Intro Internatl Relatns
Intro Internatl Relatns POLS 3313
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kurt Becker I on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 3313 at University of Houston taught by William McFaden in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/208237/pols-3313-university-of-houston in Political Science at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Opening Day Lecture Pew Research Poll 0 Countries in which people had a more favorable view of America under Bush versus Obama 0 Israel Pakistan Russia Poland 0 Countries in the Middle East in which a majority believe Obama will do the right thing in world affairs 0 Indonesia and Israel IR Theory amp Domestic Ideology Mapping of Domestic Ideology to IR theories 0 US policy is the cause of most of the problems with which the US must contend 0 Since US policy has been seen as a hegemony a country who is a super power by nations like Russia China Japan and some of the lower non superpower states have viewed US as a bully and this has caused serious problems for them so the US is trying to use soft power to rally nations to it sides again instead of having nations like China making alliance with Russia to bring the US down 0 The central battle in the war on terror is Afghanistan 0 Liberal view IR realist o The central battle in the war on terror is Iraq 0 Neo conservative view IR liberalism amp constructivism 0 Goals of the good neighbor policy also see lectures on Obama s early initiatives and US Russia relations 0 Enhancing US s soft power influence to make US a country others want to deal with and denying enemies a reason to hate on us Intro to International Relations 0 Constructivists on why Israelis cannot keep occupied territories 0 Norm of peace and against territorial acquisition slide 14 0 Why opponents of realism have disdain for that theory 0 The opponents of realism have disdain for the theory because territorial acquisition is no longer active because we are now in the 21st century The simple answer is that the rulesnorms of the society have changed since the 18th century quotWar is not good for businessquot IR Liberal The realist would have wanted that their rules of acquiring territories should still be active because territorial acquisition is a power resource that nations will fight to keep Iran wants Israel to be moved to Europe but that kind of norm or idea will not work in this century IR Theor General A lications Scenarios 0 Characteristics of multi polar realist behavior regarding a hegemony how a hegemony behaves and how other powers resist the hegemony o Unstable system because weaker states ally against the hegemony or a rival power emerges 0 Which other country shares US belief in uni polarityhegemony 0 Israel Nye on politics of accommodation scenarios presented on which professor commented in class not from Nye book This will be in the cold war lecture This was when states never actually liked the method or ruling but they learned to accommodate their ways in order to fight a huge enemy or for security purposes 0 Examples US sometimes supported communist regime in order to contain Soviet Union US aided Yugoslavia so that it will not fall under the Soviet Union sphere US supported any oppressive regime that promised not to side with Soviet union enemy of my enemy is my friend 00 Which IR theorists would be pleased with International Criminal Court indictment of al Bashir of Sudan for war crimes 0 Liberalists amp constructivists IR theory that best explains Russia s obligation to Orthodox Christians and Slavic speaking people also see US Russia relations 0 Constructivism It can also been seen as Realist tactics because acquiring territories is a power resource In what century would it have been possible to move Israel to Europe Ahmadinejad s suggestion also see Finnemore II 0 18th century Acquiring territories was a way to glorify the monarch in the 18th century Iraq gets invaded before obtaining WMDS NK does not get invaded after it has WMDs nuclear weapons how does this scenario act to undermine norms of non proliferation and encourage realist tactics to stop proliferation think about Iran s aspirations 0 Because countries abiding by the norm get attacked and countries violating the norm ward off attacks 2008 campaign all major candidates viewed US dependence on China debt financing and on Saudi Arabia oil as bad IR theory that would embrace this arrangement 0 Realism IR theory that would best explain Obama being awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize 0 Liberalism andor constructivism Good and bad face of nationalism and the modern day fix for the bad face from professor s commentary in class 0 Historical Conflicts Scan all lecture in the series Specific wars in which constructivists believe war was caused by clashing ideologies o WWI German nationalism vs monarchies transitioning to democracy o WWII German and Japanese nationalism vs Liberal democratic values Domestic politics contributed US isolationism and European obsession with socialist movements and individual ambition Hitler 0 Cold war communist ideology vs western liberal ideology 0 Specific wars in which multi polar realists find that attempts at hegemony was a cause 0 WWI amp WWII Germany s hegemonic ambitions broke multi polar balance 0 How would a realist explain the League of Nation s failure to address Italy s territorial ambitions in Ethiopia 0 The imperative to counter Hitler trumped ideology Britain and France needed Italy as an ally to defeat Hitler so they dropped sanctions imposed by the League of Nations slide 6 amp 10 WWII IR liberal prescription on how to reduce misperceptions also see Intro to IR lecture o Interdependence through international organization and free trade slide 3 0 Specific wars in which domestic politics had an influence know the effect of the influences positive and negative 0 WWI Bismarck of PrussiaGermany maintained peace positive but his successors were inept having no skills negative leading Germany into war slide 9 o WWII US isolationism led to imbalance among European powers and weakened the League of Nations negative I European politics was torn apart by class inequities slide 15 0 Cold War US politics gt roll back vs containment military build up and SDI negative 0 Soviet politics gt Gorbachev allowed more freedoms and ideas challenging communism positive slides 14 16 0 If there was world peace what historic treaty or charter would IR liberals cite as where it all began see lecture on WWII and video on Dennis Kucinich 0 Kellogg Briand Pact it outlawed war slide 9 0 IR theories on isolationism see Intro to IR lecture and lecture on WWII o Realism amp Constructivism US isolationism led to imbalance of powers and therefore WWII must avoid isolationism IR Slide 19 amp WWII 18 o I think it is constructivism only because based on the notes it only talks about constructivism being isolationism 0 US isolationism US emerged as a great power from WWI but wanted nothing to do with the European balance of power politics I US absence from Europe contributed to imbalance among European powers constructivist supplement of realism and a weakened League of Nations constructivist supplement of IR liberalism 0 Soft power opportunity associated with interventions in Balkans and Somalia 0 US led UN missions to bring food to the starving people of Somalia provided opportunity to show that US is a force of good indirectly showing democracy is good Slide 13 Modern Conflicts Israel Palestine o What would Palestinians need to do to win US favor also see Finnemore I what the colonized did to win favor with their colonizers SEA 0 Accept compromise accept Israel s right to exist 0 Embrace democracy and civil rights 0 Strengthen Arab and Muslim lobby in US slide 10 Think about multi polar realist view of international relations in the region the Israeli Palestinian conflict and the connection to Iran s desire to become a nuclear weapons state 0 Multipolar realists believe an ally of weaker states will attempt to bring down hegemonies Israel US alliance allows Israel to be regional hegemony which explains Iran Syria Hamas Hezbollah alliance amp Iran s nuclear ambitions slide 5 Modern Conflicts US Russia Relations 0 What happened early in 2008 that may have prompted Russia to move into Abkhazia Georgia and South Ossetia also see lecture on post Cold War o In April 2008 NATO did not offer Ukraine and Georgia Membership Action Plans MAP which is a formalized process to admit a new member to NATO though admittance is no guarantee The US pushed hard for MAP but NATO as a whole compromised by announcing that Ukraine and Georgia will someday become NATO members In August 2008 Russia rolled tanks into Georgia after Georgian troops fired on Russian peacekeepers in South Ossetia the Russians had already moved 1200 tanks to the border long before hostilities broke out between Russia and Georgia in August 2008 o The Russian army defeated Georgia in five days in August 2008 but Russia did not withdraw from Georgia proper until October 2008 Russia plans to leave 8000 troops in South Ossetia and Abkhazia It also plans to build a naval base in Abkhazia 0 Russia blames the US for provoking the crisis US military advisors were in Georgia training Georgian forces prior to the Russian intervention Russia considers the US action to be meddling in its sphere of influence Slide 10 o What is the critique of Obama s change in plan for missile defense in Europe 0 That he s engaged in appeasement He should have not gotten Russia to withdraw from South Ossetia amp Abkhazia before the cooperation of Russia on the Iranian nuclear issue and it s not in Russia s interest to keep Iran from obtaining WMDs slide 16 Modern Conflicts Oil Politics 0 Constructivist influences on oil politics know details on the competing sides of issue 0 US culture growing economy fueled by oil satisfied the demand for prosperity This demand could be satisfied with alternative sources of energy but oil is the most profitable energy source of today 0 Environment lobby wants to wean America off all oil by changing norms This lobby says that fuel is a threat to the planet and a major contributor to global warming So these norms that will be implemented will raise the cost of oil to reduce the usage of oil just like the European countries the high gas prices to raise monetary cost Monroe Truman Bush Doctrines 0 Why did the intervention of France into Spain 1823 concern US leaders and precipitate the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine 1823 do an internet search for history on this intervention 0 Monroe Doctrine The US said that it would not interfere in European wars or internal dealings and in turn expected Europe to stay out of the affairs of the New World The Western Hemisphere was never to be colonized again and any attempt by a European power to oppress or control any nation in the Western Hemisphere would be perceived as a direct threat to the US 0 France Britain and Spain used military force to acquire debt collections that was owed to them by Mexico but France did not withdraw the force even though Britain and Spain did France had a different motive behind using force in Mexico They installed Maximilian as emperor for a while and had a disastrous reign o It considered the leaders because France was using military force to acquire national debt At first it was not considered wrong because they had the right to collect the debt but when Britain and Spain withdrew their forces and France did not the US perceived it as a threat 0 Which IR theory would characterize the rhetoric that Monroe Truman and Bush used to define the conflicts America has faced across US history 0 Realism NationalSecurity Obama Foreign Policy Speeches 0 Obama s speech to Turkish Parliament 4 6 09 What adjectives did Obama use to describe and compliment Turkey for its successful democracy 0 Strong amp vibrant 0 Obama s speech at Cairo University 6 4 09 What message did Obama have for the Palestinians know a few specific sympathetic and critical Obama quotes 0 I ve come here to Cairo to seek a new beginning between the United States and Muslims around the world one based on mutual interest and mutual respect 0 The continued efforts of these extremists to engage in violence against civilians has led some in my country to view Islam as inevitably hostile not only to America and Western countries but also to human rights 0 But I am convinced that in order to move forward we must say openly to each other the things we hold in our hearts and that too often are said only behind closed doors THESE ARE JUST A FEW QUOTES 0 Know the order of the 6 issues on which Obama wants to cooperate with the Muslim world one issue asked about where it falls in list of priorities 0 Violent extremism Religious freedom Democracy Palestinian Israeli conflict Nuclear states rights amp responsibility Economic development OOOOO Purpose of Intervention Finnemore amp Lectures on Finnemore I amp II o Normative and practical reasons for colonizers letting go of colonies know specific differences between normative and practical o Normative reasons gt norms of sovereignty officially codified norms of self determination of the post WWI era 0 Practical reasons gt Europe was destroyed by WWII amp European countries no longer had the economic resources to sustain colonies 0 Name and give a description of the norms that justified colonialism and slavery 0 Norm of hierarchy gt a natural order some people are born to rule others to be ruled 0 Norm of slavery gt introducing savages to civilization thus slavery was a positive good 0 Norm of colonialism gt a moral crusade to civilize the uncivilized 0 During the Concert of Europe 1815 1850 what was the most common reason for one state s intervention into another 0 Government composition slide 6 o What characterized interventions during the post Cold War era 1989 2001 0 Multilateralism agreed upon or participated by three or more parties especially the governments of different countries Why was the end of the Cold War so important in creating an environment conducive for US interventions during the post Cold War era 1989 2001 also see lecture on Finnemore I 0 US secure enough to concentrate on other areas such as human rights slide 6 Norm of human rights trumping state sovereignty case which marked transition and cases that make one question this new norm see Finnemore I case for o In the post Civil War era Grant used the US military to attack the KKK in South Carolina 1871 I The action was very unpopular even in the North I One of the greatest fears of our founders was that the national army would turn its weapons against the states and the people I Even though the KKK was a gross human rights violator federal intervention inside a state was still considered the worse alternative o In the 1980s state sovereignty was challenged by the international community in South Africa I Not a military intervention rather economic sanctions imposed by the UN US and other regional organizations I Apartheid was a harsh system of segregation of whites and blacks in the minority white ruled South Africa I The white minority government formally gave up power with the election of Nelson Mandela as president in 1994 I South Africa was a statement Gross human rights violations can no longer be toleratedstil in this case the violations were not wrong enough to justify military intervention Understanding International Conflict Nye 0 Case that Nye cites as a critique of hegemonic transition theory know details of the case 0 WWI Germany s attempt at hegemony broke multi polar balance must identify hegemony early check power to maintain balance international ties too loose to maintain must move past balance of power Nationalism in its extreme is dangerous Clashing ideologies lead to war Promote norms of peace I Realist Germany rise in power was hegemonic in nature Germany launched a naval arms race to rival British Navy in size and capability Britain efforts to balance power formed military alliances with Japan France and recruited Russia to join the alliance Germany allied with Austria Hungary Bipolarity two o WWIIS needed rigid alliances central power vs allied powers Realist believed it would lead to war Liberal No formal international bodies in place 0 Britain and Germany were trading partners 0 Democratic movements cut across Europe Liberal Theory discredited because international ties failed to prevent WWI Constructivism two faces of nationalism 0 Rise of Nationalism 0 Rise of Pan Slavic Nationalism self determination 0 Domestic politics and inept leaders ame cause as WWI German hegemony broke the multi polar balance Allies to ally with Soviet Union to check German power Cause in pacific Japanese attempt at hegemony Incompatible governments ideology protectionism free trade multilateral ties too weak Must spread democratic values don t use economies as weapons must have buy in to be affective Clashing ideologies and individual ambition Hitler Domestic politics avoid isolationism I AM NOT SURE WHICH IS THE CORRECT ANSWER EITHER IT S THE TWO CASES ABOVE OR THIS ONE 0 Unipolar Realists Unipolar realists who advocate US hegemony hegemonic stability theory would have preferred to have used missile defense as leverage against Russia and would be disappointed that Obama did not get more for cancelling plans to deploy missile defense in Europe Unipolar realists do not want Russia to reassert its power over its former sphere of influence and the idea of missile defense would be a useful tool in discouraging Russia from reasserting itself in Eastern Europe Essay answer for Essay 1 PROS o CONS Having a sea based missile defense system the US can protect Europe from a missile attack from Iran or North Korea and it can avoid discomforting the Russians O O The US wants Russia to cooperate in stopping Iran from pursuing nuclear weapons Good neighbor policy is basis of exchanging of things for mutual benefit If the US accommodates Russia s concerns about the US missile defense being there in Poland and the Czech Republic then Russia will accommodate the US concerns about Iran s nuclear ambitions No deployment of missile defense in Poland and Czech Republic The critics charge that Obama has engaged in appeasement demand 0 Obama gave away a phantom power resource for the hope that Russia will be more cooperative on Iran If all goes well is it a politically smart accommodation or appeasement 0 If Russia becomes more cooperative on the Iranian nuclear issue and in other areas of conflict between the US and Russia then Obama will have made a politically smart accommodation 0 Obama should have secured the Russian withdrawal from South Ossetia and Abkhazia or waited for Russia to demonstrate cooperation on the Iranian nuclear issue before trading away missile defense in Poland and the Czech Republic o By doing so using Russia s fears of missile defense as influence is equal to issuing a threat which is a tactic rejected by the underlying doctrine of good will diplomacy By doing so you have given Russia the ability threaten the U5 o It is not Russia s interest to stop Iran from attaining a nuclear weapon 0 The enemy of my enemy is my friend is in play Both Russia and Iran through not natural allies share a greater enemy the U5 0 Russia wants to keep the US off balance so that it will stay out of Russia s sphere of influence and a nuclear ran would keep the US off balance A politically smart accommodation or appeasement o If Russia becomes more aggressive by not cooperating on Iran and by exerting itself as an authoritarian power over its former sphere of influence then Obama will have been guilty of appeasement demand
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