Ancient Rhetoric/ AthenianPolitics and Colonization
Ancient Rhetoric/ AthenianPolitics and Colonization CLA 2110
Popular in Debates about the Past: Greek
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLA 2110 at Florida State University taught by Angela Tuminno in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Debates about the Past: Greek in Classical Mythology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CLTZ 1 10 Notes 9915 Ancient Rhetoric What is rhetoric o Rhetoric the art a speaker or writer uses in order to in uence an audience 0 Aristotle aim of rhetoric is the discovery of the available means of persuasionquot Greek Rhetoric History 0 5th cent BC Teaching of rhetoric likely began I Democracies replace tyrannies in Syracuse and Athens I Rise in pressures of democratic political competition I Dominant mode of public communication for the rest of antiquity If you were unable to speak purposefully in front of a crowd you would be ignored 0 3 stages of evolutionc 430350BC I Distinct self conscious discipline theory practice teachers students model texts schools I Tool of mass democratic decisionmaking I With rise of literary textsdeveloped into mode of public literary expression Important Greek Orators o Lysias445380BC unpretentious simple style I Colloquial spoke everyday I Against Eratosthenes404BC member of the Thirty Tyrantsoligarchs indicting him for murder 0 Isocrates43633BBC educated by sophists I Suporter of panhellenismunification of Greek states I Established a school in contrast to Platos Academy I Panegyricus unification b n Athens and Sparta against Persia o Demosthenes3843ZZBC recognized as one of the greatest Greek orators I Athens should oppose Philip of Macedon and later his sonAlexander the Great I Philippics Demosthenes against Macedonian imperialism o Lycurgus ofAthens390324BC I Pupil of Isocrates I Efficient financial admin I Opposed to Macedonian imperialism supported Demosthenes I 15 speeches only 1 survives complete Against Leocratesquot indicts Leocrates for eeing Athens after the Battle at ChaeroneaMacedonians vs Greeks Macedonians won Aristotles Rhetoric4th cent BC 0 Tripartite theory of persuasion I Logos logic reason evidence Syllogism conclusion reached from combination of a general and specific statement that are both assumed to be true 0 Ex All men are mortal Socrates is a man so Socrates is mortal 0 False syllogism all crows are black my bird is black so my bird is a crow Use of stats precedent examples I Pathos passion emotion Examples of emotions stirredaudience perspective 0 Fear hope pity anger loyalty patriotism I Ethos all about the speaker qualities of an effective speaker the speaker appears to be credible Expertise sympathy similarity to audience makes audience feel importantdefense will try to make the defendant seem more human Rhetoric is o indifferent to the content of the messages that are subject to rhetorical fashioning No matter how outrageous or unacceptable a message may be even to the audience being addressed rhetoric can make such messages seem palatable or at least less offensivequot I Harvey Yunis Political Uses of Rhetoric in Democratic Athensquot Five canons of rhetoric o Invention brainstorming explore both sides of the argument 0 Arrangement intro intentional order of key arguments conclusion 0 Style logos pathos ethos rhetorical devices 0 Performance Delivery cultivation of voice gesture demeanorlooking confident can help argument immensely 0 Memory Six components of speechuse in write ups o Exordium beginning Narratio argument to be made or goal Divisio preview of speech Confirmatio making of arguments the meat of your speech Refutatio refutation of opposing arguments o Conclusio summary and call to action Need to be in speeches and mentioned in your responses 0 Tripartite Theory of Rhetoric 0 Five Canons of Rhetoric 0 Six Components ofa speech 0 Rhetorical Devices About your debates 0 Must incorporate the theories logos pathos ethos O O O O 0 Must incorporate the techniques discussed 0 Must be able to recognize both in others debates CONCEPTS TO KNOW Logos pathos ethos Syllogism Lysias Isocrate Demosthenes Lycurgus Panhellenism 0 Against Eratosthenes Philippics Panegyricus 0 Against Leocratesquot CLA2110 Notes 91415 Athenian Politics amp Colonization Colonization 700500 BC 0 Second half of 8th cent migrations from Greece establish new farming communities I Al Mina Euboeans I Pithecusae Euboeans 0 Two needs I Satisfy need for imported goods metals I Provide citizens of the motherland metropolis enough fertile land to live a good life in their new poleis Founding a colony 0 Four easy steps I Choose a siteclose to water near action I Obtain divine approval ask oracle if you can settle there I Plan out the new settlement I Choose its mythological founder always a man of high status Guardian hero 0 Apoikia home away from homequot 0 Colony new polis members relinquish citizenship to mother citywhen asked where they are from they state their original settlement Important colonies o Cumaefounded by Euboeans 0 Syracuse quot Corinthians 0 Corcyra o TarasSpartans I One and only Spartan colony settled by exiles o Colonies in southern Italy Magna Graecia Great Greecequot Development of the alphabet ca 800 BC 0 Borrowed letters from Phoenecian alphabet I Invented to preserve oral poems theory 0 Alphabetletters for each spoken I Also had vowelsunlike Linear A and B 0 Huge advance over Linear B syllabic script The rise of the polis o Polis politically independent city state I A nation but at a city level I Central city and adjacent territory I Villagers of earlier eras defined position by family relations I Politai allegiance to a group defined by geographyreferred to where they currently lived when asked where from 0 Concept of citizenship for the first time 0 Greek citizenship competition with neighbor Contrast Egypt cooperation was a high social value 0 Landowning aristocracy basileis Planners architects of new centralized government Eventually name of collective city state leaders Titles in an archaic period polis o Archon chief officer sometimes retained basileus title 0 Polemarchos military generallike army commander in chief o Boule council of elders Made policies drafted laws Highest magistrates who entered council after term of office Long term life term Retired basileis or chief officer Agathoi vs Kakoi o Agathoi good menquot Aristoi best men Landowning aristocracy Free male citizens from old families Cultivated own image of superiority Owned most of the land and resources Exploited poorest farmers for profit Divided up spheres of authority Adiministrative military judicial religious o Kakoi bad menquot poor slaves women other noncitizens Oligarchy o Oligarchy rule by the fewoligosfew Government of early poleis Positions of power held by agathoi Positions of authority not inheritied Brief tenurepermanent position Power checked honors shared among aristocratice community Popular resentment of wealth power and arrogance of the agathoi Poorest second class citizensKakoi resented agathoi 0 Early 6th cent oligarchy weakening More inclusive forms of government strengthening Middleclass farmers spearheading campaign 650500 BC Age of Tyrants o Feuding among aristocratic factionsgtgt emergence of tyrants Intervention welcome by kakoipoor but not agathoipeople holding power positions 0 Tyrantspeoples people on Kakoi side Represented the interests of the commercial class against the traditional aristocracy Arise from an elite group though not necessarily from the top ranked families Distinguished in their poleis for their personal achievements I Needed support of citizens themselves in order to overthrow oligarchs Tyrants to take power by non traditional means 0 O Tyranttyrannos a non Greek language of Asia minor lydians I By 6th cent BC referred to a leader who had taken power by non traditional meansquotwhy Someone who does not come from the long ruling familyagathoi To the agathoi tyrants were arbitrary despotsRandom rulers I Gave the pejorativeDisapproval meaning to quottyrantquot that it has today propaganda spread by aristocrats Tyrants champions of the people 0 O Tyrants I Confiscated some of the aristoi s land and redistributed it I Limited aristocratic privilege I Initiated construction of temples I Improvements in water supply drainage systems I Provided work for poor citizensbuilt infrastructure I Encourages trade and commerce I Thriving cultural activities new religious cults festivals special efforts to attract the best artists architects poets and thinkers to Greece I Charisma achievements Sons heirs to a non existent officewould become less confident in power I Second and third generations used quottyrannicalquot measures to keep power exacerbatedmade worse any resentment against them I Usually overthrown oligarch opponents reestablish power Rise of Athens 0 00000 0 8th cent population rose sharply I No overseas colonization yet Religion oof Athens Attica Unification of Attica Theseusmythic founder Post Dark Ages every settlement in Attica considered itself Athenian Athenian administrators archons leaders Nine archons elected annually from the Eupatrids an elite aristocratic family Councilboule Areopagus I Archons joined council at the end of term Conspiracy of Cylon O 632 BC CylonKylonOlympic victor coup in Athens I Seized Acropolis tried to become tyrant failed and ed I Megaclesone of 9 archons killed supporters of Cylon O I Megacles sacrilege family exiled including exumed bodies of dead relatives Important for later history Alcmaenonid family I Other members Cleisthenes Pericles Draco s Laws 0 O O 620 BC Homicide law I Replaced family with the state as the arbiter of justice In the past the family that was hurt was able to personally go after those who caused dishonor I Transformed familial disputes into trials Severe punishments Developed authority of the state at the expense of the family o Solon Father of democracyquot 0 O O 590s BC Solon s legislation Goals included I Ease sufferings of poor I Avoid tyranny Seisachtheia the shaking off of burdens KNOW THIS I Freed those enslaved for debt forbid Athenians from selling debtors into slavery I Canceled obligations of share croppers paid 16 of their produce to a wealthy landowner I Brought home Athenians who had been sold as slaves outside Attica Revised Athenian weights and measures to facilitate trade with other states Prohibited export of grain Encouraged immigration of artisans to Athens offered them citizenship for permanent settlement Areopagus to inquire into every man s means fsupporting himself punishment for those who showed no means of support I Contrast to Spartan idea that soldiering was the only appropriate work for a citizen Political privilege allotted in accordance with income Higher the class the higher the government office eligibility New Classes I Pentakoiomedimnoi 500 measure men highest class pentaKOS eeomedIMnoi Estate produced 500 medimnoibushels I Hippeis horsemen 300499 medimnoi I ZeugitaiZOOgetie men who could afford to own a team of oxen 200299 medimnoi I Thete poor farmers and landless workers Fewer than 200 medimnoi o Councilboule of 400 chosen by lot 0 Any male citizenbring an indictment if he believed a crime had been committed and serve as a juror in a trial 0 Reduced penalties for some crimes 0 Amnesty for persons exiled for crimes other than homicide or attempted tyranny o Allowed childless men to adopt an heir and create a will so their land would stay in the family Peisistratus 0 Ca 56OBC Pesistratus distant relative of Solon from northern Attica carried out a coup 0 Driven out twice I First after 5 years I Megaclesleaders of the Coastal party ally with him bring him back on condition that he marry Megacles daughter I Peisistratus famous return to Athens in Herodotus I Second exile from 555546BC gathered soldiers 0 About 5463C invaded Athens again stayed until his death in 527 BC 0 Maintained Solon s system I Manipulated the laws so that his friends and relatives were elected archons o Mercenaries held potential opponent in check I Used children as hostages 0 Democracy profited from the tyranny s equalizing effect I Under tyrants all Athenians rich and poor fond themselves in similar circumstances 0 Strengthened economy I Offered lands loans to the needy I Trade expanded I Foreign policy expandedtook over islands Hellespont placed friends there as tyrants I Building projects I Public fountains shift from private to public patronage I Population growth I Rebuilt temple of Athena on Acropolis began a large temple of Olympian Zeus Patron of the arts 0 Established two new festivals I Greater and Lesser Dionysia I Instituted competition in tragic drama I Commissioned the first editions of the Iliad and Odyssey I Made Homeric recitations a regular party of the Greater Panathenaic festivalevery four years Tyrannicide o Hippias and Hipparchus Pesistratus sons cotyrants o 514BC Hipparchus spurnedrejected by young man named Harmodius Hipparchus insulted Harmodius familysaid his sister was not allowed to carry basket in festival Harmodius and lover Aristogiton assassination plot Killed Hipparchus Result paranoid tyranny of Hippias 510 BC Hippias driven into exile Renewed factional strifecon ict Reforms of Cleisthenes o Alchmaenid family 0 Four ancient Ionian tribes broken into ten new tribes o Divided Attica into three broad 10 Tribes of Athens Trittys Coast Trittys Trittys City Plain Erecththesis 1Coast 1City 1 Plain geographical areas city coast and plain Aegeis 2 Coast 2 City 2 Plain I Composed of residential units Pandianis 3 Coast 3 City 3 Plain called demes Leontis 4 Coast 4 City 4 Plain villagestownships bn 120200 Acamfantls 5 C03 5 qty 5 P39aln Ofthem OEHEIS 6 Coast 6 City 6 Plain I Each area was subdivided into ten C cro39ms 7 coaSt 7 Clty 7 Plaln Hippothontis 8Coast 8City 8 Plain thlrdsmlttysl Aeantis 9 Coast 9 City 9 Plain 0 Each tribe in the new system contained Antiochis 10 Coastlo Citylo Plain one trittyes from each geographical area 1 3 tribe from each geographical area 0 Requirement that citizens identify themselves by their demoticname of their deme instead of their father s name Small local units 3 geographical groupings Each region has 10 Trityes 30 Trityes In all 10 Tribes Phylai Each composed of 1 Tritys from each Region Council of 500 50 members from each tribe This undermined family loyalty c 150 DEMES HILLS CITY V k 1 4 g V 5 99 Reforms of Cleisthenes 0 Ten new tribes formed the Councilboule of Five Hundred I Each tribe annually provided fifty members chosen by lot I Chief functions prepare business for the assembly and manage financial and foreign affairs 0 Army reorganized on the basis of the ten tribes with each tribe electing its officers including a stragetoschief general Rise of democracy 0 508 BC emergence of worlds first democracy outgrowth of the centurieslong dispute b n aristoi and kakoi 0 Authority in government came I NOT from inherited wealth and family prominence I From ones ability to persuade the large unruly assembly of ciizens o Emerged many of the forms of civilization familiar to us today I Rule by written law I Reason supported by evidence as the basis for decisions I Separation of religious and political institutions CONCEPTS TO KNOW Polis politically independent citystate Metropolis motherland Aristoiagathoi good men best men upper high class Kakoi bad menlow class women Basileus landowning aristocracy Archon chief officer Polemarchos military general Draco created Homicide Law M father of democracyquot created seisachtheia created 4 new classes Cleisthenes took 4 ancient Ionian tribes and created ten new tribes Cylon seized Acropolis of Athens failed and ed Alcmaeonids family including Cleisthenes Pericles and Cylon Cumae colony founded by Euboeans Syracuse and Corcyra colonies founded by Corinthians Taras one and only Spartan colony settled by exiles Council of 400 part of Solon s reform Council of 500 part of Cleisthenes reform Apoikia home away from home Magna Graecia Great Greece Pithecusae and Al Mina new farming communites established b c of migration founded by Euboeans Eupatrids elite aristocratic family Areopagus council in Athens which archonsAthenian administrators joined at the end of term Seisachtheia created by Solon the shaking off of burdensquot Poletai Peisistratus distant relative of Solon invaded Athens 3x third time was successfultyrant leader Hippias Hipparchus sons of Pesistratus Hipparchus assassinated Hippias exiled Tyrannynon traditional ruler Oligarchy rule by the few positions of power held by agathoi OTHER IMPORTANT CONCEPTS Comparecontrast oligarchytyranny Compare contrast SolonCleisthenes
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