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3- 15 Notes

by: Emily Beasley

3- 15 Notes HIST 112 009

Emily Beasley
GPA 3.775

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Cold War
United States History since 1865
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in United States History since 1865

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Beasley on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 112 009 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see United States History since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/15/16
Cold War  Chapter 26: Cold War Politics in the Truman Years   “Square Dance” Painting  Kyra Markham, 1945  People are happy that war is over  People are rejoicing, but it is not universal   Woman in red dress seems sad/reflective, not colorful  “Everything is not as rosy as it seems” Start of the Cold War  US and Soviet Union have different political ideas and they question each other  instead of building trust o Soviets believe in communism o US depends of free trade and capitalism  Wartime Losses and Postwar Prosperity disagreements because US and Soviet  Union disagree  o Soviet Union lost more soldiers­ they felt they were more “invested” then  US  Believed they should get more after the war o US had 50% of world’s wealth but only 6% population­ Soviet Union  resented US  Hard to decide on terms of peace because everyone wanted a “Sphere of  Influence” for national security rd  Decolonization movement­ now 3  world countries­ begin to overthrow  governments o Weak nations o Had to start over their governments (people had no experience)  o Natural Resources  o Which kind of government to set up?  Iron Curtain 1946­ VERY IMPORTANT  Winston Churchill gives speech o “We understand that Russians need to be secure on her western frontiers  from all renewal of German aggression… It is my duty, however, to place  before you certain facts… From the Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the  Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent… The  Communist parties, which were very small in all these eastern states of  Europe, have been raised to preeminence and power far beyond their  numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control”   No one knows what the Soviet Union was up to  Do they want to take over the world?  The “iron curtain” is concerning for Britain and US  Churchill’s speech creates tension between US/Britain and Soviet Union Foreign Policy After the War  1946 George Kennan o “Containment” strategy o US should only stop spread of communism not get rid of it where it already is o Try to “contain” communism   1947 Truman doctrine o Military assistance­ 480 million dollars  To Greece and Turkey  Attempt to stop spread of communism  Give them money so they can continue free trade­ not turn to  communism  1948­1952 Marshall Plan o Humanitarian aid  Wants to build Europe  13 billion dollars to restore western Europe o Economic bolster   Strong western Europe is good for US trade and markets for US  trade   1948­1949 Soviet Union blockade half of Berlin o­GVf9floo (watch this­ 5min) o US airlifted goods to the people trapped by blockade o Soviet Union does not attempt to stop US o Permanent division of Berlin  Democratic west Germany, Communism east Germany  1949 NATO­ North American Treaty Organization  o Help stop the Soviet Union in Western Europe Real War?  1949 China o Chiang Kai­shek was ally with US during WWII  US gives money to Chiang Kai­shek to support Nationalism  o Divisions between Nationalist party (Chiang Kai­shek) and Communists o Mao Zedong­ communist  Seen as able to fix China  Redistribute land o 1949 People’s Republic of China  Mao Zedong’s group  Late 1970’s US recognizes PRC as China’s government 1950­1953 Korean War  “Forgotten War”­ not seen as real war, more like a conflict o Split between Soviet Union and Allies at 38  parallel o Splits Korea into North and South  North: Communist  South: Democratic o 1950 North Korea invades South Korea th  Violates 38  parallel  Eventually North Koreans pushed out to behind 38  parallel o 1951 Douglas Mac Arthur commands   1952 Eisenhower also joins fight in the middle   Differing plans (between Mac Arthur and Truman) for containment  verses victory  Mac Arthur fired for subordination  Troops come for 17 countries and from NATO   US never official declares war o 1953 Truce is signed o First “war” where units were not segregated by race­ Truman passes  executive order McCarthyism and Domestic Panic  1947 National Security Act o People worried about spies in the US  Reds­ Communism  Pinks­ Communism sympathizer  o Department of Defense  Department of War and the Navy combine  o National Security Council  o CIA­ Central Intelligence Agency   National security intelligence   1947­1949 House Un­American Activities Committee (HUAC) o Finds communist threat  o Seen as “witch hunt”  o Asked questions about political beliefs  Executive order­ investigates federal employees   Loyalty review boards  Investigates federal employees for communist threats   Homosexuality could get you kicked out of military and government positions o Seen as violation of Truman’s loyalty program The Hollywood Ten   10 male screen writers, and producers  o Refused to cooperate with HUAC o Thought to be sending out communist ideas through Hollywood o All cited for contempt, blacklisted, and sent to jail   (watch this­ 1min 20sec) McCarthyism  Joseph McCarthy­ senator  205 card­carrying communist  o Names of communist in the government o McCarthy claims to have their names o No proof o He reduces the number from 205 to 106 to 57 people o Leads to mass panic  1954 Army­ McCarthy Hearings o Picks a fight with US Army o Event televised o Went to far­ appears to be a bully   o Leads to his downfall  Atomic Bombs  1949 Soviet Union atomic bomb  Terrifies US public  1952 US creates hydrogen bomb  Bomb drills and bomb shelters for public  Mars Bluff, SC o (Watch this­ under  2min)


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