28 and KClO4 are respectively 1 13 B 1 27 C 127 D 1 27 l2 3 Identify which species is reduced in the following redox reaction Hg2aq Cus gt Cu2aq Hgl Hg aq B Cus C Cu aq D Hg1 42 Sodium thiosulfate Na28203 is used as a fixer in black and white photography Identify which atom is oxidized in the reaction of thiosulfate with iodine 28203239aq 12aq gt S405239aq 2139aq A 1 B 139 C S D 0 43 Which one of the following is not a redox reaction A 2H2g 02g gt 2H200 B Zns HZSO4aq gt ZnSO4aq Hzg C H200 NH3g gt NH4aQ OH39aQ D 6FeSO4aq KzCrzO7aq 7HzSO4aq gt CrzSO43aq 3F62SO43aq KZSO4aq E 012g 2KBraq gt Brzl 2KClaq 44 Which one of the following is not a redox reaction A 2H202aq gt 2H20l 02g B N2 3H2 gt 2NH3g C BaClzaq KzCrO4aq gt BaCrO4aq 2KClaq D 2Als Fe203s gt A1203s 2Fes E 2H20g gt 2Hzg 02 45 Which one of the following is a redox reaction A 2Nag 012g gt 2NaC1s B Ba2aq SO4239aq gt BaSO4s C KzCrzO7aq 2KOHaq gt 2K2Cr04aq H201 D Na2C03s 2HC1aq gt 2NaClaq 002g H201 E H201 gt Haq OH39aq 46 Which one of the following is not a redox reaction A 2Nas 2H20l gt 2NaOHaq Hzg 13 H2 t Clzg gt 2HClg C 2HzOzaq gt 2H20l 02g D Fe203s 3HzSO4aq gt Fe2SO43aq 3H20l E 2KMnO4aq lOFeSO4aq 8HZSO4aq gt KzSO4aq 2MnSO4aq 5FezSO43aq 8H20l We discussed the relative strengt of metals and getting electricity from redox reactions Acids and Bases a Arrhenius de nition b BronstedLowry de nition c strong and weak d neutralization e pH log Hl or 710g H30l 47 Which of the following is a weak acid A H2804 B HN03 C HF D HBr 48 Which of the following is a strong acid A H3PO4 B HNO3 C HF D CH3COOH 49 Which ofthe following is a strong base A NH3 B BaOH2 C A10H3 D B0H3 50 Which ofthe following is a weak base A NH3 B SrOH2 C BaOH2 D NaOH 51 Which one of the following substances is a strong acid A HN03 B H2C03 C NH3 D CH3COOH E H3PO4 52 What is the pH ofa 075 M HN03 solution A 012 B 029 C 063 D 082 53 What is the pH ofa 000200 M HClO4 solution A 0995 B 1378 C 2699 D 6215 54 What is the pH ofa 0050 M HBr solution A 089 B 112 C 130 D 300 Answers 1730 AEBBClCDEAElACDCDlCABEElAABABlBBEEBl 3154 CCBDBlDCBBBlACCCAlDCBBAlAACC CHEM 1301 THIRD TEST REVIEW Chemical Equations Express reactions as equations These a b must contain the symbolsformulas for substances involved in the reaction things on left are reactants things on right are products must be balanced 7 same number of each type of atoms on each side Balance by placing COEFFICIENTS in front of formulas 7 don t add molecules or change formulas Also don t use fractions for coefficients 1 A A A A A A A When the equation C2H4 02 gt C0 H20 is balanced what is the coefficient of Oz 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 When the following equation is balanced what is the coefficient of Oz C3H8 02 gt C0 H20 1 B 2 C 3 D 5 E 7 Balance the following equation B203s HF1 gt BF3g HzOl What is the coefficient of water 3 B 1 C 4 D 2 E 5 Balance the following equation UOzs HF1 gt UF4s HzOl What is the coefficient of water 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 5 Balance the following equation C5H5l Ozg gt HzOg COzg What is the coef cient of water 2 B 4 C 6 D 8 E 10 Balance the following equation C8H18031 Ozg gt HzOg COzg What is the coef cient of water 4 B 9 C 5 D 3 E 10 Balance the following equation Ca3PO42s SiOzs Cs gt CaSiO3s C0 P4 What is the coefficient of C 2 B 6 C 8 D 10 E 12 8 Balance the following equation B5H9l Ozg gt B203s HzOg What is the coefficient of water A 10 B 9 C 6 D 8 E 14 Moles and Molar Mass A mole is 602 X 1023 1 mole of something has the relative mass of that thing in grams When calculating moles from grams or grams from moles use DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS or equation n g MM 9 Calcium uoride Can used to uoridate drinking water Calculate its molar mass in gmol A 11815 B 9915 C 7807 D 5908 10 Calculate the molar mass in gmol of tetraphosphorus decaoxide P4010 A 46973 B 28389 C 19097 D 9497 11 Calculate the molar mass in gmol of rubidium carbonate szC03 A 34043 B 25500 C 23094 D 11348 12 Calculate the molar mass in gmol of NH43AsO4 A 41780 B 19303 C 16502 D 15696 13 Aluminum sulfate A12SO43 is used in tanning leather purifying water and manufacture of antiperspirants Calculate its molar mass in gmol A 45006 B 34215 C 31515 D 27802 14 Calculate the mass in grams of 235 mol of sodium chloride or common table salt A 221 g B 137 g C 939 g D 584 g 15 Magnesium uoride is used in the ceramics and glass industry What is the mass of 172 mol of magnesium uoride A 107 g B 745 g C 623 g D 433 g 16 Sodium bromate NaBr03 is used in a mixture which dissolves gold from its ores Calculate the mass in grams of 468 mol of sodium bromate A 706g B 482g C 322g D 00310g 17 What is the mass in grams of 0250 mol of the common antacid calcium carbonate A 400 X102g B 250 g C 400 gtlt10392g D 250 gtlt10393g 18 Calculate the number of moles in 178 g of the antacid magnesium hydroxide MgOHz A 328 mol B 232 mol C 0431 mol D 0305 mol 19 Calculate the number of moles in 387 g of PC15 A 538 mol B 355 mol C 0282 mol D 0186 mol 20 Aluminum oxide A1203 is used as a filler for paints and varnishes as well as in the manufacture of electrical insulators Calculate the number of moles in 4751 g of A1203 A 2377 mol B 2146 mol C 04660 mol D 04207 mol To go between moles of something and molecules of the thing N 602 x1023 x n or use dimensional analysis NOTE atoms and molecules are NOT the same thing 21 How many molecules are present in 245 moles of water A 246 x 1023 B 147 x 1024 C 0136 D 735 E 441 22 The number of hydrogen atoms in 0050 mol of C3H803 is think about it A 30 X 1022 B 12 X 1023 C 24 X 1023 D 48 X 1023 Can use the coefficients in balanced equations to relate MOLES of one thing to MOLES of another nBbanA 23 A 24 A a and b are the coefficients of A and B in the equation Sulfur dioxide reacts with chlorine to produce thionyl chloride and dichlorine oxide SOzg 2C12g gt SOClzg Cleg If 0400 mol of C12 reacts with 80 how many moles of C120 are formed 0800 mol B 0400 mol C 0200 mol D 0100 mol Aluminum will react with bromine to form aluminum bromide used as an acid catalyst in organic synthesis Als Br2l gt AlzBr5s How many moles of A1 are needed to form 243 mol of AlzBr5 243 mol D 162 mol 729 mol B 486 mol C 25 Ammonia will react with uorine to produce dinitrogen tetra uoride and hydrogen uoride used in production of aluminum in uranium processing and in frosting of light bulbs 2NH1g 5mg 4 N2F4g 6HFg How many moles of NH3 are needed to react completely with 136 mol of F2 A 340 mol B 680 mol C 544 mol D 227 mol 26 TitaniumIV oxide extensively used as a white pigment reacts with bromine tri uoride to form titaniumIV uoride bromine and oxygen 3TiOz 4BrF3 gt 3TiF4 2Brz 302 How many moles of bromine tri uoride are needed to react completely with 968 mol of titaniumIV oxide A 12911101 B 968mol C 72611101 D 32311101 We can put them together to do more complex calculations Two approaches to doing these Dimensional analysis or the Roadmap grams of A grams of B 8 8 ll ngMM Moles of A A Moles ofB nB Particles NA lt gt N 602 x1023 11 27 Ammonia an important source of xed nitrogen that can be metabolized by plants is produced using the Haber process Nzg 3Hzg gt 2NH3g How many grams of nitrogen are needed to produce 325 grams of ammonia nBbanA N602x 102311 A lO70g B 535g C 267g D 178g 28 How many grams of sodium uoride used in water uoridation and manufacture of insecticides are needed to form 485 g of sulfur tetra uoride 3s0121 4NaFs gt SF4g 20120 4NaC1s A l5lOg B 754g C 205g D 5l3g 29 How many grams of oxygen are needed to react completely with 2000 g of ammonia NH3 4NH3g 502g gt 4NOg 6H20g A 4697g B 3006g C 3406g D 2180g A How many grams of IOzF are needed to react completely with 1500 g of BrF3 3 IOzFs 4BrF3l gt 3IF51 2Brz1 302g 2600 g B 1462 g C 1218 g D 6498 g Phosphine an extremely poisonous and highly reactive gas will react with oxygen to form tetraphosphorus decaoxide and water PH3g 02g gt P4010s HzOg Calculate the mass of P4010s formed when 225 g of PH3 reacts with oxygen 1880 g B 940 g C 470 g D 563 g Calculate the mass of chromiumIH chloride formed when 125 g of chlorine gas used as bleach and as a disinfectant for water supplies reacts with chromium Crs Clzg gt CrC13s 419 g B 186 g C 135 g D 599 g Potassium chlorate used in reworks ares and safety matches forms oxygen and potassium chloride when heated KC103s gt KCls Ozg How many grams of oxygen are formed when 264 g of potassium chlorate is heated 223 g B 991 g C 103 g D 460 g Aluminum metal Al reacts with chlorine gas C12 to form solid aluminum trichloride AlCl3 What mass of chlorine gas is needed to react completely with 163 g of aluminum 643 g B 321 g C 245 g D 214 g Barium hydroxide used in corrosion inhibitors and lubricants reacts with chloric acid HClO3 to form barium chlorate BaC103z and water What mass of water is formed when 138 g of barium hydroxide reacts with chloric acid 325g B 290g C 162g D 73lg LeadH sul de PbS was once used in glazing earthenware It will also react with hydrogen peroxide H202 to form leadII sulfate and water How many grams of hydrogen peroxide are needed to react completely with 265 g of leadII sulfide 151g B 123g C 377g D 94lg Sulfur trioxide can react with atmospheric water vapor to form sulfuric acid that falls as acid rain Calculate the mass in grams of365 X 1020 molecules of 303 606 X 10394 g B 485 X 10392 g C 206 g D 1650 g Calculate the mass in grams of 835 X 1022 molecules of CBr4 460 g B 721 g C 0139 g D 00217 g Some really nasty ones are as follows The trick with these is to recognize what N stands for and what the formula involves 39 Calculate the number of oxygen atoms in 2934 g of sodium sulfate NazSO4 A 1244 X 1023 0 atoms B 4976 X 1023 0 atoms C 2915 X 1024 0 atoms D 1166 X 1025 0 atoms 40 Potassium dichromate KzCrzO7 is used in tanning leather decorating porcelain and water proo ng fabrics Calculate the number of chromium atoms in 7882 g of KzCrzO7 A 2248 X 1024 Cr atoms B 1124 X 1024 Cr atoms C 3227 X 1023 Cr atoms D 1613 X 1023 Cr atoms Moles and Molarity Sometimes one doesn t do a reaction with PURE substances but one uses a solution chapter 10 If we use a solution we can measure volume and work out how many moles are in it if we know the MOLARITY of the solution Molarity moles liters of solution We can include molarity in the Roadmap as well grams of A grams of B 8 g l n g MM 7 l 23 Moles ofA Moles ofB Particles N602X 10 11 HA 1113 N602X1023n NB nB banA k M n L V Volume of Volume of Solution L Solution L 41 Hydrochloric acid is widely used as a laboratory reagent in re ning ore for the production of tin and tantalum and as a catalyst in organic reactions Calculate the number of moles of HCl in 006285 L of 0453 M hydrochloric acid A l04mol B 0139mo1 C 00285mol D 000721mol 42 A 43 A 44 A 45 A 46 A 47 A 48 A 49 A 50 Sodium hydroxide also known as caustic soda is used to neutralize acids and to treat cellulose in making of cellophane Calculate the number of moles of solute in 1875 mL of 1356 M NaOH solution 2543 mol B 1383 mol C 07232 mol D 03932 mol A 0150 M sodium chloride solution is referred to as a physiological saline solution because it has the same concentration of salts as normal human blood Calculate the mass of solute needed to prepare 2750 mL of a physiological saline solution 319 g B 161 g C 877 g D 241 g Sodium chlorate is used as an oxidizer in the manufacture of dyes explosives and matches Calculate the mass of solute needed to prepare 1575 L of 000250 M NaC103 419 g B 169 g C 0419 g D 0169 g Lithium hydroxide is used in alkaline batteries Calculate the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 358 g of LiOH in enough water to give a nal volume of 7500 mL 199 M B 0502 M 150M C 112M D Calculate the molarity of 125 L of a solution which contains 2387 g of CoClz 230 M B 147 M C 0435 M D 0680 M Calculate the molarity of a 2355mL solution which contains 2824 mg of sodium sulfate used in dyeing and printing textiles 1199M B 08339M C 02031M D 0008445M When 261 g of solid NazC03 is dissolved in sufficient water to make 250 mL of solution the concentration of NazC03 is 00246M B 104M C 0205M D 00985M What mass in g of solid CuSO4 is needed to make up 250 mL ofa 0300 M solution ofthis salt 836 B 120 C 750 399 D 479 E How many milliliters of 158 M HCl are needed to react completely with 232 g of NaHC03 HClaq NaHC03s gt NaCls H201 COzg A 638 mL B 572 mL C 536 mL D 175 mL 51 How many g of Mg are required to react with 250 mL of a 0250 M solution of HCl MgS t HClaQ gt MgClzaQ H2 A 00625 B 0759 C 152 D 304 E 625 52 Aqueous solutions of H2SO4 and sodium hydroxide react to produce sodium sulfate and water How many mL of 0350 M NaOH will react with 500 mL of 025 M H2SO4 A 00357 B 125 C 179 D 357 E 714 Reaction Types Different types of reactions Combination or Synthesis Decomposition Single displacement Double displacement metathesis Combustion A B gt C A sometimes heat gt B C A BC gt AC B AB CD gt AD CB Reaction with oxygen usually with generation of heat make OXIDES of the elements in the original compound Describe the following reactions as A Combination synthesis B Decomposition C Single displacement D Double displacement E Combustion 53 H2 C12 gt 2 HCl 54 CaCl22 H2O heat gt CaCl2 H20 55 H2C03 gt H2O CO2 56 2 Na H2O gt 2 NaOH H2 57 Zn FeCl2 gt ZnC12 Fe 58 BaCl2 K2SO4 gt BaSO4 2 KCl 59 H2SO4 2 KOH gt H2O K2SO4 60 CH4 2 02 gt CO2 2 H2O ANSWERS 1 30 CDABClBDBCBlCBBBAlABDDClBCCBClACBABl 3160 CBCABlABABClCADCAlBDDBDlBEABBlCCDDE
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