PSYS 371 NOTES
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin@BSU on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 371 at Ball State University taught by Rohrer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Applied Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
PSYS 371 Test 4 Materials Differential Reinforcement Procedures to Decrease Behavior Chapter 1 Decreasing Behavior Chapter 12 Differential intermittent Reinforcement Schedules to Decrease Behavior 0 Extinction the removal of the reinforcer downfall we give in 0 Works when it is continuous o Hint Continuous reinforcement ALL Intermittent Reinforcement OCCASIONAL Extinction not going to work Extinction NEVER NONE NADA ZIPPO ZERO 0 Differential Reinforcement at Low Rates DRL quotGet to less than39 goalquot 0 What is differential reinforcement Kind of reinforcement schedule that has the behavior done at a low rate Not likely to get down to zero Less is better 2 Types frequency amp spacetime major 0 Ex go from smoking 4x a day to 4x a week 0 Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding DRO 000 quotGet to none 0 Hard to accomplish 0 Differential Reinforcement of incompatible Responding DRI quotGet them to do this amp they won t do that o Probably most effective 0 Incompatible behavior stacking books instead of kicking boy 0 Combo 0 Why is extinction more powerful when matched with DRI Not getting reward for extinction Decreasing Behavior with Punishment Chapter 13 Punishment quotIf it works it decreases behavior Punishment can decrease behavior but does not increase behavior 0 Effects of punishment can be generalized to similar situations circumstances ie Ticket for speeding reduces speed less likely to violate similar traf c laws 0 Types of Punishment 0 Physical Aversive Punishers unconditioned amp physically painful ie spanking shocking loud noises quotdon t need to train the painquot Ex getting a cold after sitting next to a sick person Ex getting up after sitting amp having blood pressure kick in o Reprimands conditioned amp strong negative verbal stimuli Learn that certain sounds tones or looks a bad sign ie quotbad dogquot Ex glare after made a mess o Timeout timeout from reinforcement No reinforcement Exclusionary ie isolation solitary con nement Nonexclusionary ie limited participation can watch but not speak 0 Response Cost removal of some amount of reinforcer after violation quotLosing something of value ie nes overdraft charges late fees 10 grade reduction for late paper Maximizing Effectiveness Whenever possible include positive reinforcement with punishment 0 Le reward A s and punish F s 0 Address reinforcers maintaining behavior that is punished 0 Le if speeding is due to being late address time management 0 Deliver punishment appropriately 0 Le immediacy relevancy age appropriate 0 Use rules 0 Not why but how amp when Why is punishment so controversial Produces undesirable emotional effects 0 May cause situation people to become conditioned punishers ie police teachers 0 Does not establish new or desired behavior 0 If it works it becomes 1st choice 0 Easy to abuse 0 5 positives to 1 negative Punisher consequence you don t want Establi hing Behavior by Escape 6 Avoidance Conditioning Chapter Ml Escape Avoidance Conditioning quotNegative Reinforcement Escape removal from aversive stimulus aversive stimulus present prior to responses 0 quotGet out of situation you don t want to be in because it has consequencesquot 0 Le parent gives candy to screaming child 0 Escape is during Avoidance increasing a response to prevent activation of aversive stimulus must have prior experience with aversive stimulus and believe that aversive stimulus will occur upon response 0 quotAvoiding the negative behavior by changing your pathquot 0 Le doing dishes before mom returns to avoid yeing 0 Avoid is before 0 Why is escapeavoidance conditioning AKA negative reinforcement so potent o BECAUSE PUNISHMENT WORKS 0 Doing something so you can t get punished o Negative reinforcement is stronger than the positive reinforcement o It matters what your motivation is o Why you do things matters olnadvertently strengthened a undesirable behavior 0 Ex the child will cry more next time to get candy oYou are escaping the child s behavior enforcing the positive reinforcement with the child which strengthens the negative behavior 0 Escape the whine increase the probability of behavior occurring
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