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Genetics Laboratory

by: Lloyd Marquardt

Genetics Laboratory BIOL 3311

Marketplace > University of Houston > Biology > BIOL 3311 > Genetics Laboratory
Lloyd Marquardt
GPA 3.92


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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lloyd Marquardt on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3311 at University of Houston taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/208216/biol-3311-university-of-houston in Biology at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Part 1 QUPPORCTERIA dimomw mzumplop zhmmi What are considered microbes J Who are microbes How do microbes effect us Where are microbesfound Where did microbes come from How Microbes Impact You Microbial activity plays a pivotal role in the ecology of aquatic amp terrestrial ecosystems are ubiquitous occupy diverse habitats possess a diverse array of metabolic capabilities 39 nutrient cycling amp decomposition Biofuels production usingalgae Applications in areas of agriculture textiles medicine food production chemical industry energy 55322 Production of genetically flail modified food tsrgcatmam V Wastewater treatment relies on microbial activity chemical processes Pathogenic microbes cause disease antibiotics vaccination epidemiology Cell Biology amp Microbial Genetics The nature of DNA genetic code amp protein synthesis DNA technologies Gene regulation rupture l 39 39 O WmmJ 1 replication DNA gt DNA D Poly e am am Penicilh What we know about transcription 9 AgtRNA many of life s processes A Polymerase comes from studying W NA microbes translation RNA gt PloleiII bosc me 0000000 Protein What are considered microbes 1039quot 1m height some an muscle cells Organisms that require a micro m m scope to be seen duhl Includes 999 icm Mostly unicellular types some multicellular 1mm Bacteria Archaea 100 um Protists protozoa amp algae 33953335 10 um Fungl Vlruses Mosibacteria 1 um Microbial Taxonomy 100nm ClaSSIfication of microorganisms V39wses historical perspective 10 nm Proteins Carolus Linnaeus two kingdom 1 m Lipids Sye m n Small molecules 3 6 01 nm mom claimed II In the Lower Frautn Prlr lh u 1 Kingdom Fiat Holland in 1388 by 33 Iiiache a German Minds Annuals Plants mg mm EUCARYD I IC GIRGANISMS Protozoa mm mm g hm g m Fungi lyesis a molds heterogeneousl mm i lm Algal accept bluegreen PROCARYWC ORGANISM Blue Green Mgne Lawm Pmtlsm simpler klnd of cell Bacterln Ricketlsia Chamydla Mycaplas nm thmcetcs Modern taxonomy comparison of nucleic acid sequences DNA specifically 16S ribosomal RNA gene Such analysis by Woese amp Fox 1970 s reveale e existence of 3 domains of life Taxonomy 1 Phylogeny 3 Domains 6 Kingdoms Class Order Family Genus Species Archaea Crenarchaeota Hyper thermophiles Euryarchaeota SUlfU39 Halophiles oxidizers Bacteria Methanogens Green nonsulfur bacteria Gram positive bacteria Proteo bacteria fGyanobacteri Last common ancestor Entamebas Slime molds Animals lt Trichomonads Diplomonads E ukarya rfwf Current Microbial Taxonomy amp Phylogeny Bacteria Archaebacteria Bacteria t Prokaryotes Common ancestor V Archaea v Algae and plants Eukarya Fungi and animals Eukaryotes 1 Protists Kingdoms Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Where did microbes come from Earth 5 billion years old Bacteria oldest known life form Oldest datable geologic evidence 38 bya Presence of cyanobacteriaIike chains of cells Eukaryotic cells arose from divergent prokaryotic lines Endosymbioses Such evolutionary development yielded gradual changes Evolution of metazoans Cambrian explosion Life in S ences the Precambrlan T by Any wLevy MILLION YEARS OLD MILLION YEARS OLD sum Imam Swami muyiuxmalmnin uper mup dim Snulh Am rm bualolinl usm W monk to 59m mum m m Cell 39mm Emu spans Fauna1mm m R an mm mm us mud Aunulil Ins Mo duk 5pm s in x wnhin call will he mm s a 39 Fossil Evidence of Bacteria A HIERARCHICAL EVOLUTIONARY SCIEEM39E FOR THE DEVELOPWNT OF LIFE PROCARYOTES EUCARYOTES 4738 xan 34 hyff Endnxymhimif mitochnn rii Banana m Eubacta a Amhaebacteria W Cyannbacteria Endasymblws I MONERA quot 11 PROTISTA METAZDANS mnlucelllllar life 05 bya ILI FUNGI IV PLANTA Plans V ANIMALIA Animals NDNMOTELE MOTILE bya mum years ago appcared on Earth quotThe Age of Bacteria Stephen Jay Gould What ynu see is that the nest outstanding feature of life bacteria in Fact this is net the age nf man as mammals or even the age ofinseets which is multieellular aniirialsLi39his is the age oihaeteri bacterial mncle the me e eing tie mest eeiiii billion years We tlnn39t see it that way because bacteria are tiny and they live beneath us but bacteria live in a wider range of eiwirenments There are more just Eenli cells that s only Jne species in the gut of every human being than there have ever been people on earth and if his report on Martian life is true then the bacterial mode is universal It39s not only iilanetam ind there39s no universality for little green men 30 this is a bacterial planet We can t nuke hem intn nhlivinn They ve always tlnminatetl life on this planet 5 histnry is a constant domination h the elcl textbooks used to say er the age ni more correct it you want tn hennr ajBaeteria have always been dominant The non l nrin nilit e is never altered in 3 til Next Prokaryote or Eukaryote amp Defining a Prokaryote 3mm procan39oics can b desmhcd as funuws 39 single all or simple associations ofsimilnr ct s mum pm in smallest dimension farming a group an bmuuu no u is W et du 11 nuclmplum gumphurc is never srp mud from the cymp y a nilmam mm m an 43mm z nu lame ar I am mambran me is frcqncmly mmpln in tnpal d funm vuk u lame Ix or m the cymPlnsm wcuulls and rap mpmmsc organelle independent of a plasma maul12m syslem clllnmbium vesi clu p vacuolcs a cladvcly m1 and au mdmd by nnnunil membranes Respiramry the plasmamembrane sysmm in those mambm poucssing mm Phymlusw unribmes aldmngll an 4 olmcmri am may a an independcn of plum m 11 mm mun Lvmm Itilvusomes r the 705 L ny cxccl39n I39m lasmlc renml so 5 nm pman llc cymplum is mo ms cytoplasmic sueaming psendapodial mavemm en Mylnsis and ancytnsis an no I common but um universal The cell my nonmu lc or may eth il swimming mol ity mediade by agdla nf banurial type at gliding mobility on m ms In Mganismul nuns than ubiquitous inhabi nanu of mans mvuunmemx are predominantly a an AWL and xeeombinan39on B estmg oe an Minn of gun mm 5mm and zygote funninion me Bergey s Manual 0 Determinative Bacteria09y The Archaea Life s Extremists METHANOGENS I l produce methane gas annerobic found in sewage treatment plants bogs and the intestinal tracts of ruminants ancient methnnngens are suurce of natural THERMOPHILES i grow and live in extreme temperatures optimally between 70 1 10 C can be both aerobic or anaerobic sulfur metabolizers eg Sulblabus HALOPHILES require 1213 NaCl some up to 2533 major aerabic group also grew photosynthetically using bacteriorhndopsin eg Halobnclerium halobiuul Who Are The Microbes Part 1 Bacteria Archaea Similar characteristics as bacteria Peptidoglycan cell wall Vary morphologically Diverse metabolism spirillum V Motilenonmotile Binary fission mama39s cell wall not peptidoglycan Often inhabit extreme environments thermophiles halophiles Methanogens Who Are The Microbes Part 2 Eukaryotes genetic material enclosed in nucleus and possess multiple organelles Fungi molds amp yeast Multicellular types Strictly heterotrophic Diverse life cycles sexualasexual reproduction Acquire nutrients by absorption Protists generally unicellulartypes Protozoa usually motile generally only heterotrophic diverse life cycles sexual amp asexual reproduction Algae strictly photosynthetic many have 7 cellulosic cell wall ecologically important Volvox Viruses Who Are The Microbes Part3 Acellular only DNA or RNA protein coat Very small lt 100 nm r May additionally have an envelope Gy00proteins Require host cell for replication amp protein synthesis 80 200 nm diameter Living or nonliving All are disease causing 595nm Microbial Genomes The genome is the sum total of an organism s genetic information contained in it s chromosomal DNA Prokaryotic genomes are a composite of genes gained by Vertical gene transfer Horizontal gene transfer Metagenomes collection of DNA sequences from environ mental samples 9 enables ID of non culturable microbes 120011 Okb 1Illll7 IIII In miquoth 3 39 0 1150 amp 1050 kb I 7 f0 0 0 l l 950 kb ll lilll III N l quotIIIquot II quotHill 900 kl quotl ssokb a BOOkb 6 II I y H i ll quotllum 0quot llllllLi 650 kb I l II 600 kb Genome of Mycobacterium mycoides Default colors I coding sequence Gene function colors AA biosynthesis i DNA metabolism cell envelope cell processes I central intermed metab cofactors I conserved hypothet proteins energy metabolism FA phospholip metab hypothetical not classified other protein fate protein synthesis II purinepyrimidine nucl metab regulatory function I transcription transport Imported circles Circle 3 IS elements Circle 4 E rRNAS tRNAs Circle 5 Pathogenicity islands 1 hydrogen peroxide H202 variable surface proteins II capsule Metagenomics A A Sampling from habitat B B Filter I r C Lysis amp DNA isolation D Cloning library D construction E DNA sequencing of clones E F Sequence assembly Summary 0 The areas in which microbes impact our life The microbial world What is a microbe define a microbe Who are the microbes taxonomy amp phylogeny Prokaryotes BacteriaArchaea Eukaryotic fungi yeastmolds protozoansalgae Viruses Where they came from evolution of microbes amp higher life


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