Herbal Remedies Bio 309
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddy Moldenhauer on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 309 at Grand Valley State University taught by Elise C Hollister in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Plants and Human Health in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
Lecture 13 Herbal Remedies Study Questions 1 10 What are a few potential benefits and a few potential drawbacks of herbal remedies as used in the US Benefits Widely available relatively inexpensive compounds have beneficial effects in the body don t require a prescription some have fewer side effects than prescription drug counterparts Drawbacks Treated as supplements contaminants not standardized or regulated don t require a visit with a health care professional side effects drug interactions allergic and toxic reactions Why are there concerns with the contamination of herbal remedies with adulterant chemicals as well as the potential allergen problem Herbal plants absorb toxic chemicals and they can be very dangerous if consumed People also need to be aware that they may have a severe allergic reaction to herbal plants if they are not aware of allergies they may have Are severe adverse problems with herbal remedies a large problem or only a very small concern They can be a large problem if the effects of herbal remedies are underestimated How are herbal remedies regulated in the US Why As supplements rather than drugs Because of the passing of the DSHEA in 1994 Why herbal remedies are so poorly studied in the US The lack of government funding from Congress and the awareness of adverse effects of herbal remedies Their safety efficacy and dosing are all poorly understood due to lack of research Also general lack of pro tability for pharmaceutical corporations How long does it take for a new drug to get developed and how much money does it cost the pharmaceutical company to develop the drug 10 years for the FDA to approve a new drug and approximately 264 billion to develop new drugs Patented drugs may become generic after how many years 20 years What type of research organizations conduct research on herbal remedies ie do pharmaceutical corporations Universities nonprofit research organizations government agencies etc What types of immune responses does Echinacea elicit in the body Why is this of special concern for people who suffer from autoimmune conditions or are on immunosuppressant drugs Widely used in the immune system to thwart viral infections is prophylactic colds is phagocytic white blood cells and is a natural cell killer for fighting infections People should not take Echinacea if they have autoimmune conditions because it has the possibility of making the body go hyperactive and start attacking needed cells This also can induce organ rejection How might ginseng be useful in the body Why it of special concern for people who are taking antidepressants Ginseng is an immune system stimulant and improves physicalcognitive performance If taking antidepressants with Ginseng it would act as an overdose of bodystimulating drugs This can have deadly effects on the body such as insomnia headache tremulousness and mania These all cause adverse psychological effects hyperactivity and restlessness 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 How is Ginkgo biloba thought to be useful Does it provide a large or modest benefit for its users What is the largest medical concern with taking Ginkgo biloba hint it is also of concern with many other herbal remedies Ginkgo delays cognitive impairment such as dementia and increases blood ow claucidation Ginkgo s benefits are uncertain The problem is it has notable drug interactions and induces bleeding Does garlic effectively reduce cholesterol What is at least one major problem with garlic supplementation Yes it has systematic reviews that have proved that it is 312 effective It has notable drug interactions with anticoagulants that cause bleeding or with type II diabetes to cause hypoglycemia How effective is St John s wort SJW in treating severe depression How about mild moderate depression Is it as effective as prescription medications Does it have the same side effects as prescription medications What are a few drug types that SJ W reduces the effects of Why does the body do this ie what organ causes this special problem with SJW It is effective if not more effective than that of prescription medicine for mildmoderate depression not severe depression It has less side effects than prescription medications It reduces the effects of antidepressants anticoagulants immunosuppressants antibiotics HIV medications The enzymes of the liver break down all of these drugs and reduce their effectiveness What common malady can enteric coated peppermint help with What are two problems associated with using peppermint Peppermint aids with treating dyspepsia digestive issues and irritable bowel syndrome Two problems is the toxicity of ingesting its essential oils and issues with inhibiting conception in women Ginger is mainly used for what remedy Does it meet Commission E approval for this medical reason Should it be used in pregnancy to treat morning sickness Why or why not Ginger is used for curing nausea and it does meet Commission E approval It has been known to cause spontaneous abortion so pregnant women should not use ginger to treat morning sickness Soy is used to reduce cholesterol but is it effective in systematic reviews for menopausal symptoms What are some special concerns with soy supplementation It is only known to be effective for reducing cholesterol not menopausal symptoms Some concerns with soy is that it can act as antiestrogens interact with human hormones and decrease productivity of other drugs Why is kava kava potentially deadly if not used properly Why is the plant used It is very dangerous if mixed with alcohol because it taxes on the liver and increases liver toxicity hepatotoxicity The plant is used to treat anxiety issues by acting as a relaxant What condition does saw palmetto treat Does it cause erectile dysfunction like finasteride a commonly used prescription drug to treat BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH which is an enlarged prostate gland Saw palmetto does not cause erectile dysfunction while its prescription drug counterpart finasteride does cause it Can cranberry fully eliminate bacteria like E coli from the bladder No there is more data needed for the testing of cranberry for the elimination of Ecoli What particular group of patients should refrain from drinking green tea What is a medicinal property associated with green tea 21 22 People getting boron based chemotherapy Green tea is associated with anticancer and antitumor properties Why is black cohosh used Does it pose risks associated with its use Contains Strong alkaloids to treat hormonal problems in the body endometriosis PMS Menopause treat female reproductive disorders in the body There are problems with spontaneous abortions How is milk thistle useful Does the data widely support its use It helps with liver activity of detoxifying deadly toxins and with liver disease It has saved 50 of patients who have ingested toxic objects It is inconclusive with systematic reviews but has Commission E approval