The Epic of Gilgamesh
The Epic of Gilgamesh CLT3378
Popular in Mythology: East and West
Popular in Classical Studies
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLT3378 at Florida State University taught by Mark Buzbee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Mythology: East and West in Classical Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CLT3378 Notes 910917 Gilgamesh The Epic of Gilgamesh Longest cuneiform Akkadian composition Exploits of Gilgamesh obscure historical figure Survives on 12 cuneiform tablets Contains ood mythUtnapishtim as part of Tablet 11 Old Babylonian version Surpassing all other kingsquot I Compiled c20001600 BCE by Babylonian scribes from earlier Sumerian texts 0 Our version standard version He who saw the Deepquot I Babylonian Sinleqeunnini c1200650 BCE Gilgamesh 0 Actual historical figure I Sumerian king Bilgamesc 28002500BCE Sumerian version of name I UnugAkkadian Uruk city in which he ruled I Gilgamesh Akkadian name 0 Legendarymythical hero I 23 divine 13 mortal I Parents Ninsun goddess Lady Wild Cowquot Lugalbanada King of Uruk Gilgamesh Origins 0 Hero born in Urukwhere his father rules I A goring bullquot a strong netquot a raging ood wavequot Epithets used to describe Gilgamesh a strong title associated with hero character throughout myths o BeletiliMamiNintu I midwife of the godsquot in Atrahasis I Designed perfect shape of Gilgamesh s body 0 Childhood Gilgamesh a grown man during the epic 0 King of Uruk arrogant beyond control I Knows hes rich knows hes powerful rubs it in and takes advantage of royal birth I Young men jealous feel inferior to Gilgamesh around their fathers girlsfathers wish their sons were more like Gilgamesh I Exercises lord s rightquotthe king because hes quotlordquot he gets to sleep with bride in any new marriage in the kingdom on their wedding night with new bridestechnically a rapist but not called this because of the setting A lot like Gaston from Beauty and the Beast 0 People of Uruk pray to Anu for help Creation of Enkidu OOOOO Gods respond Aruru Belitili creates Enkidu I Piece of clay castthrown out into the wilderness I Wild man arises from clay hairy dressed as cattlequot I Equal to Gilgamesh Enkidu is made sure to be equivalent to Gilgamesh although not as beautiful Hunter encounters Enkidu in the wild because he is one with the animals I Distressed Enkidu destroying traps releasing prey I Hunter s father fetch Shamhatbasically a prostitute used to lure Enkidu Try to capture tame Enkidu Shamhat I voluptuous woman prostitutequot not just a lowly prostitute the kind that sleep with royalty I Prostitute in Uruk Shamhat and Enkidu O O O O Shamhat and hunter wait at watering hole for Enkidu I Shamhat sleeps with Enkidu 6 days 7 nights Animals reject Enkidu too wise clean and civilized I Sleeping with Shamhat made him realize that he is an actual human and should act more civilized wildness dissipates from his nature Shamhat leads Enkidu to Uruk I Mesopotamians viewed sleeping with a prostitute is a sign of being civiliazed Gilgamesh dreams that his equal has arrived I This is how the gods supposedly communicated with people Gilgamesh about to bed a virgin bride I Enkidu blocks access to house when he sees what is going on does not see it as right I Wrestle in the street nobody wins because they are equals I Realize that neither will win embrace hold hands become friends Gilgamesh realizes he has met his match and respects Enkidu Humbaba o Gilgamesh proposes quest to Enkidu Hambaba I Giant named Hambaba guardian of Pine Forest nobody can defeat him I Put there by Ellil o Ninsun becomes worried that Gilgamesh has bitten off more than he can chew I Seeks help from Shamash sun god god of justice I Adopts Enkidu as her son since he is the compliment to Gilgamesh O 0 Journey to Pine Forest I Three days total I Crosses 7 mountains Encounter Humbaba Humbaba taunts Gilgamesh and Enkidu I Humbaba does not understand why they have shown up I Enkidu a small fryquot I Will leave Gilgamesh for the birdsquot I Humbaba similar to Smoky the Bear protects the forest Humbaba vs Gilgamesh and Enkidu O O O O Gilgamesh gets scared because of Humbaba s threats prays to Shamash Shamash sends 13 winds to bind Humbaba Humbaba pleads for mercy Enkidu refuses Humbaba curses Gilgamesh and Enkidu neither shall outlive his friendquot I Both will dies at the same time Gilgamesh decapitates Humbaba while Enkidu holds him down Cedars cut down and raft built wood and Humbaba s head loaded on raft the pair sails home Temptation of Ishtar O O Gilgamesh returns to Uruk freshens up puts on new robe and crown Ishtar wants to sleep with Gilgamesh since he is now an alpha males and she wants to tame him I Goddess of sex love fertility and war I Similar to Aphrodite I Associated with Underworld I Promises Gilgamesh riches and powerGilgamesh has refused her Gilgamesh still rejects Ishtar o Cites her unfortunate past lovers dying misfortune etc Bull of Heaven 0 Ishtar complains to her father Anugrandfather of Marduk spoiled brat I Demands Bull of Heaven Taurus constellationTaurus latin for bull I If Anu refuses Ishtar threatens to raise the dead to eat the living Anu gives in gives Ishtar the Bull of Heaven Bull is so massive that when it snorts stomps chasms open and hundreds of men die Enkidu grabs Bull by tailGilgamesh wont Gilgamesh stabs Bull in the head slaying it Gilgamesh credited with kill although didn t do any work Ishtar climbs city walls of Uruk curses Gilgamesh o Gilgamesh slaps Ishtar in the face with Bull s shoulder o Gilgamesh parties all night says he is super cool I Still unimpressive for accomplishing things without doing the brunt of the work Death of Enkidu o Humbaba Bull of Heaven both dead line crossed I Enkidu had been sent down to counter act Gilgamesh has gotten out of hand gods wish they hadn t created him 0 Enkidu s dream I Anu Ellil and Shamash have council I Anu Enkidu must diequot 0 Enkidu falls ill I Curses Shamhatprostitute made him civilized and brought him into the mess Better to leave things as they are in nature I Shamash My Shamhatquot says Shmahat did nothing wrong I Enkidu removes curse from Shamhat o Enkidu dreams he is going to the Underworld I Dead people clothed like birds eat clay and dusthis vision of what his death would be 0 Enkidu sick fro 12 days dies Gilgamesh Grieves o Gilgamesh mourns I 6 days 7 night delays Enkidu s burial Myth claims delay was so long that Enkidu s body begins to decompose and smell up the city I Calls upon the city of Uruk to grieve I Statue funeral with grave goods for Enkidu Given full honors o Gilgamesh Shall I die tooquot I Recalls curse of Humbaba Neither of you will outlive your friendquot I Wants immortality o Seeks Utnapishtim I ONLY mortal man given immortality by the gods Lives at Mouth of Rivers Edges of earth Underworld type of place Lions on the Quest 0 Gilgamesh sets out on quest for Utnapishtim o Encounters lions in mountain pass at night I Prays to Sinmoon god Gilgamesh never does anything on his own always calling on someone to help him has dream I Awakes and slays lions wears skins becomes a wild man in a sense Very much like HeraclesHercules Mashu o Gilgamesh comes to Mashuplace Cedar mountain Lebanon again Edge of the earth Mashuquottwin peaksquot Guarded by Scorpionmen just one and his wife many different stories Entrance similar to underworld Daily Journey of Shamash 0 Each morning Shmash rises out of Mashu travels from east to west in the sky 0 Each night Shamash takes opposite route from west to east Sets behind another mountain Passes through the underworld Brings light to the deadduring night in mortal world settles legal disputes Brings spirits to the living worldhitch onto Shamash to haunt the living 0 Travels through tunnel in Mashu scorpionmen open gate 0 Uses pruning sawin order to hack through trees to rise over the mountain The Return of ScorpionMen o Scorpion man and his wife Glance from scorpion instant death Gilgamesh terrified Greet Gilgamesh and say Mashu impossible to enterquot Similar to time travel impossible Recognize his semidivine nature let him pass 0 Gilgamesh enters tunnel through Mashu Same tunnel Shamash takes to rise opposite direction Total darknessno light b n the rising and setting of Shamash Arrives at garden of the gods with jeweled trees ScorpionMan A closer look 0 Scorpionman depicted on Great Lyregiant standing harp Cemetery at Sumerian city of Urc 2600 BCE Great Lyre discovered in tomb among many other treasures Worlds oldest stringed instrument ever found Bottom panel depicts scorpionman Front of panel shows animals playing lyre and scorpionman holding a tablet Underworld funeral connection because it was found in tomb Siduri and Golden Vats of Beer 0 Gilgamesh reaches jeweled garden of the gods Comes in front of Shamash like a rebirth Garden located by the seaquot not very specific Siduri lives there o Siduri I Alewife beer seller bartender goddess of fermentation I Runs a tavern with golden vats I Beer a preferred drink Mesopotamia did not have vineyards like Rome to create wine Siduri s Instructions 0 Gilgamesh approaches tavern Siduri locks door because she is afraid of him I Gilgamesh Ill smash the door down if you don t let me outquot o Siduri tells Gilgamesh how to find Utnapishtim I Lives across the sea at Mouth of Riversquot I Water is lethal only Shamash has crossed sea Anyone who steps into the water will perish I First find Urshanabi the boatman Almost always a solution to problem in mythology Will help Gilgamesh cross ocean Urshanabi and Utnapishtim o Urshanabi ferries Gilgamesh across sea only if he I Cut 300 wood poles each 30 meters long I Reach island where Utnapishtim the oars will constantly be eaten by the acidic ocean o Gilgamesh asks Utnapishtim about immortality I You seem just like mequot Gilgamesh is unimpressed Why are you so special to gain immortality and I am not I Utnapishtim Stop worrying death is inevitable Savage Death just cuts mankind downquot 0 Explains to ancients that death happens to all no matter what Tells ood myth Utnapishtim 0 Name means He who found lifequot 0 King of Shuruppak I Same city Atrahasis ruled Utnapishtim s Flood Myth 0 Utnapishtim narrates I Shorter version than Atrahasis o Says there s a ood that destroys mankind skips all the details I Reason for ood Anger of Ellil o EnkiEa swore oath of secrecy to gods I Reed hut brick wallquot I cf Atrahasis o Enki Ea warns Utnapishtim was his own personal god I Upcoming ood I Build boatcircular put living things aboard I Tell people Ellil rejects younot all the gods so you must live in apsu with EnkiEa Utnapishtim s Boat 0 6 decks one acre in circumference raft is circular o Bitumenancient asphalt makes boat waterproof Utnapishtim s Flood 0 Flood begins Ishtar weepscf Nintu in Atrahasis I My people are being destroyedquot o Other gods afraid I Retreat to the heaven of Anuquot upper heaven I 3 heavens the gods dwell in upper middle and lower 0 Flood ends after 6 days 7 nigths I Mt Nimush where the raft has ended up I Cf Iupiter s Flood and Atrahasis Aftermath of the Floodthis is the same ood myth as Atrahasis just a different story 0 Dove swallow and lastly a raven sent out to see if the ood is really done I Dove and awallow were sent out and came back because there was no dry land I Raven doesn t come back 0 Utnapishtim s Sacrifice I Gods gather like iesquot cf Atrahasis o Ellil sees boat furious blames Enki Ea o Enki Ea I Admits that he warned humans I Says there were other ways to kill humans 0 Ellil grants Utnapishtim and his wife immortality I Must dwell at the mouth of the riversquot their requirement in order to be granted this giftnot seen in Atrahasis version Return to Gilgamesh o Utnapishtim finishes ood story I Moral of the story immortality a unique gift Due to the gods making mistakes 0 Sleep test for Gilgamesh in order to prove worthiness of immortality I Must not sleep for 6 days 7 nights I Daily meal put at bedside as proof If Gilgamesh is awake he will be eating the meal If he falls asleep the meal will not be eaten I Gilgamesh fails test remains partly mortal Fountain of Youthquot 0 Gilgamesh cleans up puts on new robe I Realizes his failure understands he has not accomplished anything 0 Utnapishtim s wife Gilgamesh needs a parting gift tradition of Greece and Rome 0 Utnapishtim reveals a secret of the gods I Thorny shrub plant called an old man grows into a young H man Located at the bottom of the ocean I Rejuvinates youth Will allow you to die young 0 Gilgamesh puts stone on feet sinks into apsu finds plant 0 Plant stolen by snake on journey back to Uruk Gilgamesh was sleeping Gilgamesh finally accomplishes something only to have something bad happen I Snakes shed skinaetiology science of explaning things Shed skin because it was becoming young again shedding their old self skin Return to Uruk and Tablet 12 o Gilgamesh returns to Uruk I Leads Urshanabi around city walls Gives Urshanabi kings tour I Ring compositionring circular myth will end where it began Uruk s walls to Uruk s walls 0 Tablet 12 I Later edition epilogue Attempt at closure unsure if this tablet is part of myth or something different all together I Enkidu s ghost comes out of fissure in the earth I Gilgamesh questions him about the Underworld