3- 15 Notes
3- 15 Notes HIST 112 009
Popular in United States History since 1865
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Beasley on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 112 009 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see United States History since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
Cold War Chapter 26: Cold War Politics in the Truman Years “Square Dance” Painting Kyra Markham, 1945 People are happy that war is over People are rejoicing, but it is not universal Woman in red dress seems sad/reflective, not colorful “Everything is not as rosy as it seems” Start of the Cold War US and Soviet Union have different political ideas and they question each other instead of building trust o Soviets believe in communism o US depends of free trade and capitalism Wartime Losses and Postwar Prosperity disagreements because US and Soviet Union disagree o Soviet Union lost more soldiers they felt they were more “invested” then US Believed they should get more after the war o US had 50% of world’s wealth but only 6% population Soviet Union resented US Hard to decide on terms of peace because everyone wanted a “Sphere of Influence” for national security rd Decolonization movement now 3 world countries begin to overthrow governments o Weak nations o Had to start over their governments (people had no experience) o Natural Resources o Which kind of government to set up? Iron Curtain 1946 VERY IMPORTANT Winston Churchill gives speech o “We understand that Russians need to be secure on her western frontiers from all renewal of German aggression… It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts… From the Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent… The Communist parties, which were very small in all these eastern states of Europe, have been raised to preeminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control” No one knows what the Soviet Union was up to Do they want to take over the world? The “iron curtain” is concerning for Britain and US Churchill’s speech creates tension between US/Britain and Soviet Union Foreign Policy After the War 1946 George Kennan o “Containment” strategy o US should only stop spread of communism not get rid of it where it already is o Try to “contain” communism 1947 Truman doctrine o Military assistance 480 million dollars To Greece and Turkey Attempt to stop spread of communism Give them money so they can continue free trade not turn to communism 19481952 Marshall Plan o Humanitarian aid Wants to build Europe 13 billion dollars to restore western Europe o Economic bolster Strong western Europe is good for US trade and markets for US trade 19481949 Soviet Union blockade half of Berlin o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHGVf9floo (watch this 5min) o US airlifted goods to the people trapped by blockade o Soviet Union does not attempt to stop US o Permanent division of Berlin Democratic west Germany, Communism east Germany 1949 NATO North American Treaty Organization o Help stop the Soviet Union in Western Europe Real War? 1949 China o Chiang Kaishek was ally with US during WWII US gives money to Chiang Kaishek to support Nationalism o Divisions between Nationalist party (Chiang Kaishek) and Communists o Mao Zedong communist Seen as able to fix China Redistribute land o 1949 People’s Republic of China Mao Zedong’s group Late 1970’s US recognizes PRC as China’s government 19501953 Korean War “Forgotten War” not seen as real war, more like a conflict o Split between Soviet Union and Allies at 38 parallel o Splits Korea into North and South North: Communist South: Democratic o 1950 North Korea invades South Korea th Violates 38 parallel Eventually North Koreans pushed out to behind 38 parallel o 1951 Douglas Mac Arthur commands 1952 Eisenhower also joins fight in the middle Differing plans (between Mac Arthur and Truman) for containment verses victory Mac Arthur fired for subordination Troops come for 17 countries and from NATO US never official declares war o 1953 Truce is signed o First “war” where units were not segregated by race Truman passes executive order McCarthyism and Domestic Panic 1947 National Security Act o People worried about spies in the US Reds Communism Pinks Communism sympathizer o Department of Defense Department of War and the Navy combine o National Security Council o CIA Central Intelligence Agency National security intelligence 19471949 House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) o Finds communist threat o Seen as “witch hunt” o Asked questions about political beliefs Executive order investigates federal employees Loyalty review boards Investigates federal employees for communist threats Homosexuality could get you kicked out of military and government positions o Seen as violation of Truman’s loyalty program The Hollywood Ten 10 male screen writers, and producers o Refused to cooperate with HUAC o Thought to be sending out communist ideas through Hollywood o All cited for contempt, blacklisted, and sent to jail https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tFR4RIyekis (watch this 1min 20sec) McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy senator 205 cardcarrying communist o Names of communist in the government o McCarthy claims to have their names o No proof o He reduces the number from 205 to 106 to 57 people o Leads to mass panic 1954 Army McCarthy Hearings o Picks a fight with US Army o Event televised o Went to far appears to be a bully o Leads to his downfall Atomic Bombs 1949 Soviet Union atomic bomb Terrifies US public 1952 US creates hydrogen bomb Bomb drills and bomb shelters for public Mars Bluff, SC o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2gu9ZjAdaFQ (Watch this under 2min)
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