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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Notetaker on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ball State University taught by Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychological science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
31516 Learning Initiation is a type of learning itself Our third type of learning a type of learning which is very different than classical or operant conditioning III Observational Learning or modeling Here we learn behaviors simply by observing others engaged in those behaviors Four important points regarding observational learning 1 Reinforcement is not needed for learning to take place 2 Learning by watching or listening to others occurs and is not limited to humans monkeys apes 3 People do not need to be actively engaged in a behavior to learn it watch your sibling getting punished 4 Observational learning is not a simple process a It requires the study of thinking ie cognitive process Mirror neurons have been implicated in the process see text Dr Albert Bandura Stanford University 0 Conducted a series of studies known as Bobo Dollquot studies Ch 8 Memory Forgetting o Often thought of in negative terms 0 Actually forgetting is very positive phenomenon 0 Gets rid of the TRASH from our working memory garbage disposal of the mind 0 One of the earliest researched areas in forgetting dealt with a type of partial forgettingquot o Tipof thetongue Phenomenonquot I First described by William James in 1890 I Example You re watching an old movie with a friend and she asks What s that actor s namequot You re certain you know the actor s name but you can t get at the Memory trace the part of a neuron holding a given memory Neuron isn t firing Source of the problem 0 The retrieval stage 0 So how do we retrieve a memory I Idea use a memory trace that can be remembered I the one you are sure is linked with the trace that holds the lost memory I They are both part of the same cell assemblyquot according to Donald Hebb o If you can fire the linked trace hopefully it will fire the neuron with the lost memory and you remember actor s face other movies 0 Based on this logic 0 There are several methods for overcoming tip ofthetongue phenomenon 1 Try to recall the face and voice of person in as much detail as possible 2 You can try to remember other movies the actor has been in 3 Go through as many common male names as you possibly can 4 Go through the alphabet phonetically Perhaps a sound memory trace will be linked with the actor s name Again tip of the tongue phenomenon is a problem with retrieval of memory Forgetting is due to faulty processing in any one of the three stages of memory Problems can occur at 1 Encoding stage 2 Storage stage 3 Retrieval stage tipofthetongue phenomenon 1 Encoding Problems a Pseudoforgetting or false forgetting i Example draw a standard symbol for disabled parking ii Pseudoforetting isn t really forgetting at allit just seems like it iii Pseudoforgetting occurs when you try to retrieve remember information that was never put into memory encoded in the first place You just thought the information was there iv So you were trying to remember something that you never knew in the first place 2 Storage Problem a b Decay Memories tend to fade with time They become less clearprecise and are also subject to distortion Interference when m memory information interferes with or blocks a particular memory thereby causing you to forget i Retroactive interference 1 When new learning blocks out older information that you have learned a Study bio study psychology forget bio ii Proactive interference 1 When prior learning interferes with something you just learned a Study algebra study psychology forget psychology iii Retrieval Problems 1 Tipofthetongue phenomenon 2 Motivated willful forgetting aka memory repression Freud a Here we can t retrieve information because we really don t want to b Sometimes the repression of a terrible event will take other important information with it psychogenic amnesia c Amnesia can also occur from damage to the brain somatogenic amnesia d What about forgetting everything totally everything i Does it occur Yes but it s extremely rare IMPORTANT Usually selective memory lossquot occurs with actual brain damage the type and extent of the memory loss depends on where and how badly Active forgetting enhances memory One of the most effective memory techniques is quotrehearsalquot Showed that the more one rehearses stimuli the better it is remembered Every time you tried to forget the number you rehearsed it and embedded it deeper and deeper into your memory Often happens with catchy songs
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